South Africa's Children - South African Human Rights Commission

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1 South Africas Children A Review of Equity and Child Rights

2 South Africas Children A Review of Equity and Child Rights

3 Acknowledgements This Report has been prepared under the guidance of Commissioner Lindiwe Mokate, Judith Cohen, Cameron Jacobs, Pandelis Gregoriou, Ekanem Okon from the South African Human Rights Commission; and George Laryea-Adjei, Bjorn Gelders and Andr Viviers from UNICEF South Africa. South Africas Children A Review Bjorn Gelders from UNICEF South Africa conducted the technical collation and analysis of the data through an of Equity and Child Rights. equity and child rights lens. March 2011 Various specialists at UNICEF South Africa provided valuable feedback. Viv Barnes edited and managed the pro- duction of this Report under tight timeframes, with the assistance of Mary Luce. This review was undertaken by the South African Human Rights Commission and UNICEF South Africa South African Human Rights Commission/UNICEF This publication is intended to support everybody who works in the child rights field in South Africa. All care has been taken to en- sure that the information provided is correct and original sources have been indicated for reference and verification. With an iden- tification of the South African Human Rights Commission and UNICEF as source, the document may be freely quoted, reviewed, abstracted, reproduced and translated, in part or in whole, but not for sale nor for use in conjunction with commercial purposes. Original sources should be acknowledged where indicated in the publication. Obtainable free of charge from: South African Human Rights Commission (SAHRC) Website: http://www.sahrc.org.za UNICEF South Africa. Website: http://www.unicef.org/southafrica Cover photographs : Top row, left and centre; UNICEF/Giacomo Pirozzi; right, UNICEF/Karin Schermbrucker. Middle row, left; UNICEF/Giacomo Pirozzi; right, UNICEF/Karin Schermbrucker. Bottom; UNICEF/Karin Schermbrucker. Design and typesetting: Handmade Communications d S O U T H A F R I C A S C H I L D R E N

4 Childhood should be a happy time for all children. It should be a time when children have op- portunities to grow, learn and develop; receive love and care; play freely and be active; feel safe and protected; be healthy; and be listened to when they share their views on matters that are important to them. Our investments in Foreword by our children today will reap the fruit of social justice and advanced human capital in decades to come. It is a wise and sustainable investment. Minister for The South African Constitution provides a national blueprint of a society that respects the equality and dignity of every person children and adults alike. It safeguards social, economic and cultural rights, as well as the civil rights Women, Children and freedoms of adults and children, and particularly provides for additional rights that apply only to children in Sec- tion 28. Thus, children have a special place in our constitution. and People The Ministry for Women, Children and People with Disabilities is committed to create an enabling environment to ensure the facilitation of constitutional obligations, policies and legislative frameworks to realise all childrens rights. We have noted with pride that our democracy has made significant progress over the past years in creating a better South Africa for children. However, we also acknowledge that there are still many challenges that our children, their caregivers and communities face today. with Disabilities My ministry is in particular committed to work with other ministers and departments, and other partners, to ensure that no child is left behind. We need to make sure that girls and boys are afforded and experience equal opportuni- ties from birth, at home, in school and in career choices; that violence against children is eradicated at its roots in our society; that children in rural and urban areas have the same access to resources while they grow up; that every child eligible for government support receives such support; that every child, no matter where s/he is born or lives, has the same chances to survive and thrive, and live healthily; that children with disabilities experience a society that values them and respects their rights; and that we make every effort to listen to our children. As a country we have ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child as well as the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, which shows our commitment to make sure that we meet international and regional standards in the realisation of child rights. Linked to the aforementioned are our commitments made by also ratifying the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and the Conven- tion on the Rights of People with Disabilities, as these are also intrinsically linked to the full realisation of child rights. This publication of the South African Human Rights Commission shows the importance of working together and forming partnerships for the realisation of all rights for all children, and the importance of looking at the realisation of child rights through an equity lens. It is important for us to hold hands and work with each other, as together, we can create a country where children feel safe, protected, cared for and free. Ms Lulu Xingwana, MP Minister for Women, Children and People with Disabilities

5 Message by Commissioner Lindiwe Mokate, South African The South African Constitution and much of our legislation addressing childrens needs, is regarded as world class, providing eloquent, explicit and more than satisfactory guarantees of the rights of children. These Human Rights national laws reflect the spirit of all the relevant international instruments which have been ratified by South Africa. However, as this publication demonstrates, the unfortunate reality is that there are still many children in South Africa whose basic rights are yet to be realised. Commission There is an enormous gap between those children who live in poverty and those who live in affluence. Children do not choose the circumstances they find themselves in. Efficient and effective service delivery could go a long way towards closing this gap. As a nation we all have a responsibility to ensure that government, which has the primary responsibility to promote and protect these childrens rights, delivers on its mandate. As one of the principles for effective implementation of human rights, equity demands that government-funded pro- grammes and services specifically address the needs of all children and ensure that they enjoy the right to equality of opportunity in life. More attention should be given to childrens meaningful participation in the decisions taken about their lives to ensure that the initiatives taken truly address their needs and have the desired impact. It is important that we are constantly reminded that those of us who are tasked with the responsibility of providing services to our children are not merely involved in an act of kindness but rather the delivery of inalienable human rights to children. It is my hope that this publication will be used as a reference text to assess the state of South African children to date, address the gaps in policies and service delivery programmes, and project the way forward to improve the situation of children, especially vulnerable children. The inequalities in the provision of and access to basic needs have been graphically represented in the text, to give users a pictorial view of the discrepancies that exist. I have no doubt that this publication is a valuable resource to everyone who works towards fulfilling our constitution- al promise of achieving equality and ensuring human dignity. Commissioner Lindiwe Mokate South African Human Rights Commission

6 Message by Aida Girma, UNICEF Country On 20 November 1989, world leaders came together in the General Assembly to adopt the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Since then, the Convention has become the most ratified human rights treaty Representative in history. The Convention underscores the accountability of governments, civil society, parents and the international community to fulfil their obligations towards the realisation of the rights of children, and to ensure that these rights remain inalienable, integral and indivisible. There can be no doubt that the Convention has transformed the way we view children today. It has set in motion a process of social change, building the foundation for a world where all rights for all children can be realised the rights to survival, development, protection and participation. South Africa ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1995. The rights of children are entrenched in, and protected by, the Bill of Rights in the countrys Constitution. The Government of South Africa has put in place a for- ward-looking system of laws and programmes to ensure basic support for children. The country can be truly proud of its leadership in ensuring that laws are now fully aligned with the provisions of the Convention. Realising the rights of children is not only fundamental for their development and well-being, it is pivotal to creat- ing the world envisioned by the Millennium Declaration a world of peace, equity, security, freedom, respect for the environment and shared responsibility. In short, a world fit for children. Significant efforts have been made by countries across the world towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). But it is increasingly evident that our progress is uneven in many key areas. In the global push to achieve the MDGs, we are leaving behind millions of the worlds most disadvantaged, vulnerable and marginalised children. Deprivations of childrens rights are disproportionately concentrated among the poorest populations within countries. This statistical report demonstrates that the situation is no different in South Africa. Mounting evidence has shown that the Millennium Development Goals and other commitments to children can only be fully realised if we look at development through the prism of equity. Concretely, this means that all programmes and policies should seek to understand and address the root causes of inequity so that all children, particularly those who suffer the worst deprivations, have access to education, health care, sanitation, clean water, protection, and other services necessary for their survival, growth, and development. Aida Girma UNICEF South Africa Country Representative

7 Table of Contents Acronyms 1 Executive Summary 2 Demography of South Africas Children 8 Summary View of Inequity Among Children How Far Have We Come? 12 Summary Report Card on Equity in the Realisation of Child Rights in South Africa 18 Childrens Rights to an Adequate Standard of Living 20 Status of Child Poverty and Hunger 20 The Right to Social Security 24 The Right to Housing 26 The Right to Water and Sanitation 28 Childrens Rights to Life and Basic Health 30 The Right to the Highest Attainable Standard of Health 30 The Right to Adequate Food 33 Children and AIDS 36 Childrens Rights to Early Childhood Development and Education 40 The Right to Early Childhood Development 40 The Right to Education 41 Childrens Rights to a Family Environment and Alternative Care 50 The Right to Parental or Family Care 50 The Right to Alternative Care in the Absence of Family Care 52 The Right to be Protected from all Forms of Violence 54 Childrens Rights to Special Protection 56 The Right to Special Protection When in Conflict with the Law 56 The Right to Special Protection in Situations of Exploitation 58 The Civil Rights and Freedoms of Children 60 The Right to Birth Registration 60 The Right to Protection From Corporal Punishment and Other Cruel or Degrading Forms of Punishment 61 Technical Note 62 References 64 Database on Child Rights Indicators 67

8 AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome GPI Gender Parity Index Acronyms ART Antiretroviral Treatment GT Gauteng ARV Antiretrovirals HebB Hepatitis B vaccine BCG Bacille Calmette Guerin (vaccine for TB) Hib3 Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine BMI Body Mass index HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus CD4 Cluster of Differentiation 4 (a glycoprotein that acts HSRC Human Sciences Research Council as receptor for HIV in humans) IES Income and Expenditure Survey CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention RDP Reconstruction and Development Programme IGME UN Inter-agency Group on Child Mortality Estimation CDG Care Dependency Grant SA South Africa IMR Infant Mortality Rate CEDAW Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of SABSSM South Africa HIV/AIDS Behavioural Risks, Discrimination against Women JCPS Justice Crime Prevention and Security Sero-status and Media Impact Survey CRC Convention on the Rights of the Child KZN KwaZulu-Natal SACMEQ Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for CSG Child Support Grant LIM Limpopo Monitoring Educational Quality DCS Department of Correctional Services MDG Millennium Development Goal SAHRC South African Human Rights Commission DHB District Health Barometer MMR Maternal Mortality Ratio SAIMDC South African Index of Multiple Deprivation for Children DHIS District Health Information System MP Mpumalanga SALDRU Southern Africa Labour and DHS Demographic and Health Survey MRC Medical Research Council Development Research Unit DoE Department of Education MTCT Mother-to-Child-Transmission SAPS South African Police Service DoH Department of Health MTSF Medium Term Strategic Framework SASSA South African Social Security Agency DoHS Department of Human Settlements MWCPD Ministry of Women, Children and People SAVACG South African Vitamin A Consultative Group with Disabilities DPT Vaccine against diphtheria, pertussis SAYP Survey of Activities of Young People (whooping cough) and tetanus NC Northern Cape SES Socio-Economic Status DRDLR Department of Rural Development and Land Reform NCHS National Centre for Health Statistics SOCPEN Social Security Pension System EC Eastern Cape NFCS National Food Consumption Survey Stats SA Statistics South Africa ECD Early Childhood Development NIDS National Income Dynamic Study TFR Total Fertility Rate EDD Economic Development Department NT National Treasury U5MR Under-Five Mortality Rate EFA Education for All NW North West UN United Nations EPI Expanded Programme on Immunisation OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development UNAIDS Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS FCG Foster Care Grant OVC Orphans and Vulnerable Children UNICEF United Nations Childrens Fund FS Free State PMTCT Prevention of Mother-to-Child-Transmission of HIV WC Western Cape GDP Gross Domestic Product PPP Purchasing Power Parity WHO World Health Organisation GER Gross Enrolment Ratio QLFS Quarterly Labour Force Survey YRBS Youth Risk Behaviour Survey GHS General Household Survey 1

9 Executive Summary Introduction South Africa is often called A World in One Country because it displays a contrast between an advanced economy rivalling that of the developed world co-existing with another that has only the most basic infrastructure; and a vari- ety of peoples and cultures that make up the South African rainbow nation.1 There are some 49.9 million people in South Africa, with 18.6 million being children under the age of 18 years. Of these children, 85 per cent are Black African; 8 per cent are Coloured; 5 per cent are White; and 2 per cent are Indian/ Asian.2 The overall population is growing at 1.06 per cent per annum. Migration is an important demographic proc- ess in shaping the age structure and distribution of the population. The constitution recognises 11 official languages, namely Afrikaans, English, isiNdebele, isiXhosa, isiZulu, Sesotho sa Leboa, Sesotho, Setswana, siSwati, Tshivenda and Xitsonga. South Africa is divided into nine provinces, each with its own legislature, premier and executive councils. The South African economy is the largest on the continent of Africa with a GDP of US$493 billion (PPP) and a GDP per capita of US$10,135 (PPP) in 2008.3 Since 1994, it has recorded positive real GDP growth, except for 2009 when there was contraction by almost 2 per cent due to the global financial crisis. Unemployment is a major economic policy problem for the country.4 One in four working-age South Africans, some 4.5 million people, are unemployed (out of a total labour force of 17 million). Among young people aged 18 to 24 years, 41 per cent are not working and not in school. Other major development challenges include inequality, poverty and HIV and AIDS. Methodology This report reflects an analysis of key indicators to assess the fulfilment of childrens rights in South Africa. Most of the data is derived from Statistics South Africas General Household Survey (GHS). The GHS is a household survey representative for the entire population of the country. It has been executed annually by Statistics South Africa (Stats SA) since 2002. It covers six broad areas, namely: education, health, social development, housing, household access to services and facilities, food security and agriculture. The report also incorporates data from other large-scale surveys, such as the National Food Consumption Survey and the National Antenatal Sentinel HIV Survey by the Department of Health, the National HIV Prevalence Survey by the Human Sciences Research Council, and the Youth Risk Behaviour Survey by the Medical Research Council. Fur- thermore, for selected indicators, the report draws on administrative data and information published in departmental annual reports. While South Africa is a relatively data-rich country, the lack of availability of pre-analysed disaggregated data poses a significant challenge to providing a complete picture of inequities in the fulfilment of child rights. Moreover, pub- lished statistics usually focus on the entire population or households, not specifically children. Additional analysis of the raw GHS 2009 dataset was therefore undertaken to calculate disaggregated, child-centred statistics. Person 1 South African Government Information (2011). About South Africa, http://www.info.gov.za/aboutsa/index.htm. 2 Statistics South Africa (2010). Mid-year population estimates, 2010. 3 OECD (2010). Stats Extract. 4 OECD (2010). Economic Survey of South Africa. 2 S O U T H A F R I C A S C H I L D R E N

10 weights provided by Stats SA were applied in the analyses to give estimates by province, population group and gen- der. Data were also disaggregated by income quintile using total household per capita income as the ranking variable. Equity and Child Rights Equity is rooted in the principles of universality, non-discrimination, indivisibility and participation that underpin the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and other major human rights instruments. The CRC guarantees the fun- damental rights of every child, regardless of gender, race, religious beliefs, income, physical attributes, geographical location or other status. Equity is also one of the founding principles of the South African Constitution. Significant progress has been made since the end of apartheid in 1994 in fulfilling the rights of children in South Africa. New laws, progressive public spending and reorganisation of administrative systems have contributed to accelerating the fulfilment of rights. For example, millions of children are benefiting from the Child Support Grant through the extension of the age of eligibility and an extensive outreach programme by the state. Recent changes in governments response to HIV have also been far reaching, including state provision of treatment for all HIV-infected infants at government-run health facilities, and provision of treatment and care to HIV-positive pregnant women earlier in their pregnancies to prevent new paediatric infections. Near-universal access to primary education has been achieved and government is increasingly focusing on the improvement of the quality of education. The Childrens Act and the Child Justice Act provide a solid foundation for advancing child protection in the country. Altogether, progressive policies by the state in the last sixteen years or so have led to the expansion of many services for children, especially poor children. Nevertheless, the existence of large disparities in childrens access to some of the essentials of life points to a critical policy challenge, a challenge that requires a more accelerated drive to redress inequities from the past as well as confronting the substantial barriers that the poorest children still face today. The report is structured in three parts. Part 1 on the demographic profile of children in the country shows that almost two out of five South Africans are children, that is, under the age of 18. About 7 million of these children live in the poorest 20 per cent of households. Part 2 of the report presents a summary view of inequities in the fulfilment of child rights. South Africa is one of the most unequal countries in the world and income inequality, as measured by the Gini coefficient, has increased since 1993. In South Africa, compared to a child growing up in the richest income quintile, a child in the poorest quintile is two times less likely to have access to adequate sanitation and water; two times less likely to be exposed to early childhood development programmes; three times less likely to complete secondary education; seventeen times more likely to experience hunger; and twenty-five times less likely to be covered by a medical scheme. Racial disparities remain strong. For example, compared to a white child, a black African child is nearly 18 times more likely to grow up in poverty. Moreover, the spatial distribution of multiple child deprivation still overlaps to a large extent to the location of the former homelands. The country has nevertheless made good progress in reducing gender inequality. Gender parity has been achieved in primary and secondary education. There is also little difference between boys and girls for many child outcomes. 3

11 Some gender gaps, however, remain. Children in female-headed households, for example, are more likely to experi- ence hunger than children in male-headed households. They are also less likely to have access to adequate sanitation and water. Moreover, female youth are disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic and gender-based violence remains widespread in the country. Part 3 of the report presents wide-ranging data on the realisation of specific child rights in the country. The vari- ous rights are clustered into six groups: (1) the right to an adequate standard of living; (2) the right to life and basic health; (3) the right to early childhood development and education; (4) the right to a family environment and alter- native care; (5) the right to special protection; and (6) the civil rights and freedoms of children. Each right is accom- panied by a brief description of the relevant articles in the CRC and the South African Constitution; related national targets as articulated in service delivery agreements for governments 12 outcomes for the MTSF 20092014 period; and international goals and targets, particularly the Millennium Development Goals. Childrens right to an adequate standard of living Child poverty was reduced by 13 per cent between 2004 and 2008. However, despite this positive progress income poverty remains very much a part of inequality in South Africa and a key determinant of childrens standard of liv- ing. Some 11.9 million children (64 per cent of all children) live in poverty. Just two provinces, Gauteng and Western Cape, have child poverty levels below the national average. If the Vision 2014 target is to be met, child poverty has to decrease from the current level of 64 per cent to 37 per cent in 2014. Unemployment is a key constraint to overcoming child poverty. Overall, nearly four out of ten children live in house- holds with no employed household members. Among the poorest, seven of out ten children live in households with no economically active members. Reported hunger among children declined from 31 per cent in 2002 to 15 per cent in 2007. However, progress is at risk of being reversed as data shows an increase in child hunger to 22 per cent in 2009. Children in the poorest households and female-headed households are significantly more likely to experience hunger. There are also wide disparities across provinces. The evidence shows that there has been significant progress in fulfilling childrens right to social security, particularly through the dramatic expansion of social grants. This has contributed to the moderate decline in child poverty. The eligibility age range for the Child Support Grant has gradually been extended from 06 years in 1999 to 017 years from 2012 onwards. Yet, some 2.1 million children eligible for the Child Support Grant were not receiving it in 2008. Lack of documentation continues to be the biggest barrier to accessing the Child Support Grant. About 2.8 million children (15 per cent of all children) have been reached with a RDP or state-subsidised dwelling. Nevertheless, children from middle-income households appear to have received most benefits from RDP or state- subsidised housing. Some 1.7 million children (9 per cent of all children) still live in informal housing such as shacks in backyards or squatter settlements. Children from the poorest households are less likely to live in formal housing. 4 S O U T H A F R I C A S C H I L D R E N

12 Access to safe water and sanitation has improved over the past decade with 83 per cent of children having access to piped water on site or at public/neighbours tap, and access to adequate sanitation for children has improved from 47 per cent in 2002 to 64 per cent in 2009. Yet, almost 1.4 million children (8 per cent of all children) live in households that rely on rivers or streams as their main source of drinking water. In addition, nearly 1.5 million children (8 per cent of all children) live in households with no toilet facility at all. In fact, among children in the poorest households just 50 per cent have access to adequate sanitation. Childrens right to life and basic health Data on the right to health presents a mixed picture. Access to health services appears to be high as nine out of ten births take place in health facilities. However, South Africa is not on track for meeting the health targets of the 2015 Millennium Development Goals. Under-five mortality is at the same level it was in 1990. Maternal mortality has increased by 80 per cent since 1990. Each year in South Africa, around 4,300 mothers die due to complications of pregnancy and child birth; 20,000 babies are stillborn and another 23,000 die before they reach one month of age. In total, some 75,000 children die before their fifth birthday. This toll of over 270 maternal and child deaths every day is mainly due to HIV and AIDS and poor implementation of existing packages of care. The data shows that malnutrition among children continues and wide disparities persist across provinces. One in five children are stunted which is a consequence of chronic nutritional deprivation. One in ten children are underweight. Close to 5 per cent of children suffer from wasting and face a markedly increased risk of death. Chronic undernutri- tion in early childhood results in diminished cognitive and physical development which puts children at a disadvan- tage for the rest of their lives. Micronutrient deficiencies, particularly vitamin A and iron deficiency, doubled between 1994 and 2005. The School Nutrition Programme nevertheless reaches 6 out of 10 children in public schools. HIV prevalence among children has decreased since 2002. Childrens access to antiretroviral therapy has gone up substantially in recent years, and around 100,000 children living with HIV are now receiving treatment. Yet, only 54 per cent of children needing antiretroviral therapy were receiving it in 2009, though this is expected to have increased because of new treatment guidelines which became effective in April 2010. Overall, there is need for a greater focus on the HIV-free survival among the children. Childrens right to early childhood development and education Early childhood development (ECD) is crucial to childrens mental and emotional development and their readiness for school and life. There has been substantial progress in expanding enrolment in Grade R from 15 per cent in 1999 to 60 per cent in 2009. Government subsidies have also given momentum to centre-based care for younger children, though at a much slower pace than Grade R. However overall, just 43 per cent of children under five are exposed to an ECD programme at home, a centre or elsewhere. Again, there are large disparities across provinces. There has been significant progress in the realisation of the right to education. Near-universal primary education has been achieved in all provinces and one in two learners in public schools receives free education. School attendance 5

13 among children has increased steadily in the past 15 years, but less so for older age groups, especially those eligible for secondary education. Nationwide some 582,000 children are out of secondary school. Lack of money and dis- ability are major reasons why children are not attending school. Furthermore, children in the poorest households are nearly three times less likely to complete secondary schooling than children in the richest households. The quality of education is a major challenge in South Africa. Learners achievement in national and international assessments is generally poor. Children in the poorest households are more likely to repeat the same grade and tend to have lower achievement levels. Violence at school is also a barrier to quality education. About 27 per cent of high school learners feel unsafe at school while 16 per cent have been threatened with a weapon. Childrens right to a family environment and alternative care In South Africa, just one in three children live with both biological parents. Overall, one in five children have lost one or both parents, though there are large differences between provinces. The AIDS epidemic is an important driver of the growing number of orphans. Some 1.9 million children have lost one or both parents due to AIDS. Poor children appear to be more likely to be deprived of parental care. South Africa has made significant strides in ensuring that children in need of alternative care are placed in appropri- ate alternative care options. Over 88,600 children were declared in need of care by a childrens court during 2009/10. These children can be placed in foster care, in a childrens home, in a school of industry, or back into the parents or guardians care under the supervision of a social worker. Orphaned and abandoned children may also be adopted. Close to 500,000 children live with foster parents and benefit from the Foster Child Grant, while the number of adop- tions has increased to more than 5,850 annually. Approximately 13,250 children stay in registered child and youth care centres. Violence against children is pervasive in the country. Over 56,500 children were reported to be victims of violent crime in 2009/10, yet many more crimes remain unreported. People closest to them perpetrate the majority of cases of child sexual and physical abuse. Childrens right to special protection The CRC and the South African Constitution afford special protection to children in conflict with the law and chil- dren in situations of exploitation. Approximately 33,000 children awaited trial in detention during 2008/09, either in correctional service facilities, secure care centres, places of safety or under home-based supervision. The number of children in correctional facilities has decreased substantially over the past years as an increasing number of children are placed in secure care centres or diverted from the mainstream criminal justice system by attending diversion programmes such as life skills or anger management programmes. Little data is available on children in situations of exploitation, such as child labour, child prostitution and trafficking. More than one in ten high school learners has taken at least one illegal narcotic drug or psychotropic substance. 6 S O U T H A F R I C A S C H I L D R E N

14 The civil rights and freedoms of children There has been good progress in realising childrens right to an identity. The proportion of births registered within the year of birth jumped from 25 percent in 1998 to 85 percent in 2009. There are, nonetheless, large provincial dis- parities and the lowest levels of birth registration continue to be in predominantly rural provinces. Corporal punishment is practised in many homes and schools. Children in the poorest households are five times more likely to experience corporal punishment at school than children in the richest households, though by law it is prohibited in schools. Conclusion South Africa has made significant progress in fulfilling the rights of children. The country has one of the most progressive constitutions in the world, and a system of laws and programmes has been put in place to ensure basic support for children. The delivery of essential services has been expanded in significant ways to all groups of society since the end of apartheid. Yet, inequities in access to the essentials of life still exist, affecting in very strong ways how children access the opportunities that the country has for the fulfilment of their rights. Children in the poorest households appear to have benefited least from progress since the end of apartheid. The income situation of a childs family, race, location and to a lesser degree gender, determine the extent of inequi- ties in the fulfilment of childrens rights. Accelerating the reduction of inequities in the fulfilment of childrens rights is both a moral imperative and necessary condition for the total development of the country. As the evidence shows, the situation of children left behind in South Africa requires special attention from policy makers, attention that prioritises their rights in government programmes, budgets and monitoring systems. There is an urgent need for policy makers to move at a faster pace to redress inequities from the past as well as tackle the substantial barriers that the poorest children still face today. This report is a statistical publication. But behind every statistic is the life of a child each one endowed with rights to survive, develop and reach his or her full potential, regardless of geographic location, race, income, gender or other status. 7

15 Demography There are 18.6 million children in the country Number and percentage distribution of chil- of South dren (< 18 years) by province, 2010 2,305,976 Gauteng Africas Number of Percentage 19% children distribution Limpopo < 5% 12% Children 1,426,930 5 9% 3,518,388 1,217,832 10 14% North West 7% Mpumalanga 15 20% 8% 4,253,558 > 20% RIGHTS 395,144 1,001,354 KwaZulu-Natal CRC, Article 1: a child means every hu- Northern Cape 23% man being below the age of eighteen years 2% Free State 5% unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier. African Charter on the Rights and Welfare 2,715,691 Eastern Cape of the Child: article 2 a child means every 15% 1,814,404 human being below the age of 18 years. Western Cape Source: Statistics South Africa 10% SA Constitution (2010). Mid-year population estimates, 2010. Section 28(3): child means a person under the age of 18 years. South Africas population structure is skewed towards the young 37% of the population is below 18 years of age Number of males and females by age group (population pyramid), 19962010 Number of females per age group Number of males per age group 80+ Year: 1996 7579 7074 Year: 2010 6569 6064 Age group 5559 5054 4549 4044 3539 3034 2529 2024 1519 Source: Statistics South 1014 Africa (1996; 2010). Census 59 1996; Mid-year population 04 estimates, 2010. 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 Thousands 8 S O U T H A F R I C A S C H I L D R E N

16 85% of children are black; 27% under 5 years of age; there are only slightly more boys than girls Percentage distribution of children in South Africa by age, population group, and sex, 2010 2% 5% 8% 5,181,221 African/Black 15,816,906 27% 0-4 years Coloured 1,461,848 Female 8,347,353 9,387,769 9,261,508 5-9 years 45% Indian/Asian 355,114 50.3% 49.7% Male 10-17 years White 1,015,410 5,120,703 85% 28% Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). Mid-year population estimates, 2010. 1.07 million children were born in 2010 Number of births by province, 2010 250,000 235,330 200,000 177,675 Number of births 158,490 164,580 150,000 95,705 100,000 80,320 80,830 UNICEF/Rebecca Hearfield 59,380 50,000 17,825 0 Northern Free North Mpuma- Western Limpopo Eastern Gauteng KwaZulu- Cape State West langa Cape Cape Natal Source: Actuarial Society of South Africa (2005). ASSA2003 Model. D e m o g r a p h y o f S o u t h A f r i c a s C h i l d r e n 9

17 Fertility has declined from an average of 2,86 children per woman in 2001 to 2,38 children in 2010 Total fertility rate (TFR), 20012010 3.0 2.86 2.81 2.75 2.7 2.85 2.59 2.5 2.54 2.48 2.43 2.38 2.0 1.5 TFR 1.0 0.5 0.0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). Mid-year population estimates, 2010. A child born in South Africa today will on average live for 53 years If born in Brazil, that child would have lived for 73 years Average life expectancy at birth by sex and province for the period 20062011 70 Males Females 60 50 40 Years 30 UNICEF/Karin Schermbrucker 20 10 52.2 54.3 46.2 48.4 49.1 50.2 47.5 50.5 50.3 51.6 51.3 53.1 53.5 54.9 55.0 58.0 55.9 58.7 57.6 60.8 0 South Free KwaZulu- North Mpuma- Eastern Northern Limpopo Gauteng Western Africa State Natal West langa Cape Cape Cape Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). Mid-year population estimates, 2010. 1 0 S O U T H A F R I C A S C H I L D R E N

18 South Africas children speak a wide diversity of languages Children are more likely to live in poorer households Some 7 million children live in the poorest 20% of households while only Percentage distribution of childrens mother tongue, 2009 1.7 million children live in the richest 20% of households Total number of children by household income quintile, 2009 8,000,000 7,000,000 9% 7.0 10% 7% 6,000,000 7% 5,000,000 11% 4,000,000 4.5 10% 3,000,000 2.9 17% 2,000,000 2.4 1.7 29% 1,000,000 0 Poorest 20% Second 20% Middle 20% Fourth 20% Richest 20% Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). General Household Survey 2009. Analysis by UNICEF South Africa. Isizulu/Zulu Unspecified 1% Isixhosa/Xhosa Isindebele/South Ndebele/North Ndebele 1% Setswana/Tswana Tshivenda/Venda 2% English Sepedi/Northern Sotho Siswati/Swazi 3% Sesotho/Southern Sotho/Sotho Afrikaans Xitsonga/Tsonga 3% Other UNICEF/Karin Schermbrucker Note: The GHS only records in what language the interview with the households respondent was conducted. It is assumed this serves as a good proxy of the mother tongue of any child living in that household. Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). General Household Survey 2009. Analysis by UNICEF South Africa. D e m o g r a p h y o f S o u t h A f r i c a s C h i l d r e n 1 1

19 Summary South Africa is one of the most unequal countries in the world Gini coefficient by country in the world View of Inequity Among Note: Gini coefficient is the most commonly used measure of inequality. The Children coefficient varies between 0, which reflects complete equality and 1, which How Far Have indicates complete inequality (one person has all the income or consumption, all others We Come? have none). GINI coefficient .60 CRC, Article 2: States Parties shall respect and en- .40 - .44 No data sure the rights set forth in the present Convention Source: CIA (2009). The World Factbook 2009. to each child within their jurisdiction without dis- crimination of any kind, irrespective of the childs Income inequality has worsened The poorest 20% of the population earns or his or her parents or legal guardians race, since 1993 only 1.8% of total national household colour, sex, language, religion, political or other Gini coefficient for per capita income, income opinion, national, ethnic or social origin, property, 1993, 2000 and 2008 Percentage share of total reported household income disability, birth or other status. per capita by quintile, 2008 0.75 NATIONAL TARGETS 0.70 0.68 80 0.66 74 EDD/NT Service Delivery Agreement, Output 4.1: 0.60 70 Faster and sustainable inclusive growth. % share of income Gini coefficient 60 Key targets by 2014: 0.45 50 Gini coefficient reduced to 0.59. 0.30 40 Share of income of the bottom 40% of the popu- 30 lation increased to at least 6.4%. 0.15 20 14 7 10 2 4 0.00 0 1993 2000 2008 Poorest 20% Second 20% Middle 20% Fourth 20% Richest 20% Source: OECD (2010). Trends in South African income distribution and poverty Source: Finn, Leibbrandt and Woolard (2009). Income and Expenditure since the fall of apartheid. Analysis of SALDRU 1993, IES 2000 and NIDS 2008 Inequality: Analysis of the NIDS Wave 1 Dataset. data sets. 1 2 S O U T H A F R I C A S C H I L D R E N

20 Compared to a child growing up in the richest quintile, a child in the poorest quintile is 2 times less likely to have access to adequate 2 times less likely to be exposed to early 17 times more likely to experience hunger sanitation and water childhood development programmes Percentage of children living in households experiencing Percentage of children living in households with access Percentage of children under 5 exposed to ECD pro- hunger, 2009 to adequate sanitation; piped (tap) water in dwelling or grammes, 2009 on site, 2009 70 64 40 100 33 Adequate sanitation 60 35 95 94 55 Piped (tap) water on site 80 84 85 50 30 44 24 72 73 41 Percentage 25 Percentage 40 Percentage 60 36 59 57 20 30 15 50 40 15 40 20 9 10 20 10 5 2 0 0 0 Poorest 20% Second 20% Middle 20% Fourth 20% Richest 20% Poorest 20% Second 20% Middle 20% Fourth 20% Richest 20% Poorest 20% Second 20% Middle 20% Fourth 20% Richest 20% Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). General Household Survey 2009. Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). General Household Survey 2009. Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). General Household Survey 2009. Analysis by UNICEF South Africa. Analysis by UNICEF South Africa. Analysis by UNICEF South Africa. 3 times less likely to complete secondary 25 times less likely to be covered by a medical education scheme Percentage of youth (2024 years old) who have com- Percentage of children covered by a medical aid scheme, pleted secondary education, 2009 2009 80 80 74 71 70 70 60 60 50 50 50 Percentage Percentage 38 40 40 26 29 29 30 30 UNICEF/Karin Schermbrucker 20 20 9 10 10 3 3 0 0 Poorest 20% Second 20% Middle 20% Fourth 20% Richest 20% Poorest 20% Second 20% Middle 20% Fourth 20% Richest 20% Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). General Household Survey 2009. Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). General Household Survey 2009. Analysis by UNICEF South Africa. Analysis by UNICEF South Africa. Summary View of Inequity Among Children How Far Have We Come? 13

21 Racial disparities remain strong. Compared to a White child, a Black African child is 18 times more likely to live in poverty 1.5 times less likely to be exposed to early 2 times less likely to have access to adequate childhood development programmes sanitation and water Percentage of children living in poverty, 2008 Percentage of children under 5 exposed to ECD pro- Percentage of children living in households with access 80 grammes, 2009 to adequate sanitation; piped (tap) water in dwelling or 71 70 on site, 2009 80 69 100 Child poverty rate (%) 60 70 Piped (tap) 100 99 99 97 water on site 95 96 50 60 54 80 Adequate Percentage 37 50 sanitation 40 Percentage 42 40 60 40 30 58 53 30 40 20 20 11 10 20 4 10 0 0 0 Black/African Coloured Indian White African/Black Coloured Indian/Asian White African/Black Coloured Indian/Asian White Note: The poverty line is set at the 40th percentile of household per capita income. Source: Childrens Institute, University of Cape Town (2010). South African Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). General Household Survey 2009. Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). General Household Survey 2009. Child Gauge 2009/2010. Analysis of Stats SA General Household Survey 2008. Analysis by UNICEF South Africa. Analysis by UNICEF South Africa. 12 times more likely to experience hunger 2 times less likely to complete secondary education Percentage of children living in households experiencing hunger or at risk of hunger, 2009 Percentage of youth (2024 years old) who have com- pleted secondary education, 2009 40 100 At risk of hunger 35 82 11 Experience hunger 81 80 30 8 25 Percentage Percentage 60 24 20 21 45 15 40 36 UNICEF/Karin Schermbrucker 10 4 20 5 8 3 2 0 0 African/Black Coloured Indian/Asian White African/Black Coloured Indian/Asian White Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). General Household Survey 2009. Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). General Household Survey 2009. Analysis by UNICEF South Africa. Analysis by UNICEF South Africa. 1 4 S O U T H A F R I C A S C H I L D R E N

22 The spatial distribution of multiple child deprivation still overlaps to a large extent to the location of the former homelands South African Index of Multiple Child Deprivation at municipal level, 2007 Index of Multiple Deprivation Former Homelands for Children Most Deprived (47) Indians 4 (47) Coloureds 3 (48) Blacks 2 (47) Whites Venda Least Deprived (48) Black Homeland Lebowa Excluded Areas (20) KwaNdebele Boputhatswana Swaziland Lesotho Transkei Ciskei UNICEF/Karin Schermbrucker Note: The SAIMDC 2007 was constructed on the basis of a model of child deprivation comprising a series of uni-dimensional domains of deprivation which each contain one or more indicators relating to that domain of deprivation. The domains were each constructed as a separate domain index and then combined into a single measure of multiple deprivation the SAIMDC 2007. Five domains of deprivation were produced using the 2007 Community Survey to form the SAIMDC 20072: Income and Material Deprivation; Employment Deprivation; Education Deprivation; Biological Parent Deprivation; Living Environment Deprivation. Source: Wright, G., Noble, M., Barnes, H. and Noble, S. (2009) The South African Index of Multiple Deprivation for Children 2007 at Municipality Level, Pretoria: Department of Social Development. Summary View of Inequity Among Children How Far Have We Come? 15

23 The country has made good progress in reducing gender inequalities. Gender parity has been achieved in primary and secondary education and for many child outcomes there is little difference between boys and girls. Nevertheless, compared to children living in male-headed households, children in female-headed households are 1.5 times more likely to experience hunger 1.3 times less likely to have access to adequate sanitation and water Percentage of children living in households experiencing hunger or at risk of hunger, 2009 Percentage of children living in households with access to adequate sanitation; piped (tap) water in dwelling or on site, 2009 40 80 At risk of hunger 12 Adequate sanitation 35 70 Experience hunger 70 Piped (tap) water on site 68 30 60 58 25 27 50 9 Percentage Percentage 52 20 40 15 17 30 10 20 5 10 0 0 Male-headed HH Female-headed HH Male-headed HH Female-headed HH Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). General Household Survey 2009. Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). General Household Survey Analysis by UNICEF South Africa. 2009. Analysis by UNICEF South Africa. UNICEF/Giacomo Pirozzi 1 6 S O U T H A F R I C A S C H I L D R E N

24 Women are disproportionately affected by the HIV and AIDS epidemic Female youth are 3.5 times more likely Gender-based violence remains to be HIV positive than their male widespread counterparts Sexual offences against children reported to the police, HIV prevalence (%) among youth 1524 years old by sex, 2006/072009/10 2002; 2005 and 2008 20 30,000 Males 27,417 Females 25,000 17 25,428 15 20,000 22,124 14 20,141 Percentage 12 Number 10 15,000 10,000 5 6 4 5,000 4 0 0 2002 2005 2008 2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10 Source: Shisana O, et al. (2009). South African national HIV prevalence, Source: South African Police Service (2010). Crime Situation in South Africa. incidence, behaviour and communication survey 2008: A turning tide among teenagers? Cape Town: HSRC Press. UNICEF/Karin Schermbrucker Summary View of Inequity Among Children How Far Have We Come? 17

25 Summary Report Card on Equity in the Realisation of Child Rights in South Africa Selected key indicators National Province average EC FS GT KZN LIM MP NW NC WC Ratio of Highest to Lowest value Childrens Rights to an Adequate Standard of Living Children living in poverty (%, 2008) 64 72 66 42 71 83 69 70 70 37 2.3 Children experiencing hunger (%, 2009) 22 23 38 15 30 10 26 25 21 17 3.8 Children living in formal housing (%, 2009) 72 46 81 80 58 90 86 88 85 80 2.0 Children living in households with piped water in dwelling or on site (%, 2009) 60 31 91 91 45 39 65 55 70 92 3.0 Children living in households with adequate sanitation (%, 2009) 64 51 77 88 59 37 43 64 80 94 2.6 Childrens Rights to Life and Basic Health Births taking place in public health facilities (%, 2008/09) 87 71 84 97 83 90 84 84 89 98 1.4 Under-five mortality rate (deaths per 1,000 live births, 2009) 62 Full immunisation coverage among children under one year (%, 2008/09)* 90 84 90 102 85 84 72 89 93 104 1.4 Prevalence of stunting among children 19 years (%, 2005) 18 18 28 17 15 24 18 15 28 12 2.3 Prevalence of underweight among children 19 years (%, 2005) 9 8 14 6 5 12 11 12 38 8 7.7 Prevalence of wasting among children 19 years (%, 2005) 5 4 3 3 1 4 8 3 19 12 14.7 HIV prevalence among pregnant women (%, 2009) 29 28 30 30 40 21 35 30 17 17 2.3 HIV prevalence among children 214 years (%, 2008) 2.5 2.1 4.1 2.2 2.8 2.5 3.8 3.2 2.3 1.1 3.7 Childrens Rights to Early Childhood Development and Education Children under five years of age exposed to an ECD programme (%, 2009) 43 38 67 59 33 35 42 43 44 38 2.0 Children of primary school age attending an educational institution (%, 2009) 99 98 99 99 99 99 98 98 99 99 1.0 Youth (2024 years old) who have completed primary education (%, 2009) 92 87 94 94 92 92 94 91 88 96 1.1 Children of secondary school age attending an educational institution (%, 2009) 89 87 90 92 87 94 90 87 83 82 1.2 Youth (2024 years old) who have completed secondary education (%, 2009) 40 26 40 53 42 26 37 37 32 50 2.0 Grade 6 average mathematics score in SACMEQ assessment (2007) 495 469 492 545 485 447 476 503 499 566 1.2 Childrens Rights to a Family Environment and Alternative Care Children living with both biological parents (%, 2009) 32 21 34 50 25 23 28 30 31 52 2.4 Children who have lost one or both parents (%, 2009) 19 25 23 13 25 18 22 19 15 8 3.0 Cases of neglect and ill-treatment reported to the police (per 100,000 population, 2009/10) 8 5 16 10 4 4 5 8 17 16 4.1 Childrens Rights to Special Protection High school learners who have ever taken drug like heroin, mandrax, sugars, tik (%, 2008) 12 12 8 9 13 13 14 10 13 11 1.8 The Civil Rights and Freedoms of Children Birth registered within year of birth (%, 2005)** 72 66 75 81 62 67 70 67 82 97 1.6 Children attending school experiencing corporal punishment (%, 2009) 17 25 20 12 24 15 8 13 6 3 8.1 1 8 S O U T H A F R I C A S C H I L D R E N Better off than the national average Worse off than the national average Equal or close to the national average (+/- 1 percentage point)

26 Income quintile Gender Population group Source Poorest Richest Ratio of Male Female Ratio of Black / Coloured Indian / White Ratio of 20% 20% Richest to Male to African Asian White to Poorest Female Black 71 37 11 4 0.1 GHS 2008 33 2 0.1 22 23 0.96 24 21 5 2 0.1 GHS 2009 61 98 1.6 72 72 1.00 68 88 100 100 1.5 GHS 2009 40 94 2.3 60 60 1.00 53 96 99 97 1.8 GHS 2009 50 95 1.9 64 65 0.99 58 95 100 99 1.7 GHS 2009 DHB 2008/09 UN estimate DHB 2008/09 NFCS 2005 NFCS 2005 NFCS 2005 DoH 2010 3.0 2.0 1.5 HSRC 2010 36 64 1.8 43 43 0.99 42 40 54 69 1.7 GHS 2009 99 100 1.0 98 99 1.00 99 99 100 99 1.0 GHS 2009 89 98 1.1 91 94 0.97 91 96 99 97 1.1 GHS 2009 89 93 1.0 89 88 1.01 89 77 89 91 1.0 GHS 2009 26 74 2.8 36 44 0.82 36 45 82 81 2.3 GHS 2009 491 498 0.99 SACMEQ 2007 18 74 4.0 32 33 0.98 27 48 82 80 3.0 GHS 2009 24 5 0.2 20 19 1.05 22 8 3 3 0.1 GHS 2009 SAPS 2010 UNICEF/Giacomo Pirozzi 14 9 1.46 12 13 7 4 0.4 YRBS 2008 Stats SA 2007 21 4 0.2 17 17 1.00 19 4 2 1 0.0 GHS 2009 * Data should be read with caution as several districts and provinces recorded values over 100%. Summary View of Inequity Among Children How Far Have We Come? 19 ** Stats SA has only published provincial data up to 2005. National data is available up to 2009.

27 Status of Child Poverty and Hunger Childrens RIGHTS Rights to an CRC, Article 27: (1) States Parties recognise the RELATED INTERNATIONAL GOALS/TARGETS right of every child to a standard of living ad- MDG 1, Target 1.A: Halve, between 1990 and equate for the childs physical, mental, spiritual, Adequate 2015, the proportion of people whose income is moral and social development. (2) The parent(s) less than one dollar a day. or others responsible for the child have the pri- MDG 1, Target 1.B: Achieve full and productive Standard mary responsibility to secure, within their abilities and financial capacities, the conditions of living employment and decent work for all, including necessary for the childs development. (3) States women and young people. of Living Parties, in accordance with national conditions and within their means, shall take appropriate MDG 1, Target 1.C: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger. measures to assist parents and others responsi- ble for the child to implement this right and shall in case of need provide material assistance and support programmes, particularly with regard to nutrition, clothing and housing. Also see African Charter on the Rights and Wel- fare of the Childs articles 14 (2)(c); 20(2)(a). SA Constitution Section 27(1): Everyone has the right to have ac- cess to (b) sufficient food and water; . Section 28(1): Every child has the right (c) to basic nutrition, . NATIONAL TARGETS Vision 2014: Halve poverty between 2004 and 2014. DRDLR Service Delivery Agreement, output 7.2: Improved access to affordable and diverse food. UNICEF/Kate Pawelczyk Key targets: Decrease the proportion of the total population that experiences hunger from 52% in 2005 to 30% in 2014 using national food con- sumption survey data. 2 0 S O U T H A F R I C A S C H I L D R E N

28 In South Africa, 11.9 million children (64% of all children) live in Racial disparities in child poverty remain Black children constitute a disproportionately large share of the total income poverty number of children living in poverty Number and percentage of children living in poverty by province, 2008 Percentage share of each population group in the total child population and the total number of children living in poverty, 2008 Limpopo 100 Gauteng 1,993,000 Share (%) of total child population 60% 96 1,451,000 83.3% 85 Share (%) of total children in poverty 42.2% 60.1 70% 80 70.1 80% Mpumalanga North West 1,049,000 > 80% Percentage 60 907,000 69.1% 70.2% Free State KwaZulu- 40 696,000 Natal 66.3% 2,902,000 Northern Cape 70.9% Note: The poverty line is set at the 40th percentile 20 298,000 of household per capita 8 70.0% 4 6 income. This translates 2 0.4 0.3 into a per person 0 Eastern Cape monthly income of less African/Black Coloured Whites Indian/Asian 1,981,000 than R570 in 2008 Rands. 71.5% Source: Childrens Source: Childrens Institute, University of Cape Town (2010). South African Child Gauge 2009/2010. Institute, University of Analysis of Stats SA General Household Survey 2008, and Stats SA mid-year population estimates 2008. Western Cape Cape Town (2010). South 656,000 African Child Gauge 36.7% 2009/2010. Analysis of Stats SA General Child poverty has decreased by an average annual rate of 3.2% Household Survey 2008. between 2004 and 2008 in all declining by just 13% over the period If the Vision 2014 target is to be met, child poverty has to decrease from the current rate of 64% to 37% in 2014 Percentage of children living in poverty by province, 20022008 100 88 83 77 78 78 80 75 74 73 83 Child poverty rates 69 70 71 72 70 66 60 64 51 48 2004 2008 Note: The poverty line is set at the 40th percentile UNICEF/Rebecca Hearfield 40 of household per capita 42 income. 37 National 2014 target 37% Source: Childrens Institute, University of Cape Town (2010). Children Count 20 Abantwana Babalulekile. South Africa Western Cape Gauteng Free State Mpumalanga North West Northern Cape Kwazulu-Natal Eastern Cape Limpopo Analysis of Stats SA General Household Survey 20042008. C h i l d r e n s R i g h t s t o a n A d e q u a t e S t a n d a r d o f L i v i n g 2 1

29 Unemployment appears to be a key driver of poverty Overall, nearly 4 out of 10 children live in households with no employed household members. Among the poorest, 7 of out 10 children live in households with no employed members Percentage of children living in households with no economically active household members by province and household income quintile, 2009 80 69 Limpopo 70 54% 60 50 Percentage 40 31 30 Gauteng North West Mpumalanga 16% 20 42% 34% 10 8 10 4 0 Poorest 20% Second 20% Middle 20% Fourth 20% Richest 20% Free State 33% KwaZulu-Natal Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). General Household Survey 2009. 43% Analysis by UNICEF South Africa. Northern Cape 46% Percentage 30% Eastern Cape 30.1 40% 51% 40.1 50% Western Cape > 50% 12% UNICEF/Karin Schermbrucker Average for South Africa = 37% 2 2 S O U T H A F R I C A S C H I L D R E N

30 1 in 3 children nationwide experience Children in the poorest households and female-headed households are significantly hunger or are at risk of hunger more likely to experience hunger Hunger risk classification in children by province, 2009 Hunger risk classification in children by household income quintile and sex of household head, 2009 50 South Africa 22 10 67 40 12 Limpopo 10 9 81 Gauteng 15 12 74 13 12 30 33 At risk of hunger (%) 7 Percentage Western Cape 17 76 Experience hunger (%) Northern Cape 21 8 71 9 27 9 20 24 Eastern Cape 23 11 66 North West 25 7 68 7 7 26 8 66 10 15 Mpumalanga 9 30 14 57 4 KwaZulu-Natal 2 Free State 38 10 52 0 Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Female- Male- General Household Survey 2009. Analysis 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% headed headed by UNICEF South Africa. HH HH Experience hunger (%) At risk of hunger (%) Progress made in reducing child hunger is at risk of being reversed Food secure (%) Percentage of children experiencing hunger, 20022009 Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). General Household Survey 2009. Analysis by UNICEF South Africa. Source: Statistics South Africa 40 (2010). Reweighted GHS Note: The Hunger Scale Questionnaire introduced in the GHS 2009 is 20022008 data series and composed of eight questions that investigate whether adults and children GHS 2009. Analysis by UNICEF are affected by food insecurity, food shortages, perceived food insufficiency 31 South Africa. or altered food intake due to constraints on resources. Children living in 30 households responding negatively to all eight questions are classified Note: Data for 2009 are not 30 strictly comparable with as food secure. Children in households responding affirmatively to 14 26 questions are classified as at risk of hunger, while children in households data for previous years responding affirmatively to five or more questions are considered to 23 because of revisions in the 22 Percentage experience hunger. GHS questionnaire. The GHS 20022008 asks: In the past 12 20 18 months, did any child in this 17 15 household go hungry because there wasnt enough food? Children living in households reporting sometimes, often UNICEF/Karin Schermbrucker or always are classified as 10 experiencing hunger. The GHS 2009 asks: Did your children ever say they are hungry during the past year because there was not enough food in the house? 0 (Yes/No). 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 C h i l d r e n s R i g h t s t o a n A d e q u a t e S t a n d a r d o f L i v i n g 2 3

31 The Right to Social Security RIGHTS UNICEF/Karin Schermbrucker CRC, Article 26: (1) States Parties shall recognise for every child the right to benefit from social security, including social insurance, and shall take the necessary measures to achieve the full realisation of this right in accordance with their national law. (2) The benefits should, where appropriate, be granted, taking into account the resources and the circumstances of the child Childrens access to social grants has expanded dramatically and persons having responsibility for the main- The eligibility age range for the child support grant has gradually been extended from 06 years in 1999 tenance of the child, as well as any other con- to 017 years from 2012 onwards sideration relevant to an application for benefits made by or on behalf of the child. Child Support Grant Care Dependency Grant Foster Care Grant Year Beneficiaries Age threshold Nominal Beneficiaries Nominal Beneficiaries Nominal grant SA Constitution grant value grant value value Section 27(1): Everyone has the right to have ac- 1999 21,997 < 7 years R100 16,835 R520 46,496 R374 cess to (c) social security, including, if they are 2000 150,366 < 7 years R100 22,789 R540 49,843 R390 unable to support themselves and their depend- 2001 856,402 < 7 years R110 33,574 R570 66,967 R410 ants, appropriate social assistance. 2002 1,277,396 < 7 years R140 34,978 R640 67,817 R460 Section 27(2): The state must take reasonable 2003 3,947,073 < 9 years R160 42,355 R700 83,574 R500 legislative and other measures, within its availa- ble resources, to achieve the progressive realisa- 2004 4,446,230 < 11 years R170 76,494 R740 120,571 R530 tion of each of these rights. 2005 5,465,545 < 14 years R180 86,917 R780 195,454 R560 2006 7,075,266 < 14 years R190 90,112 R820 317,434 R590 2007 7,892,869 < 14 years R200 98,631 R870 400,503 R620 2008 8,189,975 < 14 years R220 102,292 R960 454,199 R650 2009 8,765,354 < 15 years R240 107,065 R1,010 474,759 R680 2010 9,570,287 < 16 years R250 110,731 R1,080 510,760 R710 2011* 10,336,000 < 17 years R260 121,000 R1,080 554,000 R710 2012* 10,977,000 < 18 years R270 128,000 R1,140 613,000 R740 Note: *Projections by National Treasury. The Child Support Grant is paid to parents or primary caregivers of a child within the eligible age range who pass the means test. The Care Dependency Grant is paid to parents, primary caregivers or foster parents of any child with severe mental and/or physical disabilities between the ages of 1 and 18 years, requiring full-time home care. The Foster Care Grant is paid to foster parents for children between the ages of 0 and 18 years. An extension order on a foster care grant can be given until the age of 21 years. Source: South African Social Security Agencys (SASSA) Social Security Pension System (Socpen). National Treasury (2011) National Budget Review 2011. 2 4 S O U T H A F R I C A S C H I L D R E N

32 Yet, 2.1 million children eligible for the Uptake of the child support grant is lowest among children under 1 and in the older child support grant (27% of all eligible age groups children) were not receiving it in 2008 Percentage of children receiving a child support grant by age (single years), 2009 Percentage of eligible children receiving the child sup- 80 port grant, 2008 Target = 100 80 66 66 66 66 66 63 64 65 60 61 61 73 59 60 56 50 Percentage Percentage 40 40 38 35 20 27 20 0 Source: Statistics South Yes No Africa (2010). General Household Survey 2009. Source: Coetzee (2010). Finding the Benefits Evaluating the Impact of the 0 Analysis by UNICEF South African Child Support Grant. Analysis of National Income Dynamics 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Age South Africa. Survey (NIDS) 2008. Lack of documentation is the biggest barrier to access the child support grant Reasons why eligible caregivers do not apply for the child support grant, 2008 9% 6% Missing/unspecified 6% 5% 10% Cost of application too high 1% Don't have the right documentation Parent(s) working 1% Haven't gotten round to it yet Child receives other grant 1% Caregiver income too high Parent(s) work for government 2% 12% 24% 3% In process of applying Child too old Cannot be bothered Not the child's mother 3% Don't know how to apply Application process 1% Other too complicated 34% Don't know 6% Source: Coetzee (2010). Finding the Benefits Evaluating the Impact of the South African Child Support Grant. Analysis of National Income Dynamics Survey (NIDS) 2008. C h i l d r e n s R i g h t s t o a n A d e q u a t e S t a n d a r d o f L i v i n g 2 5

33 Children from the poorest households are The Right to Housing less likely to live in formal housing Percentage of children living in formal, informal or tradi- RIGHTS tional housing by household income quintile, 2009 RELATED INTERNATIONAL GOALS/TARGETS 2 CRC, Article 27: (1) States Parties recognise the MDG 7, Target 7.D: By 2020, to have achieved a 100 7 9 10 1 right of every child to a standard of living ad- 16 significant improvement in the lives of at least 90 3 equate for the childs physical, mental, spiritual, 100 million slum dwellers (global figure). 80 30 20 10 moral and social development. (3) States Parties, 70 Percentage in accordance with national conditions and within 60 their means, shall take appropriate measures to 1.7 million children (9% of all children) 50 90 98 74 assist parents and others responsible for the child live in informal housing such as shacks in 40 70 61 to implement this right and shall in case of need backyards or squatter settlements 30 provide material assistance and support pro- Percentage of children living in formal, informal or tradi- 20 grammes, particularly with regard to housing. tional housing by province, 2009 10 0 Also see African Charter on the Rights and Wel- 9 3 4 20 20 15 8 6 11 2 Poorest 20% Second 20% Middle 20% Fourth 20% Richest 20% 100 Informal fare of the Childs article 20(2)(a). 51 38 7 Informal Traditional Formal 8 1 Traditional 18 7 SA Constitution 4 86 88 90 Formal Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). General Household Survey 2009. 85 80 81 Analysis by UNICEF South Africa. Section 26(1): Everyone has the right to have ac- 80 80 cess to adequate housing. 72 Section 28(1): Every child has the right (c) to 2.8 million children (15% of all children) Percentage 60 shelter . 58 have been reached with a RDP or state subsidised dwelling NATIONAL TARGETS 46 40 Number and percentage of children living in Reconstruc- DoHS Service Delivery Agreement, Output 8.1: tion and Development Programme (RDP) or state subsi- Accelerated Delivery of Housing Opportuni- dised dwelling by province, 2009 ties. Key target by 2014: Upgrading of 400,000 20 Number Percentage households in well-located informal settlements Free State 311,820 29 with access to basic services and secure tenure. Northern Cape 116,680 27 DoHS Service Delivery Agreement, Output 8.2: 0 Western Cape 464,840 26 KwaZulu-Natal Northern Cape Western Cape Eastern Cape Mpumalanga South Africa Improve access to basic services. Key target by North West Free State Gauteng Limpopo Gauteng 543,790 17 2014: Universal access to electricity (100%). North West 193,630 15 DoHS Service Delivery Agreement, Output 8.3: Mpumalanga 223,690 15 Mobilisation of well-located public land for low Note: Formal refers to dwelling/house or brick/concrete block structure on Eastern Cape 329,820 12 a separate stand or yard or on farm; flat or apartment; town/cluster/semi- income and affordable housing. Key target for detached house; dwelling/house/flat/room in backyard; room/flatlet on a Limpopo 265,590 12 2014: Set aside at least 6,250 hectares of well- property or a larger dwelling servants quarters/granny flat. Informal refers to KwaZulu-Natal 343,760 8 informal dwelling/shack in backyard or an informal/squatter settlement or on located public land for low income and afford- farm. Traditional refers to traditional dwelling/hut/structure made of traditional South Africa 2,793,615 15 materials. Numbers may not add up to 100 due to rounding. able housing. Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). General Household Survey 2009. Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). General Household Survey 2009. Analysis by UNICEF South Africa. Analysis by UNICEF South Africa. 2 6 S O U T H A F R I C A S C H I L D R E N

34 Children from middle-income households 8 out of 10 children live in households connected to the mains electricity supply appear to have received most benefits Percentage of children living in households with a connection to the mains electricity supply, 2009 from RDP or state subsidised housing Percentage of children living in RDP or state subsidised dwelling by household income quintile, 2009 National 2014 target South Africa 80 20 KwaZulu-Natal 65 20 19 Eastern Cape 65 15 Limpopo 88 14 Mpumalanga 88 13 Percentage 10 North West 88 Gauteng 91 Northern Cape 91 5 Western Cape 92 3 Free State 93 0 Source: Statistics South Africa Poorest 20% Second 20% Middle 20% Fourth 20% Richest 20% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% (2010). General Household Survey Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). General Household Survey 2009. 2009. Analysis by UNICEF South Analysis by UNICEF South Africa. Africa. Children from middle-income households 47% of the poorest children live in households using wood as the main energy source for appear to be benefiting most from cooking receiving free electricity Percentage of children by main energy source for cooking in the household by income quintile, 2009 Percentage of children living in households with a connec- tion to the mains supply receiving free electricity, 2009 Electricity from mains Poorest 20% 41 47 7 2 2 1 35 Wood 30 32 Paraffin 31 Second 20% 56 30 9 2 3 1 Gas 25 25 Coal Middle 20% 76 13 7 2 2 Percentage 20 Animal dung 20 15 Fourth 20% 88 7 3 2 1 10 12 Richest 20% 96 11 3 5 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 0 Poorest 20% Second 20% Middle 20% Fourth 20% Richest 20% Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). General Household Survey 2009. Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). General Household Survey 2009. Analysis by UNICEF South Africa. Analysis by UNICEF South Africa. C h i l d r e n s R i g h t s t o a n A d e q u a t e S t a n d a r d o f L i v i n g 2 7

35 4 out of 10 children do not have access to Almost 1.4 million children (8% of all The Right to Water and piped water inside the dwelling or on site children) live in households relying on Sanitation Percentage of children living in households with access rivers or streams as their main source of to water by type of source, 2009 drinking water RIGHTS Number and percentage of children by main source of drinking water in the household, 2009 CRC, Article 24: States Parties shall take ap- 17 39 19 27 11 14 5 4 2 0 100 propriate measures: (d) to combat disease and 6 7 8 Number Percentage 26 malnutrition, including within the framework 91 91 92 Piped (tap) water in dwelling 6,101,660 32.8 34 of primary health care, through, inter alia, the 21 Piped (tap) water on site or in yard 5,067,520 27.2 application of readily available technology and 80 23 42 Public tap 3,763,845 20.2 through the provision of clean drinking-water, 28 Flowing water/stream/river 1,392,980 7.5 taking into consideration the dangers and risks 70 Neighbour's tap 536,325 2.9 65 Borehole off site/communal 434,310 2.3 of environmental pollution. 60 30 60 Spring 369,350 2.0 Percentage Also see African Charter on the Rights and Wel- 55 Water-carrier/Tanker 354,415 1.9 fare of the Childs article 14(2)(c). Borehole on sit 236,305 1.3 45 SA Constitution 40 Other (e.g. well, dam, rain-water tank) 350,650 1.9 39 Total 18,607,354 100 Section 27(1): Everyone has the right to have ac- 31 cess to (b) sufficient water. Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). General Household Survey 2009. Analysis by UNICEF South Africa. 20 NATIONAL TARGETS Where do these 1.4 million children live? DoHS Service Delivery Agreement, Output 8.2: Percentage distribution of children living in households Improve access to basic services. relying on flowing water/stream/river as main source of 0 Key target by 2014: Universal access to water drinking water, 2009 South Africa Eastern Cape Limpopo KwaZulu-Natal North West Mpumalanga Northern Cape Free State Gauteng Western Cape and sanitation (100%). RELATED INTERNATIONAL GOALS/TARGETS 3% 7% Other MDG Goal 7, Target 7.C: Halve, by 2015, the pro- portion of people without sustainable access to Public or neighbour's tap safe drinking water and basic sanitation. Piped (tap) water in dwelling or on site Mpumalanga 32% Limpopo 58% Note: Numbers may not add up to 100 due to rounding. KwaZulu-Natal Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). General Household Survey 2009. Analysis by UNICEF South Africa. Eastern Cape Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). General Household Survey 2009. Analysis by UNICEF South Africa. 2 8 S O U T H A F R I C A S C H I L D R E N

36 Access to adequate sanitation has improved over the Among children in the poorest households just 50% have access past decade to adequate sanitation Percentage of children living in households with access to adequate sanitation by Percentage of children living in households with access to adequate sanitation by province, 2002 and 2009 household income quintile, 2009 47 100 2002 Note: Adequate sanitation National 2014 target South Africa 64 95 21 includes flush toilets 84 2009 connect to a public Limpopo 36 38 sewerage system or 80 Mpumalanga septic tank, and pit 72 43 22 latrines with ventilation. Eastern Cape 51 Inadequate sanitation 59 includes chemical toilets, 60 Percentage 36 KwaZulu-Natal 59 pit latrines without 50 44 ventilation, bucket toilets North West 64 or no toilet facility at all. 55 40 Source: Statistics South Free State 77 Africa (2003; 2010) 78 General Household Northern Cape 80 Survey 2002; 2009. 20 88 Analysis of 2002 data Source: Statistics South Gauteng 88 by Childrens Institute, Africa (2010). General 93 Western Cape 94 University of Cape Town; Household Survey 2009. analysis of 2009 data by 0 Analysis by UNICEF 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% UNICEF South Africa. Poorest 20% Second 20% Middle 20% Fourth 20% Richest 20% South Africa. Yet, nearly 1.5 million children (8% of all children) live in Where do these 1.5 million children live? households with no toilet facility at all Percentage distribution of the children living in households with no toilet facility by Number and percentage of children by type of toilet facility used in the province, 2009 household, 2009 Number Percentage Free State 1% Flush toilet (connected to public sewerage system of septic tank) 8,499,515 45.7 Western Cape 2% KwaZulu-Natal 12% Pit latrine/toilet without ventilation pipe 4,917,100 26.4 Northern Cape 32% Limpopo 2% Pit latrine/toilet with ventilation pipe 3,431,120 18.4 North West 2% None 1,471,455 7.9 Other 16% Gauteng 3% Bucket toilet 174,915 0.9 Eastern Cape Chemical toilet 52,305 0.3 41% Other/Unspecified 60,940 0.3 Mpumalanga 5% Total 18,607,355 100 Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). General Household Survey 2009. Analysis by UNICEF South Africa. C h i l d r e n s R i g h t s t o a n A d e q u a t e S t a n d a r d o f L i v i n g 2 9

37 The Right to the Highest Attainable Standard of Health Childrens RIGHTS CRC, Article 24: (1) States Parties recognise the NATIONAL TARGETS DoH Service Delivery Agreement, Output 2.1: Rights to Life right of the child to the enjoyment of the high- est attainable standard of health and to facilities Decreasing maternal and child mortality. Key targets by 2014: and Basic for the treatment of illness and rehabilitation of Decrease infant mortality rate to 18 deaths (or health. States Parties shall strive to ensure that less) per 1,000 live births. no child is deprived of his or her right of access Health Decrease under-five mortality rate to 20 deaths to such health care services. (2) States Parties (or less) per 1,000 live births. shall pursue full implementation of this right and, in particular, shall take appropriate meas- Decrease maternal mortality ratio to 100 (or ures: (a) To diminish infant and child mortality; less) per 100,000 live births. (b) To ensure the provision of necessary medical Increase the proportion of births attended by assistance and health care to all children with skilled health personnel to 100%. emphasis on the development of primary health Decrease diarrhoea incidence in children un- care; (d) To ensure appropriate pre-natal and der 5 years. post-natal health care for mothers. Decrease pneumonia incidence in children Also see African Charter on the Rights and Wel- under 5 years. fare of the Childs articles 5; 14 and 20(2)(a). RELATED INTERNATIONAL GOALS/TARGETS SA Constitution MDG Goal 4, Target 4.A: Reduce by two-thirds, Section 11: Everyone has the right to life. between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality Section 27(1): Everyone has the right to have rate. access to (a) health care services, including MDG Goal 5, Target 5.A: Reduce by three reproductive health care. quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal Section 28(1): Every child has the right (c) mortality ratio. to basic health care services MDG Goal 5, Target 5.B: Achieve, by 2015, uni- versal access to reproductive health. 3 0 S O U T H A F R I C A S C H I L D R E N

38 9 out of 10 births take place in health Yet, South Africa is not on track for meeting the health targets of the 2015 facilities Millennium Development Goals Percentage of deliveries that take place in public health Under-five mortality is at the same level it was Maternal mortality has increased by 80% facilities under supervision of trained personnel by dis- in 1990 since 1990 trict, 2008/09 Trends in infant (IMR) and under-five (U5MR) mortality Trend in maternal mortality ratio (MMR, deaths per rate (deaths per 1,000 live births), 19902009 100,000 live births), 19902008 Limpopo Gauteng 500 100 440 410 North West Mpumalanga 400 380 Deaths per 1,000 live births 80 Deaths per 1,000 live births Free 62 U5MR 62 State KwaZulu- 300 60 Natal IMR 230 260 48 Northern under 60% 40 200 43 Cape Eastern Cape 60 69% 20 Western 70 79% U5MR 2015 target = 20 100 Cape IMR 2015 target = 18 MMR 2015 target = 100 80 89% 0 90% and above 1990 1993 1996 1999 2002 2005 2008 2011 2014 0 1990 1995 2000 2005 2008 2015 Source: Day, C.; Monticelli, F.; Barron, P.; Haynes, R.; Smith, J. and Sello, E. Note: The mortality trends are produced by compiling national estimates from Source: WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA and World Bank (2010). Trends in Maternal (eds) (2010). The District Health Barometer 2008/09. Durban: Health Systems the 19881992 Human Science Research Council (HSRC) Survey, the 1998 Mortality: 1990 to 2008. Trust. and the 2003 South Africa Demographic and Health Surveys, and the 2007 Community Survey. A regression curve is then fitted to these data points and extrapolated to a common reference year to produce a smooth trend. Source: UN Inter-agency Group on Child Mortality Estimation (2010). Levels and Trends in Child Mortality. Each year in South Africa 4,300 mothers die due to complications of pregnancy and child birth. 20,000 babies are stillborn and another 23,000 die before they reach 1 month of age. In total, some 75,000 children die before their fifth birthday. This toll of over 270 maternal and child deaths every day is mainly due to HIV and AIDS and poor implementation of existing packages of care. Source: The Lancet (2009). Saving the lives of South Africas mothers, babies, and children: can the health system deliver? C h i l d r e n s R i g h t s t o L i f e a n d B a s i c H e a l t h 3 1

39 Most causes of under-five deaths are either preventable or Many child deaths are the result of avoidable factors, missed treatable opportunities and substandard care The lives of almost 50,000 newborn babies and children could be saved in 61% of avoidable factors in child deaths are related to health systems 2015 if South Africa reached high, effective coverage of key packages of failures (either by health personnel or administrators), such as poor interventions such as PMTCT and neonatal care. This can be achieved at assessment and management in hospitals. 39% of avoidable factors are relatively little cost. related to caregiver and family actions, such as delay in seeking care or caregiver not realising the severity of illness. Injuries Percentage of modifiable factors related to actions by caregivers/family, health 11% Other Infections 5% 6% child personnel or administrators, 2007 11% illness Diarrhoea 18% 2% Source: Department of Preterm birth Sepsis and meningitis 13% Health, Medical Research 39% Council, University of Avoidable factors related to cargiver and family 6% Pneumonia Neonatal Pretoria, UNICEF, Save 30% the Children (2008) Every Avoidable factors related to health personnel Death Counts: Saving the lives of South Africas Avoidable factors related to administration for action Birth asphyxia mothers, babies and HIV/AIDS 6% children. The Lancet 35% (2009) Saving the lives of 43% South Africas mothers, Congenital babies, and children: 3% can the health system 2% Other deliver? Source: Stephen, Mulaudzi, Kauchali and Patrick (2009) Saving Children 20052007: A fourth survey of child healthcare in South Africa. Pretoria: University of Pretoria, MRC, CDC. Government data suggest 30 of the 52 districts did not achieve Data from surveys suggest immunisation coverage has the national target of 90% full immunisation coverage decreased compared to 1994 Percentage of children under 1 year who have received all their recommended vaccina- National immunisation coverage among children 1223 months by specific vaccines, tions, 2008/09 1994 and 2008 Gauteng enlarged 100 Note: The Hepatitis B vaccine was 1994 introduced in 1995; earliest data Limpopo 2008 point for HepB3 refers to 1998. The Hib vaccine was introduced in 1999; earliest data point for Immunisation coverage (%) Hib3 refers to 2000 (WHO/UNICEF, 86 Gauteng 2009). 80 North West Mpumalanga Source: The South African Vitamin A Consultative Group (SAVACG, 1995). Children aged Free State 73 671 months in South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal 67 1994: Their anthropometric, 65 Vitamin A, iron and immunisation 60 63 coverage status. Shisana O, et al. Less than 70% (2010). South African National HIV Northern Cape Source: Day, C.; 56 Prevalence, Incidence, Behaviour 70 79% Monticelli, F.; Barron, and Communication Survey, P.; Haynes, R.; Smith, Eastern Cape 2008: The health of our children. 80 89% J. and Sello, E. (eds) 45 (2010). The District 40 Western Cape 90 99% Health Barometer BCG DTP1 DTP3 Polio3 Measles HepB3 Hib3 2008/09. Durban: Health 100% and over Systems Trust. 3 2 S O U T H A F R I C A S C H I L D R E N

40 The Right to Adequate Status of child nutrition Food 1 in 5 children are stunted, a consequence of chronic nutritional deprivation Percentage of children 19 years suffering from stunting (moderate and severe chronic malnutrition) by province, 1999 and 2005 RIGHTS CRC, Article 24: States Parties shall pursue full im- Source: Department of Health (2000). The National Food 30 30 plementation of this right and, in particular, shall 30 28 1999 Consumption Survey 1999; 28 Department of Health (2007) take appropriate measures: (e) To ensure that all 25 26 2005 The National Food Consumption 24 Survey 2005: Fortification 25 segments of society, in particular parents and 22 23 Baseline (NFCS-FB). Estimates are 20 20 children, are informed, have access to education 20 calculated according to the NCHS/ WHO reference population. 18 19 19 18 and are supported in the use of basic knowledge 17 15 15 15 Percentage of child health and nutrition, the advantages of 15 12 breastfeeding . 10 CRC, Article 27: (3) States Parties, in accordance with national conditions and within their means, 5 shall take appropriate measures to assist parents 0 and others responsible for the child to implement Gauteng Limpopo Free State North West South Africa Mpumalanga Eastern Cape Western Cape Northern Cape KwaZulu-Natal this right and shall in case of need provide mate- rial assistance and support programmes, particu- larly with regard to nutrition . Also see African Charter on the Rights and Wel- fare of the Childs articles 14(2)(c) and 20(2)(a). 1 in 10 children are underweight Percentage of children 19 years suffering from underweight (moderate and severe mixed acute and chronic malnu- SA Constitution trition) by province, 1999 and 2005 Section 27(1): Everyone has the right to have ac- Source: Department of Health cess to (b) sufficient food . 40 38 1999 (2000). The National Food Consumption Survey 1999; Department of Health (2007) Section 28(1): Every child has the right (c) to 35 2005 The National Food Consumption basic nutrition . 30 Survey 2005: Fortification Baseline (NFCS-FB). Estimates are calculated according to the NCHS/ NATIONAL TARGETS 25 24 WHO reference population. Percentage DRDLR Service Delivery Agreement, output 7.2: 20 15 15 Improved access to affordable and diverse food. 15 14 14 12 12 10 11 Key target by 2014: The rate of under-nutrition 10 9 9 8 6 7 8 8 of children falls from 9.3% (2005 NFCS) to 5% in 6 5 4 National 2014 target 5 2014. 0 RELATED INTERNATIONAL GOALS/TARGETS Gauteng Limpopo Free State North West South Africa Mpumalanga Eastern Cape Western Cape Northern Cape KwaZulu-Natal MDG 1, Target 3: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger. C h i l d r e n s R i g h t s t o L i f e a n d B a s i c H e a l t h 3 3

41 Close to 5% of children suffer from wasting and face a markedly increased risk of death Younger children are most severely Percentage of children 19 years suffering from wasting (moderate and severe acute malnutrition) by province, 1999 affected by malnutrition and 2005 Chronic undernutrition in early childhood results in diminished cognitive and physical development, which puts children at a disadvantage for the rest 20 19 of their lives Percentage of children 19 years suffering from stunting, underweight and wasting by age group, 2005 15 25 23 Stunting Percentage 1999 12 10 20 2005 10 16 8 8 Percentage 15 6 5 4 4 11 Underweight 12 5 4 3 3 4 3 10 3 3 2 1 1 Source: Department of Health 9 8 1 Wasting (2000). The National Food 5 0 Consumption Survey 1999; 5 5 Gauteng 3 Limpopo Department of Health (2007). Free State North West South Africa Mpumalanga Eastern Cape Western Cape Northern Cape KwaZulu-Natal The National Food Consumption 0 Survey 2005: Fortification 13 years 46 years 79 years Baseline (NFCS-FB). Estimates are calculated according to Source: Department of Health (2007). The National Food Consumption Survey the NCHS/WHO reference 2005: Fortification Baseline (NFCS-FB). Estimates are calculated according to population. the NCHS/WHO reference population. Micronutrient deficiencies: vitamin A and iron deficiency has doubled between South Africa faces a dual burden of over- and 1994 and 2005 under-nutrition, especially among youth Percentage of children 15 years affected by vitamin A Percentage of children 15 years affected by iron Percentage of high school learners (in grades 811) who deficiency (serum retinol level < 20 g/dL) deficiency anaemia (%Hb

42 Coverage of interventions to Vitamin A supplementation coverage is low in all provinces improve nutrition Percentage of children (1259 months) receiving a high dose of vitamin A by province, 2009 Continuum of infant feeding practices Percentage of children put to the breast within 1 hour of delivery; exclusively breast- fed; both breast-fed and receiving complementary foods; and continuing to breastfeed South Africa 37 at specified ages Mpumalanga 30 Early initiation of breastfeeding Northern Cape 32 (one hour of birth) 61 Limpopo 32 Exclusive breastfeeding North West 33 (0-5 months old) 8 Eastern Cape 37 Complementary feeding Western Cape 38 (6-9 months old) 49 KwaZulu-Natal 38 Continued breastfeeding 66 40 (12-15 months old) Guateng Free State 41 Continued breastfeeding 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% (12-23 months old) 31 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% Source: Department of Health (2007). Demographic and Health Survey 2003. Source: District Health Information System (DHIS, 2009) in Health Systems Trust (2010). South African Health Review. Use of adequately iodised salt in households has improved 6 out of 10 children in public schools benefit from the School Percentage of households using adequately iodated salt (> 15 ppm of iodine) by prov- Nutrition Programme ince, 1998 and 2005 Percentage of children in public schools benefiting from the school nutrition pro- gramme by province, 2009 100 1998 South Africa 62 87 88 84 2005 79 80 80 Gauteng 45 80 75 77 76 77 70 69 Free State 51 66 65 62 Western Cape 59 Percentage 60 55 45 45 48 North West 59 39 40 KwaZulu-Natal 61 Mpumalanga 67 20 Limpopo 69 Eastern Cape 70 0 Northern Cape 87 South Limpopo Northern Gauteng Eastern Mpumalanga North Free KwaZulu- Western Africa Cape Cape West State Natal Cape 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Source: Jooste L., Weight M. and Lombard C. (2001) A national survey of the iodine content of household salt Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). General Household Survey 2009. in South Africa. Bull WHO 2001; 79:534540; Department of Health (2007). The National Food Consumption Survey 2005: Fortification Baseline (NFCS-FB). C h i l d r e n s R i g h t s t o L i f e a n d B a s i c H e a l t h 3 5

43 Children and AIDS RIGHTS Total number of patients (adults and children) on CRC, Article 6 (1): States Parties recognise that ART increases from 1.1 million to 3.2 million. every child has the inherent right to life. (2). States INTERNATIONAL GOALS/TARGETS Parties shall ensure to the maximum extent pos- sible the survival and development of the child. MDG Goal 6, Target 6.A: Have halted by 2015 and UNICEF/Karin Schermbrucker begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS. Committee on the Rights of the Child General Comment No. 3, Article 25: States parties are MDG Goal 6, Target 6.B: Achieve, by 2010, univer- requested to ensure implementation of the strate- sal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those gies recommended by the United Nations agen- who need it. cies to prevent HIV infection in infants and young children. These include: (a) the primary preven- tion of HIV infection among parents-to-be; (b) the prevention of unintended pregnancies in HIV-in- South Africa has the largest burden of HIV and AIDS in the world fected women, (c) the prevention of HIV transmis- 1 in 8 children infected with HIV globally live in South Africa sion from HIV-infected women to their infants; and Summary of the AIDS epidemic, 2009 (d) the provision of care, treatment and support to Number of people living with HIV HIV-infected women, their infants and families. Globally South Africa Share (%) Also see African Charter on the Rights and Welfare Total 33.3 million 5.6 million 17% of the Childs article 5. Adults 30.8 million 5.3 million 17% SA Constitution Women 15.9 million 3.3 million 21% Section 11: Everyone has the right to life. Children (

44 The epidemic has reached its peak and HIV prevalence has Close to 30% of pregnant women are HIV positive stabilised at a very high level In 5 districts in KwaZulu-Natal more than 40% of pregnant women are living with HIV National HIV prevalence in the adult population (1549 years) and pregnant women (1549 years), 19902009 HIV prevalence rate (%) among pregnant woman (1549 years) attending antenatal clinics by district, 2009 35 Source: Department of Health Limpopo (2010). National Antenatal Gauteng 21.4% Pregnant women Sentinel HIV and Syphilis 29.8% 30 Adult population Prevalence Survey 2009. 25 North West Mpumalanga 30.0% 34.7% Percentage 20 KwaZulu-Natal Free State 30.1% 39.5% 15 HIV prevalence among 10 pregnant women Northern Cape 17.2% < 10% 5 10% 19.9% 0 20% 29.9% Eastern Cape Western Cape 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 28.1% 30% 39.9% 16.9% > 40% Average for South Africa = 29.4% Source: UNAIDS (2010). AIDS info Database. 9 in 10 pregnant women living with HIV receive antiretrovirals for preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV Estimated percentage of pregnant women living with HIV who received ARV for pre- venting MTCT, 20042009 Target = 100 100 80 88 75 60 Percentage UNICEF/Karin Schermbrucker 57 40 49 Source: Department of 33 Health (2010). National 20 Antenatal Sentinel HIV and Syphilis Prevalence 14 Survey 2009; UNAIDS (2010). AIDS info 0 Database. 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 C h i l d r e n s R i g h t s t o L i f e a n d B a s i c H e a l t h 3 7

45 HIV prevalence among children has Childrens access to antiretroviral therapy has increased substantially decreased since 2002 in recent years 2.5% of children 214 years old are living with HIV Around 100,000 children living with HIV were receiving treatment in 2010 HIV prevalence among children 214 years by province, Number of children on comprehensive HIV and AIDS treatment (public sector), 20052010 2002 and 2008 Dec. 2005 Dec. 2006 Dec. 2007 Dec. 2008 Dec. 2009 May 2010 8 KwaZulu-Natal 3,005 7,173 11,841 19,689 28,791 32,528 2002 Gauteng 3,885 7,066 9,844 14,445 19,519 22,194 7 2008 Eastern Cape 1,054 1,354 3,141 4,737 8,160 9,880 Immunisation coverage (%) 6 North West 616 1,804 3,502 5,530 7,319 8,123 5 Limpopo 441 1,068 2,061 4,136 5,897 6,618 4 Western Cape 1,877 2,649 3,505 4,496 5,389 5,883 2.1 2.2 Mpumalanga 261 899 1,874 2,983 5,033 5,695 3 2.3 2.5 Free State 465 806 806 2,066 3,601 4,638 2.5 2.8 2 3.8 3.2 Northern Cape 355 550 1,120 1,441 1,921 2,123 4.1 1.1 1 South Africa 11,959 23,369 37,694 59,523 85,630 97,682 0 Source: Department of Health (2010). National Strategic Plan for HIV and AIDS / Comprehensive HIV and AIDS Treatment Plan statistics. KwaZulu-Natal Northern Cape Western Cape Eastern Cape Mpumalanga South Africa North West Free State Gauteng Limpopo Yet, only 54% of children needing antiretroviral therapy were receiving it in 2009 Estimated coverage of antiretroviral therapy among children (014 years old), 20052009 Source: Shisana O, et al. (2009). South African national HIV prevalence, 100 Target = 100% incidence, behaviour and communication survey 2008: A turning tide among teenagers? Cape Town: HSRC Press. 80 60 54 Percentage 40 UNICEF/Karin Schermbrucker 40 Source: Department of Health 25 (2010). National Strategic Plan for HIV and AIDS, 19 Comprehensive HIV and AIDS 20 Treatment Plan statistics 11 (numerator). UNAIDS (2010). Estimated number of children (014 years old) needing antiretroviral therapy based 0 on UNAIDS/WHO methods 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 (denominator). 3 8 S O U T H A F R I C A S C H I L D R E N

46 HIV prevalence among youth is increasing in KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga while decreasing in all other provinces HIV prevalence among youth 1524 years by province, 2002 and 2008 20 2002 2008 15.3 15 13.5 Immunisation coverage (%) 11.8 11.6 11.2 9.2 11.7 9.3 10 8.7 10.1 7.2 8.7 5.6 8.3 6.3 6.6 5 Source: Shisana O, et al. (2009). South African national HIV 3.8 3.9 3.9 prevalence, incidence, behaviour 3.0 and communication survey 2008: A turning tide among teenagers? Cape Town: HSRC Press. 0 Western Free Limpopo Northern North Eastern Gauteng Mpum- KwaZulu- South Cape State Cape West Cape alanga Natal Africa Women are disproportionately affected by HIV Female youth are 3.5 times more likely to be HIV positive than their male counterparts HIV prevalence and behavioural determinants among youth 1524 years by sex, 2008 100 Female youth 87 Male youth 80 73 60 Percentage 40 30 31 UNICEF/Karin Schermbrucker 27 28 Source: Shisana O, et al. (2009). 20 South African national HIV 14 11 prevalence, incidence, behaviour 6 and communication survey 2008: 4 A turning tide among teenagers? 1 6 0 Cape Town: HSRC Press. HIV Comprehensive Inter- Multiple sexual Condom use Sexual debut prevalence correct generational partnerships at last sex before knowledge sex age of 15 years of HIV C h i l d r e n s R i g h t s t o L i f e a n d B a s i c H e a l t h 3 9

47 Childrens The Right to Early Childhood Development Rights to Early Childhood RIGHTS CRC, Article 6(2): States Parties shall ensure to NATIONAL TARGETS DoE Service Delivery Agreement, Output 1.3: Im- Development the maximum extent possible the development prove Early Childhood Development. Key target of the child. by 2014: and Education CRC, Article 18(2): States Parties shall render The percentage of Grade 1 learners who have appropriate assistance to parents and legal guard- received formal Grade R increases from 80% to ians in the performance of their child-rearing 100%. responsibilities and shall ensure the development INTERNATIONAL GOALS/TARGETS of institutions, facilities and services for the care of children. EFA, Goal 1: Expanding and improving comprehensive early childhood care and Committee on the Rights of the Child education, especially for the most vulnerable General Comment No. 7, Article X: The Commit- and disadvantaged children. tee interprets the right to education during early childhood as beginning at birth and closely linked to young childrens right to maximum develop- ment (art. 6.2). Linking education to development is elaborated in article 29.1: States parties agree that the educa- tion of the child shall be directed to: (a) the de- velopment of the childs personality, talents and mental and physical abilities to their fullest poten- tial. The Committee calls on States parties to ensure that all young children receive education in the broadest sense (as outlined in paragraph 28 above), which acknowledges a key role for par- ents, wider family and community, as well as the contribution of organised programmes of early childhood education provided by the State, the community or civil society institutions. Also see African Charter on the Rights and Wel- fare of the Childs article 20(2)(b) and (c). 4 0 S O U T H A F R I C A S C H I L D R E N

48 Only 43% of children under 5 are exposed to an Early Childhood Grade R enrolment increased from 15% in 1999 to 60% in 2009 Development programme at home, a centre or elsewhere Grade R (Reception Year) programmes are meant to prepare children for ECD is crucial in childrens mental development primary education and in their readiness for school and life Participation in Grade R (Gross Enrolment Ratio) to sites attached to public and Limpopo independent ordinary schools, 19992009 35% Gauteng 80 Percentage of children under 5 exposed to 59% Mpumalanga 70 an ECD programme North West 42% (anywhere) by province, 43% 60 60 2009 53 Ger in Grade R 50 Free State KwaZulu- 49 67% Natal 40 44 Northern Cape 40 44% 33% 35 30 31 27 20 23 22 Eastern Cape Percentage 38% 15 Source: Statistics South Africa 35% 10 (2010). General Household Western Cape 35.1 50% Survey 2009. Analysis by UNICEF South Africa. 38% 51.1 60% 0 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Average for South Africa = 43% > 60.1% Source: Department of Education (2011). Education for All (EFA) Country Report South Africa, 2010. Children in the poorest households are only half as likely to benefit from ECD than children in the richest households Percentage of children under 5 exposed to an ECD programme (anywhere) by household income quintile, 2009 80 70 60 64 50 55 Percentage Note: In South Africa, ECD is defined as the 40 44 emotional, cognitive, 41 sensory, spiritual, 30 36 moral, physical, social and communication development of a child. 20 Leonie Marinovich Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). 10 General Household Survey 2009. Analysis by UNICEF South 0 Poorest 20% Second 20% Middle 20% Fourth 20% Richest 20% Africa. C h i l d r e n s R i g h t s t o E a r l y C h i l d h o o d D e v e l o p m e n t a n d E d u c a t i o n 4 1

49 The Right to Education RELATED RIGHTS NATIONAL TARGETS RELATED INTERNATIONAL GOALS/TARGETS CRC, Article 28: (1) States Parties recognise the DoE Service Delivery Agreement, Output 1.1: MDG 2, Target 2.A: Ensure that, by 2015, children right of the child to education, and with a view Improve the quality of teaching and learning. everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to to achieving this right progressively and on the complete a full course of primary schooling. Key targets by 2014: basis of equal opportunity, they shall, in particu- MDG Goal 3, Target 3.A: Eliminate gender dispar- lar: (a) Make primary education compulsory and Percentage of Grade 3 learners performing at the ity in primary and secondary education, prefer- available free to all; (b) Encourage the develop- required literacy level according to the countrys ably by 2005, and in all levels of education no ment of different forms of secondary education, Annual National Assessments increases from later than 2015. including general and vocational education, make 48% to 60%. them available and accessible to every child, and Average score obtained in Grade 6 in mathemat- take appropriate measures such as the introduc- ics in the SACMEQ assessment increases from tion of free education and offering financial as- 495 to 520. sistance in case of need; (e) Take measures to Percentage of Grade 9 learners performing at encourage regular attendance at schools and the the required mathematics level according to the reduction of drop-out rates. countrys Annual National Assessments increas- CRC, Article 23 (3): Recognising the special needs es to 60%. of a disabled child, assistance extended in accord- Number of Grade 12 learners who become eli- ance with paragraph 2 of the present article shall gible for a Bachelors programme in the public be provided free of charge, whenever possible, national examinations increases from 110,000 to taking into account the financial resources of the 175,000. parents or others caring for the child, and shall The percentage of teachers who are able to attain be designed to ensure that the disabled child has minimum standards in anonymous and sample- effective access to and receives education, train- based assessments of their subject knowledge ing . (baseline and target to be determined). Also see African Charter on the Rights and Wel- The percentage of learners having access to the fare of the Childs articles 11 and 13. required textbooks and workbooks for the entire SA Constitution school year increase to 100%. Section 29(1): Everyone has the right (a) to a The percentage of learners in schools with a UNICEF/Rebecca Hearfield basic education, including adult education; and library or media centre fulfilling certain minimum (b) to further education, which the state, through standards increasing by 20 percentage points. reasonable measures, must make progressively available and accessible. 4 2 S O U T H A F R I C A S C H I L D R E N

50 School attendance among children has Gender parity has been achieved both Access to Education increased steadily in the past 15 years, in primary and secondary education but less so for the older age groups Gender Parity Index (GPI) in primary and secondary Percentage of children attending an educational education, 19972009 Near universal primary education institution by age, 1996; 2001 and 2009 has been achieved in all provinces Less than 90% of secondary-school-age 100 1.20 children attend school 1.15 Percentage of children of primary school age (713 years) and secondary school age (1418 years) School attendance rate (%) 80 1.10 attending an educational institution by province, 2009 Disparity in favour of girls 1.05 60 1.00 Gender parity achieved School attendance among primary-school-age children GPI School attendance secondary-school-age children 0.95 Disparity in favour of boys 40 0.90 99 South Africa 89 0.85 2009 2001 1996 Secondary education Primary education 99 Western Cape 82 20 0.80 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 99 Northern Cape 83 Age Source: Statistics South Africa (1998; 2003; 2010). Census 1996; Census 2001; Source: The Presidency (2010). Development Indicators 2009. 98 General Household Survey 2009. Analysis by UNICEF South Africa. North West 87 98 Eastern Cape 87 99 KwaZulu-Natal 87 99 Free State 90 98 Mpumalanga 90 99 Gauteng 92 99 Limpopo 94 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% UNICEF/Giacomo Pirozzi Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). General Household Survey 2009. Analysis by UNICEF South Africa. C h i l d r e n s R i g h t s t o E a r l y C h i l d h o o d D e v e l o p m e n t a n d E d u c a t i o n 4 3

51 Disability is a serious barrier to access basic education 10% of children with disabilities do not attend school Percentage of children with disabilities 715 years old not attending an educational institution by province, 2009 Limpopo 12% Gauteng Mpumalanga North West 12% 15% 7% Free State KwaZulu-Natal 7% 8% Northern Cape 27% Percentage Eastern Cape 5% 8% 5.1 10% Western Cape 10.1 15% 2% Average for South Africa = 10 15.1 20% > 20.1% UNICEF/Giacomo Pirozzi Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). Selected development indicators A discussion document sourced from the General Household Survey, 2009. 4 4 S O U T H A F R I C A S C H I L D R E N

52 Nationwide, some 662,000 children are Lack of money is the most important Yet 1 in 2 learners in public schools out of primary and secondary school reason why children are not attending receive free education Number of children of primary/secondary school age not school Percentage of learners attending public schools attending an educational institution, 2009 Reasons for children (718 years old) not attending (primary/secondary) who do not pay school fees by school, 2009 province, 2009 600,000 No money for fees Number of children not attending school 582,000 Education is useless or 55 500,000 not interesting South Africa 45 13% Unable to perform at school 40 400,000 4% 28% Pregnancy Western Cape 33 Completed/satisfied with 5% level of education 41 300,000 Working at home or Mpumalanga 31 5% business/job 43 200,000 5% Illness Gauteng 29 Disability 6% 46 15% KwaZulu-Natal 100,000 Family commitment 35 6% (e.g.child minding) 80,000 6% 7% 48 Failed exams 0 North West 30 Children of primary school age Children of secondary school age Other 53 Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). Northern Cape 49 Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). General Household Survey 2009. General Household Survey 2009. Analysis Analysis by UNICEF South Africa. by UNICEF South Africa. 67 Limpopo 66 77 Eastern Cape 59 80 Free State 77 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% Primary school Secondary school Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). General Household Survey 2009. Analysis by UNICEF South Africa. UNICEF/Giacomo Pirozzi C h i l d r e n s R i g h t s t o E a r l y C h i l d h o o d D e v e l o p m e n t a n d E d u c a t i o n 4 5

53 Repetition rates are high, especially in Grade 10 and Grade 11 Efficiency and Quality of the Education System Female learners generally have lower repetition rates than male learners Percentage of learners who repeat the same grade by sex of learners and by grade, 2009 15% of secondary-school-age children 20 Total attend primary school because 18 17 Male of late entry or grade repetition 16 16 16 15 Female Percentage of children of secondary school age 15 (1418 years) attending primary school (Grade 17) by province, 2009 12 Percentage 10 10 10 10 9 9 9 9 8 8 8 8 15 8 South Africa 7 7 7 7 7 6 7 7 6 8 6 6 6 Gauteng 5 5 6 5 5 4 4 5 4 Western Cape 9 Free State 12 North West 13 0 Grade R/0 Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 7 Grade 8 Grade 9 Grade 10 Grade 11 Grade 12 KwaZulu-Natal 14 14 Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). General Household Survey 2009. Analysis by UNICEF South Africa. Northern Cape Limpopo 15 Mpumalanga 16 Children in the poorest households are more likely to repeat the same grade 24 Repetition rates in primary and secondary school by household income quintile, 2009 Eastern Cape 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 15 Primary school Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). General Household Survey 2009. 14 Secondary school Analysis by UNICEF South Africa. 13 12 11 10 9 Percentage 9 7 6 6 6 4 3 2 0 Poorest 20% Second 20% Middle 20% Fourth 20% Richest 20% Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). General Household Survey 2009. Analysis by UNICEF South Africa. 4 6 S O U T H A F R I C A S C H I L D R E N

54 Violence at school is a barrier to quality education 27% of high school learners feel unsafe at school while 16% have been threatened with a weapon Percentage of high school learners who have been threatened /injured with a weapon; felt unsafe at school by province, 2008 16 South Africa 27 14 Gauteng 23 15 KwaZulu-Natal 27 16 Free State 20 16 Eastern Cape 33 16 Limpopo 28 16 Western Cape 25 17 Mpumalanga 28 17 North West 28 18 Northern Cape 30 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% Threatened with a weapon Felt unsafe at school Source: Medical Research Council (2010). Youth Risk Behaviour Survey 2008. UNICEF/Giacomo Pirozzi C h i l d r e n s R i g h t s t o E a r l y C h i l d h o o d D e v e l o p m e n t a n d E d u c a t i o n 4 7

55 Grade 3 learners achievement in national South Africas Grade 6 learner assessments is generally very poor achievement levels are poor compared to Average percentage scores of learners in literacy and many other countries in the region numeracy in Grade 3 Systemic Evaluations by province, Average reading and mathematics scores for Grade 6 2001 and 2007 learners in SACMEQ countries, 2007 Tanzania 553 Not achieved Not achieved 578 30 30 Seychelles 551 South Africa 36 South Africa 35 575 Mauritius 623 27 26 574 Limpopo 29 Limpopo 24 Swaziland 541 28 29 549 achievement achievement achievement achievement achievement achievement Satisfactory Satisfactory Partial Outstanding Partial Outstanding Mpumalanga 32 Mpumalanga 31 557 Kenya 543 23 25 Northern Cape 34 Northern Cape 31 Botswana 521 535 29 25 Zanzibar 486 North West 35 North West 29 534 24 34 Zimbabwe 520 Eastern Cape 35 Eastern Cape 36 508 35 31 Namibia 471 KwaZulu-Natal 497 38 KwaZulu-Natal 36 South Africa 495 33 32 495 Gauteng 38 Gauteng 42 Uganda 482 27 479 29 Free State 43 Free State 42 Mozambique 478 476 Reading 33 32 Western Cape Lesotho 477 Mathematics 48 Western Cape 49 468 National 2014 target 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Zambia 435 for Math = 520 Mean literacy percentage score Mean numeracy percentage score 434 Malawi 447 2001 literacy 2001 numeracy 434 2007 literacy 2007 numeracy 400 450 500 550 600 650 Average scores Note: Attainment score bands: Not achieved: 034; Partial achievement: 3549; Note: A linear transformation of the reading and mathematics scores was Satisfactory achievement: 5069; Outstanding achievement: 70100. undertaken that resulted in the mean and standard deviation of pupil scores Source: Department of Education (2005; 2008). National Protocol on being 500 and 100, respectively (for the pooled data with equal weight given to Assessment; Grade 3 Systematic Evaluation Report. each country). As a result, a score of 500 is equal to the average of all country mean scores. Source: Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (2010). SACMEQ III Project Results: Pupil achievement levels in reading and mathematics. 4 8 S O U T H A F R I C A S C H I L D R E N

56 Children living in poor households have Children in the poorest households are lower achievement levels in school Completion of primary nearly 3 times less likely to complete Girls tend to perform better than boys and secondary schooling secondary schooling than children in the Average reading and mathematics scores for South richest households African Grade 6 learners in SACMEQ assessment by pupil sex, and socioeconomic status (SES), 2007 Over 90% of youth has completed Percentage of youth (2024 years old) who have primary schooling. Yet, only 40% has completed primary/secondary education by province, 2009 finished secondary schooling Percentage of youth (2024 years old) who have completed primary/secondary education by province, 100 98 2009 96 90 92 Reading 89 80 Mathematics 92 74 South Africa 40 60 Percentage 650 87 Eastern Cape 26 50 Mean score 600 606 40 National 2014 target 579 550 38 for Math = 520 88 Northern Cape 32 29 500 26 20 484 491 506 498 446 91 450 423 North West 37 400 0 Boys Girls Poorest 25% Richest 25% Poorest 20% Second 20% Middle 20% Fourth 20% Richest 20% 92 KwaZulu-Natal 42 Secondary school Source: Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Primary school Quality (2010). SACMEQ III Project Results: Pupil achievement levels in reading 92 and mathematics. Limpopo 26 Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). General Household Survey 2009. 94 Analysis by UNICEF South Africa. Gauteng 53 94 Free State 40 94 Mpumalanga 37 96 Western Cape 50 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Primary school Secondary school Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). General Household Survey 2009. Analysis by UNICEF South Africa. C h i l d r e n s R i g h t s t o E a r l y C h i l d h o o d D e v e l o p m e n t a n d E d u c a t i o n 4 9

57 The Right to Parental or Family Care Childrens RIGHTS CRC, Article 5: States Parties shall respect the ensure the development of institutions, facilities Rights to responsibilities, rights and duties of parents or, where applicable, the members of the extended and services for the care of children. Also see African Charter on the Rights and Wel- a Family family or community as provided for by local custom, legal guardians or other persons legally fare of the Childs article 18, 19 and 20. SA Constitution Environment responsible for the child, to provide, in a man- ner consistent with the evolving capacities of the Section 28(1): Every child has the right (b) to child, appropriate direction and guidance in the family care or parental care. and Alternative exercise by the child of the rights recognised in the present Convention. Care CRC, Article 7(1): The child shall have as far as possible, the right to know and be cared for by his or her parents. CRC, Article 8(1): States Parties undertake to respect the right of the child to preserve his or her identity, including nationality, name and family relations as recognised by law without unlawful interference. CRC, Article 18(12): States Parties shall use their best efforts to ensure recognition of the principle that both parents have common responsibilities for the upbringing and development of the child. Parents or, as the case may be, legal guardians, have the primary responsibility for the upbringing and development of the child. The best interests of the child will be their basic concern. 2. For UNICEF/Rebecca Hearfield the purpose of guaranteeing and promoting the rights set forth in the present Convention, States Parties shall render appropriate assistance to parents and legal guardians in the performance of their child-rearing responsibilities and shall 5 0 S O U T H A F R I C A S C H I L D R E N

58 Only 1 in 3 children live with both The majority of children (80%) not living The AIDS epidemic is an important driver biological parents with either parent reside with their of the growing number of orphans Percentage of children living in the same household with grandparents or relatives 1.9 million children have lost one or both parents both their biological parents; their mother only; their fa- due to AIDS Childs relationship to head of the household when both ther only; or neither biological parent by province, 2009 biological parents are absent, 2009 Total number of children who have lost one or both par- ents due to AIDS, 20002009 Western Cape 52 29 4 15 61 2,000,000 Gauteng 50 31 4 15 Grandchild Free State 34 36 3 27 Other relative 19 AIDS orphans Northern Cape 31 41 3 25 (e.g. in-laws or aunt/uncle) 1,500,000 North West 30 35 4 31 (Step-) brother or sister 9 Mpumalanga 28 42 4 26 9 1,000,000 4 28 Stepchild or adopted child KwaZulu-Natal 25 43 Limpopo 23 45 2 30 1 Non-related persons 36 500,000 Eastern Cape 21 39 3 4 Head/acting head 1 South Africa 32 38 26 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 0 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Both parents Mother only Father only Neither parent Note: Numbers may not add up to 100 due to rounding. Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). General Household Survey 2009. Source: UNAIDS (2010) Estimates. Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). General Household Survey 2009. Analysis by UNICEF South Africa. Analysis by UNICEF South Africa. 1 in 5 children have lost one or both parents Poor children are less likely to live with Number and percentage of their biological parents children who have lost one or Percentage of children not living with either parent; both parents due to all causes Limpopo who have lost one or both parents due to all causes by by province, 2009 Gauteng 18% household income quintile, 2009 13% 423,875 404,070 35 33 Not living with either parent Mpumalanga North West 30 22% 29 Lost one or both parents 19% 322,280 243,000 25 KwaZulu- 24 23 23 Percentage Free State Natal 20 23% 25% Northern Cape 1,058,745 18 240,540 15 17 15% 66,730 12 Percentage of 10 children who have 8 Eastern Cape lost a parent 5 5 25% 10% Western Cape 687,045 0 10.1 15 % Poorest 20% Second 20% Middle 20% Fourth 20% Richest 20% 8% Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). 147,155 15.1 20% General Household Survey 2009. Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). General Household Survey 2009. Analysis by UNICEF South Africa. Average for South Africa = 19% > 20% Analysis by UNICEF South Africa. Total numbers for South Africa = 3,593,440 C h i l d r e n s R i g h t s t o a F a m i l y E n v i r o n m e n t a n d A l t e r n a t i v e C a r e 5 1

59 Over 88,600 children were declared in need of care by a childrens court during 2009/10 The Right to Alternative These children can be placed in foster care, in a childrens home, in a school of industry or back into Care in the Absence of the parents or guardians care, under the supervision of a social worker. Orphaned and abandoned children may also be adopted. Family Care Number of children declared to be in need of care and protection by a childrens court, 2006/072009/10 100,000 RIGHTS 88,619 CRC, Article 20(1);(2) and (3): (1) A child temporar- 80,000 ily or permanently deprived of his or her family environment, or in whose own best interests 60,051 cannot be allowed to remain in that environment, 60,000 shall be entitled to special protection and assist- Number ance provided by the State. (2) States Parties shall 40,000 in accordance with their national laws ensure al- 32,776 33,408 ternative care for such a child. (3) Such care could include, inter alia, foster placement, kafalah of 20,000 Islamic law, adoption or if necessary placement in Source: Department of Justice suitable institutions for the care of children. When and Constitutional Development (20072010). Annual Reports considering solutions, due regard shall be paid to 0 2006/072009/10. 2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10 the desirability of continuity in a childs upbring- ing and to the childs ethnic, religious, cultural and linguistic background. Close to 500,000 children live with foster parents and benefit from the Foster Child Grant Number of Foster Child Grants by province, Jan. 2011 CRC, Article 25: States Parties recognise the right of a child who has been placed by the competent authorities for the purposes of care, protection or 14,420 Northern Cape treatment of his or her physical or mental health, 20,805 to a periodic review of the treatment provided to Western Cape the child and all other circumstances relevant to Mpumalanga 25,830 his or her placement. North West 38,390 Also see African Charter on the Rights and Wel- fare of the Childs articles 24 and 25. Free State 40,830 SA Constitution Limpopo 51,920 Section 28(1): Every child has the right (b) to Gauteng 58,510 appropriate alternative care when removed from Eastern Cape 101,760 the family environment. 127,970 Source: South African Social KwaZulu-Natal Security Agency (2011). Statistical Report No. 38 on 0 30,000 60,000 90,000 120,000 150,000 Social Grants (January 2011). 5 2 S O U T H A F R I C A S C H I L D R E N

60 The number of adoptions has increased to Approximately 13,250 children stay in registered child and youth care centres. over 5,850 annually The number of children in unregistered centres is unknown. Number of adoptions and intercountry adoptions dealt Number of children in registered child and youth care centres by centre type, 2010 with in childrens courts, 2006/072009/10 12,000 6,000 10,400 5,853 10,000 Adoptions 5,000 5,217 Intercountry adoptions 8,000 4,000 3,757 3,779 Number Note: This number is equivalent Number 6,000 3,000 to only 76% of the total capacity of registered child and youth care centres, but 95% of the total number 2,000 4,000 of children accommodated on the last weekday night during the time 1,003 of the survey. 845 1,550 1,000 608 2,000 Source: Department of Social 1,300 Development, UNICEF (2010). No data Baseline Study on Registered Child 0 and Youth Care Centres. 2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10 0 Children's homes Places of safety Shelters Source: Department of Justice and Constitutional Development (20072010). Annual Reports 2006/072009/10. Close to half of children (45%) are admitted to registered child and youth care centres because of abandonment or neglect Main reason for admission of child to registered child and youth care centres, 2010 1% 15% Abandoned or neglected 3% Abused 4% Orphaned 45% Living/working on street 5% Illness of parent or guardian UNICEF/Karin Schermbrucker Unaccompanied minor 14% In trouble with the law Other Source: Department of Social 14% Development, UNICEF (2010). Baseline Study on Registered Child and Youth Care Centres. C h i l d r e n s R i g h t s t o a F a m i l y E n v i r o n m e n t a n d A l t e r n a t i v e C a r e 5 3

61 Registered child and youth care centres are not equitably distributed across the country The Right to be Protected Number of registered child and youth care centres by province, type, and per 100,000 child population, 2010 from all Forms of Violence RIGHTS CRC, Article 19: States Parties shall take all ap- Number of centres 54 propriate legislative, administrative, social and per province educational measures to protect the child from Shelters all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or Places of safety Limpopo 9 5 abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreat- 3 0.7 Homes ment or exploitation, including sexual abuse, while in the care of parent(s), legal guardian(s) or Centres per any other person who has the care of the child. 100,000 children 14 43 12 CRC, Article 34: States Parties undertake to pro- 3.1 Also see African Charter on the Rights and Wel- North West Mpumalanga 0.5 1.0 fare of the Childs article 16. 8 8 9 SA Constitution 5 1 1 3 Section 28(1): Every child has the right (d) to Free State 4.9 KwaZulu-Natal be protected from maltreatment, neglect, abuse Northern Cape 1.3 or degradation. 2.5 NATIONAL TARGETS JCPS Delivery Agreement, Output 3.1: Address 32 overall levels of crime and reduce the levels of 19 contact and trio crimes. 8 5 Key target by 2014: Eastern Cape 5 Reduce reported serious crimes from 3,924 4 1.2 (1,910,847 crimes) to at least 3,767 per 100,000 Western Cape 2.3 people. Reduce contact crimes from 1,407 (685,185 Source: Department of Social Development, UNICEF (2010). Baseline Study on Registered crimes) to 930 per 100,000 people whilst reduc- Child and Youth Care Centres. ing trio crimes from 97,1 (47,273 crimes) to 67 per 100,000 people. 5 4 S O U T H A F R I C A S C H I L D R E N

62 Violence against children is pervasive in South Africa Over 4,000 cases of child neglect or Over 56,500 children were reported to be victims of violent crime in 2009/10, yet many more crimes ill-treatment are reported to the police remain unreported. People closest to them perpetrate the majority of cases of child sexual and physical abuse. annually Reported crimes against children by crime category, 2006/072009/10 Reported cases of neglect and ill-treatment of children by province, 2009/10 30,000 Reported cases Ratio per 100,000 27,417 25,000 population 25,428 Northern Cape 197 17.2 All sexual offences Western Cape 847 15.8 22,124 20,000 20,141 Assault GBH Free State 450 15.5 Common assault Gauteng 1,057 10.0 16,871 15,000 16,091 North West 270 7.8 14,982 Attempted murder 14,544 13,947 13,625 Eastern Cape 356 5.4 12,422 Murder 12,062 10,000 Mpumalanga 164 4.5 KwaZulu-Natal 455 4.4 5,000 Limpopo 218 4.2 1,015 1,113 South Africa 4,014 8.1 843 889 852 782 965 972 Source: South African Police Service 0 (2010). Crime Situation in South Africa. Source: South African Police Service (2010). Crime Statistics: April 2009 2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10 March 2010. Sexual offences are often committed against young children The number of cases of neglect and 29% of all sexual offences against children involve children aged 010 years old ill-treatment reported to the police has Reported sexual offences against children by age group, 2009/10 decreased since 2003 Number of reported cases of neglect and ill-treatment of 12,000 children, 2003/042009/10 8,000 10,000 10,967 (40%) 7,000 6,504 Reported cases 8,000 8,390 6,000 5,568 Reported cases 8,061 (31%) 4,828 (29%) 5,000 6,000 4,258 4,106 4,034 4,014 4,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 2,000 1,000 0 0-10 years 11-14 years 15-17 years 0 2003/04 2004/05 2005/06 2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10 Source: South African Police Service (2010). Crime Situation in South Africa. Source: South African Police Service (2010). Crime Statistics: April 2009 March 2010. C h i l d r e n s R i g h t s t o a F a m i l y E n v i r o n m e n t a n d A l t e r n a t i v e C a r e 5 5

63 Childrens The Right to Special Protection When in Rights to Conflict with the Law Special RIGHTS CRC, Article 40: (1) States Parties recognise the Some facts on children in conflict with the law: Protection right of every child alleged as, accused of, or recognised as having infringed the penal law to On average, between 9,000 and 13,000 children are arrested by the South African Police Service be treated in a manner consistent with the pro- on a monthly basis. motion of the childs sense of dignity and worth, Approximately 4,500 to 5,000 cases per month which reinforces the childs respect for the human are converted into Childrens Court Inquiries in rights and fundamental freedoms of others and terms of the Child Care Act, 1983 (Act 74 of 1983). which takes into account the childs age and the Of the remaining numbers of children in the desirability of promoting the childs reintegration criminal justice system, between 3,000 and 5,500 and the childs assuming a constructive role in children go through the courts on a monthly society . basis. Also see African Charter on the Rights and Wel- On average, 1,900 children per month are di- fare of the Childs articles 15, 27, 28 and 29. verted from the mainstream criminal justice SA Constitution system. This means that where a child acknowl- Section 28(1): Every child has the right (g) to edges wrong-doing, the prosecutor provisionally not to be detained except as a measure of last withdraws charges, on condition that the child resort, in which case the child may be detained attends diversion programmes such as life skills only for the shortest appropriate period of time, and anger management programmes. and has the right to be (i) kept separately from Source: Department of Justice and Constitutional Development (2008). Annual detained persons over the age of 18 years; and (ii) Report 2007/08. treated in a manner, and kept in conditions, that take account of the childs age. 5 6 S O U T H A F R I C A S C H I L D R E N

64 Approximately 33,000 children awaited trial in detention The number of children in correctional facilities has during 2008/09 decreased substantially Number of children in conflict with the law awaiting trial Average number of children detained in correctional service facilities by sentence sta- by place of detention, 2008/09 tus at any given point, 20032010 20,000 16,970 1,810 2003 2,334 1,710 15,000 2004 1,923 1,237 2005 1,336 1,099 2006 Number 10,000 1,149 8,649 895 2007 1,166 5,871 2008 No data available 5,000 2009 No data available Unsentenced 1,343 632 Sentenced 2010* 290 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Secure care Home-based Correctional Places of safety centres supervision service facilities Number Note: 2010 data refers to children in detention on the last day of October 2010, while 20032007 data refers to the Source: National Treasury (2009). Provincial Budgets and Expenditure Review 2005/06 2011/12. Annexure B: Non- average number of children in detention at any given point within that year. financial (performance) information. Source: Department of Correctional Services (2008). Presentation to the Portfolio Committee on Children in Conflict with the Law (20032007 data) and DCS Statistical Information at http://www.dcs.gov.za/AboutUs/StatisticalInformation.aspx (2010 data). UNICEF/Giacomo Pirozzi C h i l d r e n s R i g h t s t o S p e c i a l P r o t e c t i o n 5 7

65 The Right to Special Protection in Situations of Exploitation RIGHTS CRC, Article 32: (1) States Parties recognise the CRC, Article 35: States Parties shall take all ap- right of the child to be protected from economic propriate national, bilateral and multilateral meas- exploitation and from performing any work that ures to prevent the abduction of, the sale of or is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the traffic in children for any purpose or in any form. childs education, or to be harmful to the childs CRC, Article 36: States Parties shall protect the health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or child against all other forms of exploitation preju- social development. dicial to any aspects of the childs welfare. CRC, Article 33: States Parties shall take all appro- Also see African Charter on the Rights and Wel- priate measures, including legislative, administra- fare of the Childs articles 15, 27, 28 and 29. tive, social and educational measures, to protect children from the illicit use of narcotic drugs and SA Constitution psychotropic substances as defined in the rel- Section 28. Every child has the right (e) to be evant international treaties and to prevent the use protected from exploitative labour practices; (f) of children in the illicit production and trafficking not to be required or permitted to perform work of such substances. or provide services that (i) are inappropriate for CRC, Article 34: States Parties undertake to a person of that childs age; or (ii) place at risk the protect the child from all forms of sexual exploi- childs well-being, education, physical or mental tation and sexual abuse. For these purposes, health or spiritual, moral or social development. States Parties shall in particular take all appropri- ate national, bilateral and multilateral measures to prevent: (a) The inducement or coercion of a child to engage in any unlawful sexual activity; (b) The exploitative use of children in prostitution or other unlawful sexual practices; (c) The exploita- tive use of children in pornographic performances UNICEF/Karin Schermbrucker and materials. 5 8 S O U T H A F R I C A S C H I L D R E N

66 No recent data on child labour is available for South Africa. A More than 1 in 10 high school learners has taken at least one 1999 survey found that 36% of children above 5 years of age illegal drug such as dagga, heroin, or cocaine before were engaged in at least one form of work activity Percentage of high school learners (in Grades 811) who have ever used illegal drugs, Percentage of children aged 517 years engaged in childrens work activities (higher 2008 cut-off points), 1999 South Africa 36 Ever used dagga 13 Gauteng 12 North West 21 Ever used mandrax 7 Note: To be classified as Source: Medical Research Northern Cape 23 engaged in work, a child Council (2010). The 2nd South would have been involved in Ever used cocaine 7 African National Youth Risk Western Cape 24 at least one activity, according Behaviour Survey 2008. KwaZulu-Natal 35 to the following cut-off points: three hours per week for Ever used heroin 6 Free State 36 economic activities, seven hours per week for household Limpopo 40 chores, and five hours per Ever used over-the-counter/prescription drugs 12 week for school maintenance. Mpumalanga 44 Source: Department of Labour and Statistics South Africa Ever taken drugs like heroin, mandrax, sugars, tik 12 Easten Cape 60 (2001). Survey of Activities of Young People (SAYP), 1999. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 0% 5% 10% 15% UNICEF/Karin Schermbrucker C h i l d r e n s R i g h t s t o S p e c i a l P r o t e c t i o n 5 9

67 Birth registration has improved steadily The Right to Birth over the past decade Registration Percentage of births registered within year of birth, 19982009 The Civil Rights RIGHTS 100 Target = 100 and Freedoms 88 CRC, Article 7: The child shall be registered im- 82 85 80 mediately after birth and shall have the right from 80 72 of Children birth to a name, the right to acquire a nationality 66 Percentage and, as far as possible, the right to know and be 60 57 cared for by his or her parents. 51 Also see African Charter on the Rights and Wel- 44 38 fare of the Childs article 6. 40 31 SA Constitution 25 Section 28(a): Every child has the right to a name 20 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 and nationality from birth. Source: Statistics South Africa (2007). Coverage and quality of birth registration 19982005; Statistics South Africa (2010). Recorded live births, 2009. The lowest levels of birth registration are found in predominantly rural provinces Percentage of births registered within year of birth by province, 2005 South Africa 72 KwaZulu-Natal 62 Easten Cape 66 North West 67 Limpopo 67 Mpumalanga 70 Free State 75 Gauteng 81 Northern Cape 82 Western Cape 97 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Source: Statistics South Africa (2007) Coverage and quality of birth registration 19982005. UNICEF/Karin Schermbrucker 6 0 S O U T H A F R I C A S C H I L D R E N

68 Though prohibited by law, nearly 1 in 5 Children in the poorest households The Right to Protection children experience corporal punishment are more likely to experience corporal From Corporal at school punishment by teachers Punishment and Other Percentage of children attending school experiencing corporal punishment by teachers by province, 2009 Percentage of children attending school experiencing corporal punishment by teachers by household income Cruel or Degrading Forms quintile, 2009 of Punishment South Africa 17 25 Western Cape 3 20 21 Northern Cape 6 19 RIGHTS Mpumalanga 8 Percentage 15 16 CRC, Article 17: No child shall be subjected to tor- Gauteng 12 ture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treat- North West 13 10 ment or punishment. Limpopo 15 10 Also see African Charter on the Rights and Wel- Free State 20 5 fare of the Childs article 20(1)(c); 21(1). KwaZulu-Natal 24 4 Eastern Cape 25 SA Constitution 0 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% Poorest 20% Second 20% Middle 20% Fourth 20% Richest 20% Section 12: Everyone has the right to freedom Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). General Household Survey 2009. Source: Statistics South Africa (2010). General Household Survey 2009. and security of the person, which includes the Analysis by UNICEF South Africa. right (c) to be free from all forms of violence from either public or private sources; (d) not 1 in 3 parents use severe corporal to be tortured in any way; and (e) not to be punishment in the form of beatings treated or punished in a cruel, inhuman or de- Percentage of parents who smack their children with grading way. their hand; beat their children with a strap, belt, stick or similar object, 2005 Section 28(d): Every child has the right to be protected from maltreatment, neglect, abuse or 60 degradation. 57 50 Gini coefficient 40 30 33 UNICEF/Karin Schermbrucker 20 10 0 % of parents who smack % of parents who beat their children their children with a strap, belt or stick Source: Dawes, A., De Sas Kropiwnicki, Z., Kafaar, Z. and Richter, L. (2005). Corporal punishment of children: a South African national survey. The Civil Rights and Freedoms of Children 61

69 Technical Note While South Africa is a relatively data-rich country, published statistics usually focus on the en- tire population or on households, not specifically on children. Additional analysis of the raw General Household Survey (GHS) 2009 dataset was therefore undertaken to collate disaggregated statistics using children as the unit of analysis. The GHS was selected because of its sample size, annual frequency and the topics it covers. This note provides a brief description of the dataset and main approaches followed during the analysis. Description of the GHS1 The GHS is a household survey that has been executed annually by Stats SA since 2002. It is designed to measure multiple facets of the living conditions of South African households and covers six broad areas, namely: education, health, social development, housing, household access to services and facilities, food security and agriculture. The survey covers private households in all nine provinces of South Africa, and residents in workers hos- tels. A household is defined as a person, or group of persons, who occupy a common dwelling unit (or part of it) for at least four nights in a week on average during the past four weeks prior to the survey inter- view. The survey does not cover other collective living quarters such as students hostels, old age homes, hospitals, prisons and military barracks. The GHS is therefore only representative of non-institutionalised and non-military persons or households in South Africa. These exclusions, however, should not have a noticeable impact on the findings in respect of children. The sample design for the GHS 2009 was based on a master sample that was originally designed for the QLFS and was used for the first time for the GHS in 2008. The sample was stratified first by province and then by district council. A total of 25,303 households were successfully interviewed during the face-to- face interviews conducted in July, August and September 2009. Information was captured on 94,263 persons, including 35,494 children under the age of 18 years. Analysing the GHS 2009 The GHS 2009 data are available in two separate data files that can be accessed and downloaded from StatsOnline at www.statssa.gov.za. The Person file contains demographic information (sex, age, popula- tion group, etc.) and biographical information (education, health, social grants, and economic activities) of every member in the household. The House file contains household information (housing, water and sanitation, electricity, environmental issues, services, etc.) and data on food security, household income sources and expenditure. The microdata files also contain a number of derived variables calculated by 1 Statistics South Africa (2010). General Household Survey 2009: Metadata. 6 2 S O U T H A F R I C A S C H I L D R E N

70 Technical Note Stats SA, as well as household and person weights. Data were analysed using the software package SPSS Statistics 17.0. An important part of the equity analysis for this Report entailed disaggregating data by economic status in order to compare the situation of the poorest and the richest children. From the spectrum of indicators of economic status, household income was selected as the indicator of choice. The analysis relied on a derived variable on estimated total household income that was included in the House file by Stats SA. This derived variable is a combination of total reported earnings, income from social grants, and income from remittances. Stats SA combined estimated monthly incomes of R20,000 and higher as 20,000 as the questionnaire was not designed to capture incomes from more complex sources such as rentals, interest etc. that are typical of higher income households. Data on total household income was missing for 8.4 per cent of households. When analyzing inequal- ity, ignoring households with unspecified household income can lead to biased results. A method called multiple imputation was therefore applied at household level to deal with missing values. The imputa- tion model used the following variables as predictors of household income: province, race and sex of the household head, dwelling type, fuel for cooking, sanitation, water source, refuse removal, telephone, internet connection, means of transport, and economically active household members. The model was run 15 times and the imputed datasets were pooled to provide estimates that are generally more accurate than they would be with only one imputation. Next, household income was converted into per capita income in order to compensate for differences in household size. All households were then ordered by household per capita income, and the distribution was divided into quintiles each containing 20 per cent of households. Each household was assigned a quintile score with 1 referring to the poorest 20 per cent of households, and 5 referring to the richest 20 per cent of households. Finally, the data from the two separate data files (House and Person) were linked on the basis of a unique household identifier (UqNr), pre-classified by Stats SA, in order to allow for extensive analysis us- ing children as the unit of analysis. All records with a given unique household identifier, no matter which file they are in, belong to the same household. This means that common household data, for example, on access to water or the quintile category, was applied to each individual household member in the merged dataset. Tabulations were then produced for the child indicators presented in this Report. Throughout the analysis, weights provided by Stats SA were applied to give representative estimates by province, popu- lation group and gender. 63

71 References Actuarial Society of South Africa (2005) Department of Education (2008). Grade 3 Department of Labour and Statistics ASSA2003 AIDS and Demographic Systematic Evaluation Report. Pretoria: South Africa (2001) Survey of Activities Model. Department of Education. of Young People (SAYP), 1999. Pretoria : Statistics South Africa. Central Intelligence Agency (2009). The Department of Education (2011) Educa- World Factbook 2009. tion for All (EFA) Country Report South Department of Performance Monitoring Africa, 2010. and Evaluation (2010). Delivery Agree- Chopra M, Daviaud E, Pattinson R, Fonn ment for Outcome 1: Improved Quality S, Lawn J (2009) Saving the Lives Department of Health (2002). South Africa of Basic Education. of South Africas Mothers, Babies, Demographic and Health Survey 1998. and Children: Can the Health System Full Report. Pretoria: Department of Department of Performance Monitor- Deliver? The Lancet, Volume 374, Issue Health. ing and Evaluation (2010). Delivery 9692, Pages 835846. Agreement for Outcome 2: A Long and Department of Health (2008). South Africa Healthy Life for All South Africans. Coetzee, M. (2010). Finding the Benefits Demographic and Health Survey 2003. Evaluating the Impact of the South Full Report. Pretoria: Department of Department of Performance Monitor- African Child Support Grant. Stellen- Health. ing and Evaluation (2010). Delivery bosch University. Agreement for Outcome 3: All People in Department of Health (2010). National South Africa Are and Feel Safe. Committee on the Rights of the Child Strategic Plan for HIV and AIDS / Com- (2003) General Comment No. 3: HIV/ prehensive HIV and AIDS Treatment Department of Performance Monitoring AIDS and the Rights of the Child. Plan Statistics May 2010. and Evaluation (2010). Delivery Agree- ment for Outcome 4: Decent Employ- Committee on the Rights of the Child Department of Health (2010). National ment through Inclusive Growth. (2006) General Comment No. 7: Imple- Antenatal Sentinel HIV and Syphilis menting Child Rights in Early Child- Prevalence Survey 2009, South Africa. Department of Performance Monitoring hood. Pretoria: Department of Health. and Evaluation (2010). Delivery Agree- ment for Outcome 7: Vibrant, Equitable Dawes, A., De Sas Kropiwnicki, Z., Kafaar, Department of Health, Medical Research and Sustainable Rural Communities Z. and Richter, L. (2005) Corporal Pun- Council, University of Pretoria, UNICEF, and Food Security for All. ishment of Children: A South African Save the Children (2008) Every Death National Survey. Cape Town: Child Counts: Saving the Lives of South Af- Department of Performance Monitoring Youth and Family Development, Human ricas Mothers, Babies and Children. and Evaluation (2010). Delivery Agree- Sciences Research Council. ment for Outcome 8: Sustainable Hu- Department of Justice and Constitutional man Settlements and Improved Quality Day, C.; Monticelli, F.; Barron, P.; Haynes, Development (2007) Annual Report of Household Life. R.; Smith, J. and Sello, E. (eds) (2010). 2006/07. The District Health Barometer 2008/09. Department of Social Development, Department of Justice and Constitutional Durban: Health Systems Trust. UNICEF (Forthcoming) Baseline Study Development (2008) Annual Report on Registered Child and Youth Care Department of Correctional Services 2007/08. Centres. (2008) Presentation to the Portfolio Department of Justice and Constitutional Committee on Children in Conflict with Finn, Leibbrandt and Woolard (2009) Development (2009) Annual Report the Law. Income and Expenditure Inequality: 2008/09. Analysis of the NIDS Wave 1 Dataset. Department of Education (2005) The Department of Justice and Constitutional National Protocol on Assessment for Fonn S., Padarath A. (eds) (2010). South Development (2010). Annual Report Schools in the General and Further African Health Review 2010. Durban: 2009/10. Education and Training Band (Grades Health Systems Trust. R12). 6 4 S O U T H A F R I C A S C H I L D R E N

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73 DATABASE ON CHILD RIGHTS INDICATORS The database available in the CD-ROM attached to this report contains key indicators to monitor the fulfil- ment of child rights in South Africa. By installing the database on your computer, you are literally just a few mouse clicks away from: Getting facts to help make better decisions based on evidence; Analyzing national, provincial and district data for monitoring and evaluation purposes; Producing high-quality tables, graphs and maps for inclusion in reports, presentations and advocacy materials. Database on System requirements The recommended hardware requirements to install Child Rights Indicators this software application are: Pentium IV 512 MB of RAM 1 GB of free hard disk space Display resolution 1024 x 768 Microsoft Windows XP or above Microsoft Office XP is recommended but not re- quired. Installing the database To install the application on your computer, follow these steps: Insert the CR-ROM into the CD drive. Wait for Auto-run to launch the Setup screen. Follow the instructions on the screen to complete setup. If the setup program does not load automatically, then do the following: Click Start and then click Run. Type d:\setup (where d is the location of your CD drive) and press Enter. Follow the instructions on the screen to complete setup. After installation, double-click on the icon on your desktop to start the application. To view the Users Guide in .pdf format, click and select Help. 6 7 S O U T H A F R I C A S C H I L D R E N

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