3 Key Principles of Tobacco Promotion and Rationales for Regulation

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1 3 Key Principles of Tobacco Promotion and Rationales for Regulation The promotion of tobacco products represents an important part of tobacco industry efforts to create demand for its products. Tobacco advertising campaigns are often held up as leading examples of product marketing. This chapter explores the key principles of tobacco advertising and promotion and reviews important developments in regulating this promotion. Specific areas discussed here include n Use of market segmentation by tobacco firms to target consumers by demographics, geographic region, behavioral factors, and the psychographics of specific population groups n Tools and strategies used by tobacco firms in communicating a consistent brand image, including brand logos, taglines, pictorial elements, and color, as well as the development and repetition of a consistent brand message n Arguments for the regulation of tobacco promotion, including the health consequences of tobacco use, the use of deceptive or misleading promotional tactics, the failure of tobacco industry efforts to self-regulate, and the ineffectiveness of partial restrictions on tobacco advertising and promotion 53

2 3. Key Principles of Promotion and Rationales for Regulation of the health consequences of cigarette Introduction use, an increasingly stringent regulatory environment, and ongoing litigation against This chapter examines the promotion of the industry. tobacco products from two perspectives: its economic importance to the tobacco In response to the global health impact industry and the growing argument for its of these promotional efforts, combined regulation as part of global tobacco control with the failure of industry self-regulation efforts. First, the chapter gives an overview and the ineffectiveness of partial bans on of tobacco company efforts to build strong marketingdiscussed in detail later in brands with an identity, a market position, this chapter in the section, ARationale for and an execution aimed consistently over Regulating Tobacco Promotionthe WHO time at well-defined target audiences. FCTC has called for countries to undertake The second part of the chapter describes a comprehensive ban of all tobacco the fundamental determinants that led promotion directed toward consumers the World Health Organization (WHO) to (see chapter8). As a global public health make a case for a comprehensive ban on issue that is now being addressed through all forms of tobacco promotion as part of international law and treaty, important the Framework Convention on Tobacco developments and illustrative examples Control (FCTC). from outside the UnitedStates are reviewed to lay out the broader context in which Tobacco advertising and promotion efforts tobacco marketingand efforts to restrict have been remarkably effective in the eyes this marketingare occurring. However, of both consumers and the advertising the focus of this chapter, like that of the industry, as evidenced by the consistent monograph as a whole, is on the promotion high rankings of cigarette advertising of tobacco products in the UnitedStates, campaigns among lists of leading within the context of its corresponding twentieth-century advertising campaigns legal environment. reported by advertising and marketing trade publications. For AdvertisingAge, the MarlboroMan was the top advertising Key Principles of icon of the century, reflecting that this image had the most powerful resonance Tobacco Advertising in the marketplace with respect to and Promotion effectiveness, longevity, recognition, and cultural impact. Furthermore, Marlboro The development of a marketing strategy was ranked as the third-best advertising involves specifying a target market and campaign of the century, surpassed only establishing a related marketing mix, by Volkswagen and Coca-Cola. Advertising which is commonly broken down into four campaigns for Benson&Hedges, Winston, classes known as the 4Psproduct, price, Camel, and LuckyStrike were also on the place (i.e.,distribution), and promotion. AdvertisingAge top 100 list.1 During 2003, The fourthP, promotion, pertains to the BusinessWeek regarded Marlboro as the seller communicating information and worlds ninth most valuable global brand.2,3 lifestyle dimensions to a potential buyer, These honors speak to the pervasiveness of in an attempt to influence the buyers tobacco advertising as well as the strength of attitudes and behavior. cigarette brand imagery. The value of these tobacco trademarks has been quite durable, The primary purposes of promotion are to persisting despite growing awareness inform, persuade, and remind. Informing is 54

3 Monograph 19. The Role of the Media considered particularly essential for newly Few products are promoted in an developed or introduced products, and undifferentiated manner, with the total related communications efforts are meant potential market treated as a whole. Rather, to tell potential customers something about promotions tend to be directed toward the product. Promotions with an aim of well-defined consumer groups according to persuading often focus on the reasons that dimensions such as age, gender, ethnicity, one brand is better than competing brands. income, occupation, religion, family The promoter seeks to develop a favorable life cycle, place of residence, lifestyles, set of brand beliefs and attitudes among interests, and values. Chapter5 discusses customers so that they will buy and keep several population groups defined by these buying the product4 (see chapter2 for a dimensions that have been targeted by discussion of persuasion-based processes and tobacco companies. expectancy-value models of attitude change). In addition to focusing on brand beliefs and The message in a segmented marketing attitudes, persuasion-based promotions campaign typically has reasonably broad also commonly link products with desirable appeal (i.e.,referring to popular culture) images (such as lifestyle imagery) and yet at the same time will be most salient identities (such as slogans, jingles, or and resonant to a specific cluster or brand symbols). The aim is for consumers segment. The target audience will heavily to associate the brand or product use with affect communication decisions regarding either positive emotions or the reduction what will be said, how it will be said, when of negative emotions. Persuasion strategies it will be said, where it will be said, and that focus on desirable image and identity who will say it.4 The objective is to meet characteristics are particularly important the needs typified by a specific group of for product categories such as cigarettes, consumers in an efficient manner, whereby because differences among various brands the products characteristics and promoted are often very subtle or intangible. Finally, attributes can clearly match what is desired promotions with the goal of reminding are by the user(s).5,6 typically directed toward buyers who already have positive, well-established attitudes Demographic Segmentation about a product, including its price, features, availability, or image.4 Positioning is defined as the place a product, brand, or group of products occupies in consumers minds (with respect to brand Defining the Target Market: identity and value) relative to competing Market Segmentation offerings.4,7 The positioning of various cigarette brands to appeal to a specific group Promotion planning starts with a clear of consumers, on the basis of demographics, target market. The audience may consist is easily illustrated with concrete examples of potential buyers, current users, those from the advertising world. who make the buying decision, or those who influence it. Segmentation is a Gender commonly used approach for defining Tobacco marketing aimed at women dates the target market, in which specific back to the 1920s, when American Tobacco audiences are identified for a product by urged women to Reach for a Lucky dividing a mass market into subsets on the instead of a sweet, playing directly to basis of variables such as demographics, concerns about body weight8,9 (chapter5). geography, preference for product benefits, In more recent times, VirginiaSlims and consumption patterns, and psychographics. Eve exemplify U.S.cigarette brands that 55

4 3. Key Principles of Promotion and Rationales for Regulation are promoted as feminine and explicitly VanityFair, HarpersBazaar, WomansDay, targeted toward women (chapter5 also Ladies Home Journal, and Vogue. includes discussion about cigarette brands targeted toward men). During the Liggett & Myerss Eve serves as a second late 1960s, initial advertising campaigns example of a cigarette brand that is explicitly for VirginiaSlims included the claims, targeted to women. Eve, featuring a feminine Now theres even a cigarette for women floral design on the filter, was introduced only, and, This is the slim cigarette made to the U.S.marketplace in 1971.13 Early just for women.Tailored slimmer than advertising for Eve included the following the fat cigarettes men smoke. JohnLandry, advertising copy: The lady has taste. Farewell vice president of tobacco products marketing to the ugly cigarette. Smoke pretty. Eve. at PhilipMorris USA, indicated in 1969 that Wernick, who provides a semiotic analysis of early ideas of a thin-circumference cigarette advertising for Eve cigarettes, states, Eves did not gain a positive response among are shown as the embodiment of a certain market research respondents, but it worked mid-1970s, socially independent but safely beautifully when we added the idea of female fashionable and ideologically compromising orientation.10(p.76) The VirginiaSlims tagline, conception of femininity.14(p.29) Other Youve come a long way, baby, implied U.S.cigarette brands with ultrafeminine that women had become liberated.11 In an positioning include Lorillards Satin and analysis of competition in female-oriented Brown& Williamsons Capri and Misty. cigarette advertising during the early 1970s Brands explicitly targeted at women account that included VirginiaSlims, the Lorillard for roughly 5%10% of the U.S.cigarette Tobacco Company stated, The campaign market.13 In contrast, Marlboro and Winston line Youve come a long way, baby hit the exemplify brands with rugged and masculine cigarette market in 1968, just as womens brand images, yet these brands have proven lib was entering the national consciousness. popular among both men and women. The cigarette is positioned specifically for todays liberated woman with a unique, Race/Ethnicity swinging image.12(Bates no. 03375510) Reflecting Roughly three-fourths of African-American the specified target audience, VirginiaSlims smokers consume mentholated cigarettes, advertising was circulated in magazines with Newport, Kool, and Salem representing such as Cosmopolitan, New Woman, the most popular brands.15 Mentholated Gender and Cigarette Branding Features of tobacco products and their promoted images largely determine the masculine- feminine dichotomy of U.S.cigarette brands. For example, n Brands offering relatively high tar content and strong flavors are promoted as masculine, often corresponding with appeals that have an action, excitement, and adventure orientation. n Conversely, low tar, mild taste, longer length, and slimness of cigarettes are considered feminine product characteristics, which often carry image platforms related to relaxation, stress relief, self-indulgence, and womens independence. Gender positioning takes place within a broader context of market segmentation and targeting, such as the tendency to promote mentholated cigarette brands to African-American audiences. Brands with cross-gender positioning often use promotional appeals designed to attract both sexes, such as messages about upward status and being upscale. 56

5 Monograph 19. The Role of the Media brands are commonly depicted in cigarette adolescence. Smokers are also known to be advertising that is targeted toward African extremely brand loyal, so the brand choice Americans. As documented by Balbach of consumers during the early stages of their and colleagues,16 internal tobacco industry smoking careers becomes crucial. In the documents show that advertising for menthol UnitedStates, less than 10% of smokers brands was designed around lifestyle appeals switch brands annually, with less than 8% relating to fantasy and escapism, expensive switching companies.22 objects, and nightlife, entertainment, and music themes. Appeals designed around Tobacco industry representatives have concepts of youthfulness, silliness, and fun publicly denied that they market their were also aimed at African Americans, as well products to youth, but internal documents as messages conveying the refreshing and indicate otherwise. Several investigators medicinal aspects of menthol.17,18 Advertising have examined U.S.tobacco industry campaigns meant to reach African Americans documents that were obtained through are likely to feature models or celebrities whistleblowers and tobacco litigation and who are African American.19 During the found that youth are a target of tobacco mid-1980s, for example, marketing research marketing activities2327 (also see below for Kool stipulated, Generic media will and chapter5). Researchers who examined contain only White models and Black media, tobacco industry documents that are Black models.An exception can be mixed accessible primarily as a result of two sets groups.20(Bates no. 670249931) Similarly, the 1984 of court proceedings in Canadathe 1989 Kool Operational Plan stated, One campaign federal trial to decide the constitutionality should be continued for all ethnic groups of the Tobacco Products Control Act and with Black musicians only in Black media the 2002 Quebec Superior Court trial and White musicians only in generic to determine the constitutionality of media.20(Bates no. 670249938) Targeted advertising the Tobacco Acthave reached similar in black media would be placed in magazines conclusions.2835 Furthermore, internal such as Ebony, Essence, and Vibe, as well documents from both the British and as weekly newspapers that circulate where Australian tobacco industries and their the largest African-American populations leading advertising agencies reveal that are located (i.e.,NewYork, LosAngeles, youth constitute a key group for marketing Chicago, Houston, and Philadelphia). purposes.36,37 Below are some specific Detroit, Baltimore, Washington, Memphis, examples from the U.S.tobacco industry. Birmingham, Jackson, and NewOrleans are other U.S.cities that have populations PhilipMorriss MyronJohnston explained with a notably high percentage of in 1981, It is important to know as African Americans.21 much as possible about teenage smoking patterns and attitudes. Todays teenager Age is tomorrows potential regular customer, The tobacco industrys use of age and the overwhelming majority of segmentation has been well documented. smokers first begin to smoke while still Reviews of internal tobacco industry in their teens.The smoking patterns documents reveal that cigarette trademarks of teenagers are particularly important to are successfully marketed to youth, including PhilipMorris.38(Bates no. 1000390808) The Philip consumers who are classified as starters Morris report monitored smokers as or new smokers (chapters5 and7). The young as 12years old. Market research for rationale for directing promotions toward Lorillard Tobacco revealed, The success youth is that the pivotal period for smoking of Newport has been fantastic during the initiation in the UnitedStates is early past few years. Our profile taken locally 57

6 3. Key Principles of Promotion and Rationales for Regulation shows this brand being purchased by black adolescents, researchers have also called people (all ages), young adults (usually attention to the importance of young college age), but the base of our business adults as a target of tobacco industry is the high school student.39(Bates no. 03537131) marketing strategies.4144 The importance Regarding Kool, a menthol brand directly of this segment reflects its relatively high competing with Newport, Brown& prevalence of smoking23.9% of 18- to Williamsons market research stated that 24-year-olds in 2003.45 Although adolescents the Kool media target audience principle are the main group that initiates smoking, remains the same. Most valuable prospect it is during the period of young adulthood is young adult male and female new smoker that more established and committed and switcher. Promotion philosophy of cigarette use begins to take place. Cigarette trial generation and meeting competition advertising that is targeted at 18- to 24- approved20(Bates no. 670249932) (italics added). year-olds often can appeal simultaneously According to an advertising agency to young adults and adolescents because advising the R.J.Reynolds marketing many teenagers start smoking as a way department, Many manufacturers have to propel themselves into maturity studied the 1420 market in hopes of (i.e.,smoking serves as a tool for attempts uncovering the secret of the instant to look older).34 Furthermore, as advertising popularity some brands enjoy to the restrictions become increasingly stringent, almost complete exclusion of others. licensed (age of majority) venues become a Creating a fad in this market can be a key setting for tobacco promotion.4650 great bonanza.40(Bates no. 501167050) Geographic Segmentation Although it has been demonstrated that the tobacco industry has an interest in the Geographic segmentation, which attitudes and behaviors of preteens and involves accounting for market density, Joe CamelWhen a Cartoon Character Becomes a Brand Identity During the late 1980s and much of the 1990s, RJ. Reynolds underwent particular scrutiny for its Camel advertising campaign, in which a cartoon camel (OldJoe) was the central figure, with the theme smooth character. Many company documents about the origins and aims of the JoeCamel campaign and its effects on youth were disclosed publicly as a result of the Manginiv. R.J.Reynolds Tobacco Company lawsuit.a The JoeCamel advertising campaign, which is discussed in further detail in chapters5 and7, was later the subject of a 1997 Federal Trade Commission complaintb,c,d that was an important antecedent for the curbs imposed on youth-oriented advertising through the Master Settlement Agreement between the attorneys general of 46states and the major tobacco companies. a Coughlin,P.J., and F.Janacek,Jr. 1998. A review of R.J.Reynolds internal documents produced in Mangini vs. R.J.Reynolds Tobacco Company, Civil Number 939359: The case that rid California and the American landscape of JoeCamel. http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/mangini_report.html. b Federal Trade Commission. 1997. In the matter of R.J.Reynolds Tobacco Company. www.ftc.gov/os/199705/ d9285cmp.pdf. Cohen,J.B. 2000. Playing to win: Marketing and public policy at odds over JoeCamel. Journal of Public c Policy and Marketing 19 (2): 15567. d Etzioni,A. 2004. Symposium: Do children have the same FirstAmendment rights as adults? On protecting children from speech. Chicago-Kent Law Review 79:3, 23. 58

7 Monograph 19. The Role of the Media regional differences within a domestic UnitedStates, with California and Texas or international market, and climate, representing the top two states. Notably, may also play a role in the development of more than 4million Hispanics reside in promotional strategies for various brands. LosAngeles County, California.53 When For example, during the early 1980s, market cigarette billboard advertising was still research for PhilipMorris distinguished permitted, before the 1998 U.S.Master smoking trends among four U.S.regions: Settlement Agreement (MSA) stipulations Northeast, NorthCentral/Midwest, South, took effect, a disproportionate number of and West.38 It was observed that teenage tobacco promotions in SanFrancisco and smoking was most pronounced in the Chicago were found in neighborhoods that Northeast and smoking prevalence was were predominantly AfricanAmerican.54,55 lowest in the West (this pattern was When media buys increased for local described by the PhilipMorris researcher markets, this was traditionally done by using as consistent with data collected from 1968 billboard or newspaper advertising. through 1980). More recent marketing efforts for new niche cigarette brands, Although geographic segmentation plays such as Camels special exotic blends or a role in the development of advertising MoonlightTobacco, have largely focused on strategies and media buys, for the most urban centers. Within this strategy, there part it is national brands that dominate the is an apparent selectivity for cosmopolitan U.S.marketplace. These brands are sold on cities. It is not clear whether such a a national basis by using national media. distribution indicates a long-term strategy Regional variations in cigarette brand or whether these cities are meant to act success do not seem nearly as pronounced as test markets. New cigarette products, in the UnitedStates relative to other including line extensions, are commonly markets such as Canada and Australia. test-marketed on a geographically limited Marketing research for Imperial Tobacco Ltd., basis. In 2004, Phoenix served as the test Canadas largest tobacco manufacturer, market for Brown& Williamsons Advance has identified that Quebec and the Atlantic cigarette brand. Advance is targeted at continue to be full-flavoured markets; health conscious smokers with a campaign BritishColumbia and Ontario tend to be that includes the following advertising copy: milder markets,56(p.47) indicating which Great tasteless toxins, Advance the way line extensions are most favorably received you smoke, and Everyone knows quitting in various regions of Canada. A review of is the best thing. But for those who continue internal tobacco industry documents reveals to smoke, now theres Advance.51 that the Australian cigarette market is also decidedly regionalized. Escort is a popular Ethnic targeting of AsianAmericans, brand in SouthAustralia, while Winfield has Hispanics, or AfricanAmericans ultimately been a brand leader in Western Australia, generates media plans and distribution NewSouthWales, and Victoria. During the patterns that are regionally focused on mid-1980s, Sydney, the most populated locations where the ethnic populations city in Australia, was identified as a largely are most densely situated. U.S.census image-based market, while consumers in data pertaining to the geographic Melbourne, Australias second most populated distribution of the Asian population reveal city, were recognized as considerably more that more than one-half (51%) reside in responsive to discounting. Melbourne was just three states: California, NewYork, thus classified as a value-based market.57 and Hawaii.52 The Hispanic population is most concentrated in the western Climatein relation to seasonal variation (44%) and southern (33%) regions of the and geographic or regional settingcan 59

8 3. Key Principles of Promotion and Rationales for Regulation play a role in the development of product Willy the Penguin cartoon character had and related promotional strategies. Camel themes associated with Thanksgiving and ExoticBlends includes flavors such as Christmas.62 Camels more recent Pleasure KauaiKolada and TwistaLime, which to Burn advertising campaign featured are identified as summer blends.58,59 occasion-themed pictorials. The KauaiKolada and TwistaLime line extensions, with hints of coconut, pineapple, With respect to occasions of use as a and citrus, are limited-edition offerings.58 segmentation variable, marketers assess In addition, promotions circulating whether consumers are likely to use a during the summer months are expected product primarily on special occasions to commonly depict summer settings or more regularly. Product consumption (e.g.,beaches, baseball games); those during patterns often fluctuate from month to the winter months more often portray month (described in management and activities such as skiing and skating.60 marketing as the rhythm of the business), and cigarettes are no exception. In the Behavioral Segmentation UnitedStates, cigarette sales peak during the summer months, June through Behavioral segmentation involves dividing August.63 Moreover, this summer period consumers into groups according to represents the time when youth smoking occasions of use, usage situation, extent onset is most likely to happen.64,65 A higher of use, user status, and benefits sought.61 instance of cigarette consumption during Some cigarette promotions are designed to the summer months may reflect that link cigarette brands or smoking with specific time is less structured for adults and occasions such as Christmas, Halloween, youth alike. The warmer weather during or IndependenceDay. PhilipMorriss market the summer months may also prompt research reveals that during the 1970s and smokers to more frequently go outside to 1980s, the Marlboro Resort Program included smoke in locales where indoor smoking promotional activities during the Christmas laws have been enacted. The seasonal holiday period at vacation settings such as smoking rates also correspond with alcohol DaytonaBeach and FortLauderdale, Florida.26 consumption patterns. In the early 1990s, Kool ads featuring the The situation in which products are used can be considered as a market segmentation variable.66 Tobacco firms recognize which products are often used concurrently with cigarettes. Smoking is frequently done in conjunction with the consumption of alcohol or coffee, and cigarette promotions may include pictorials that encourage the co-use of these products. The statement Complements Your Cocktail is found on the packaging of Camel IzmirStinger, which is one of the ExoticBlends line extensions. Reflecting the synergy between smoking and drinking alcohol, as well as a similar target consumer, several examples of industry efforts co-promote Camels Pleasure to Burn occasion- cigarette brands with particular liquor themed advertisement and beer brands whose cultural identity 60

9 Monograph 19. The Role of the Media and status are complementary.34,67 Kool reassurance is particularly likely to be seen and JimBeam, for example, were both in the advertising of cigarette brands such sponsors of a ChampCar auto racing team, as Carlton and Merit UltraLights, which whereas in 2003, MolsonCanadian bubbas are promoted with messages about their (i.e.,minikegs) depicted the Players low-tar yields.69 Despite the demonstrated ChampCar racing uniforms. PlayersLight seasonality of cigarette sales, it is during and MolsonCanadian are leading brands the first few months of the year that the in Canada in cigarettes and beer product frequency of cigarette advertising tends to categories, respectively. be higher. These advertisements may be more likely to target health-concerned In terms of the usage situation, from a smokers and to counter the common marketers perspective, products such NewYears resolution to quit smoking.60,70 as alcohol and cigarettes should be complementary on the basis of function It is also common for marketers to cluster (i.e.,the products are often used a market according to the various benefits together), symbolic imagery, and quality. that consumers seek from a product. Basic, As cultural anthropologist GrantMcCracken GPC, and Doral exemplify value brands and explains, The meaning of a good is best are positioned to appeal to consumers who (and sometimes only) communicated are looking for discount prices or getting a when this good is surrounded by a bang for their buck. Doral advertising that complement of goods that carry the same circulated in 1998 included the following significance. Within this complement, advertising copy: Doral combines the taste, there is sufficient redundancy to allow the quality, and extras of higher-priced brands observer to identify the meaning of the with a price thats always fair. We think good.68(p.121) Thus, it might be expected thats the kind of honest value you deserve. that an upscale cigarette brand such as Discover the Doral difference. During 1999, Dunhill would be depicted with a martini, the tagline Imagine Getting More was whereas Marlboro and Budweiser are used for Doral with the implication that the likely to be seen by marketers as more tobacco was slow burning relative to other suitable product complements. Conversely, brands. Meanwhile, cigarette brands such Winston cigarettes combined with a bottle as Marlboro and Camel are both classified of fine wine would seem inappropriate. When segmenting a market, marketers also account for user status, which may involve classifying groups of consumers into nonusers, ex-users, potential users, first-time users, sporadic users, and heavy users of a product.61 Thus, some smokers might be best described as social smokers or chippers, whereas others would be clustered as committed smokers. On the basis of a review of internal tobacco industry documents, Pollay33 concludes that two key typologies of cigarette consumers used by cigarette firms are new users (young starters) and latent quitters (concerned smokers who need reassurance). Value brand advertisement for Doral An appearance of healthfulness and cigarettes 61

10 3. Key Principles of Promotion and Rationales for Regulation and promoted as premium brands. The risk and adventure, independence, status premium moniker conveys that the redemption, romance, recreation, and product is of high quality and a market relaxation are common themes associated leader, suggesting status redemption for with cigarette products in advertising78,79 its user. (chapter5 presents an overview of the content analysis literature that pertains to Tobacco advertisements are also used cigarette advertising). to link smoking with a variety of other supposed benefits such as affording Tobacco companies, and the market pleasure, improving social confidence, research firms that do contract work for advancing relaxation, reducing stress, them, extensively study the personality aiding concentration, and helping in weight characteristics of smokers. Personality reduction71 (chapter5). According to characteristics identified by Lorillard internal documentation of R.J.Reynolds that during the mid-1980s included the rugged detailed an assessment of various product man, pleasure seekers, unsettled dreamers, designs, consumer benefits can include outdoor individualists, refined ladies, prestige, cost, time management, satisfied secures, and social strivers.71 social interaction, mood enhancement, Labels used by PhilipMorris during the health, implied health, and taste early 1990s to describe the psychographics burnout.72(Bates no. 504663481/3484) Tobacco industry of men included macho hedonists, documents also reveal that many consumers 50sthrowbacks, enlightened go-getters, seek a cigarette brand that will deliver and new age men, whereas women were reduced irritation to their throats, although classified as 90straditionalists, uptown it has been documented that several girls, mavericks, and wallflowers.80 supposedly harm-reduced products that were launched in the marketplace did not in Importance of Communicating fact meet this desired consumer benefit.73 Brand Image Psychographic Segmentation Promotional planning, therefore, involves establishing advertising objectives and Psychographics, also referred to as determining the target audience. As discussed lifestyle analysis, is another commonly in chapter4, there are several ways to used segmentation approach in which communicate with consumers, including the personality, activities, interests, advertising, event sponsorship, celebrity and opinions of the target market are endorsements, packaging, coupons, personal considered. According to Kapferer,74(p.23) selling, sampling, contests, publicity, one primary consumer benefit served by product placement, and public relations. brands is to have confirmation of your For conventional advertising, the copy self-image or the image that you present platform entails the formation of creative to others. Brands can help provide an promises (i.e.,communicating what benefits identity for consumers, making them feel as the product will provide or, alternatively, though they belong to a special group.7577 what problems the product will solve), When selecting a particular brand of supported by reasons why the customer cigarettes, consumers engage in an act of should buy the product rather than a distinction (i.e.,the brand says something competing offering (i.e.,focus is often placed about them, much like the clothes they are on one or two key points of differentiation). wearing, the music they listen to, or the car they drive). Several content analysis Communicating brand image is considered studies reveal that health and vitality, particularly crucial for product categories 62

11 Monograph 19. The Role of the Media such as cigarettes and beer; several brands repetitive, consistent across various media possess minimal product differentiation, contexts and across brand elements over yet have a high degree of social visibility. time, and relevant to a contemporary Such characteristics are the basis for these market of consumers. goods sometimes being coined badge products. Particular brands are depicted Branding as expressions of success, sophistication, The use of a name, term, symbol, or femininity, rebellion, and so on.7 Marlboro, design to identify a product is known as for example, represents masculine, rugged, branding.7 Effective brand names are often tough, and no-nonsense qualities, while short and simple; easy to spell, read, and Virginia Slims typifies feminine, sexy, pronounce; distinctive and memorable and glamorous. (easy to recognize and remember); pleasant sounding (not offensive, obscene, or Cornerstones for Effectively negative); applicable for multinational use; Communicating Brand Image timely (unlikely to become out-of-date); and legally available for use (not in use by Brand equity is defined as a set of assets another firm).82 Moreover, a good brand (and liabilities) linked to a brands name and name commonly suggests something symbol that adds to (or subtracts from) the about the products benefits, is adaptable value provided by a product or service to a to packaging and labeling needs, and is firm and/or that firms customers.7(pp.78) appropriate to new products that may be These assets include brand loyalty, brand added as line extensions at a later date.83 name awareness, perceived quality, and brand associations. A cigarette brands The logo, meanwhile, is the visual element identity or image is collectively constructed used to define a firm or brand.82 Common through the use of brand names, logos, objectives when designing logos are taglines, typography, pictorials, and primary (1)having a style that is highly memorable and secondary colors.81 Several principles (e.g.,a logo with a totally unique shape); are considered as cornerstones for effectively (2)helping identify the companys product; communicating brand identity or image. and (3)being bold, simple, and easily Effective media messages are typically readable.83 LuckyStrikes target motif, Tobacco Branding: Whats in a Name? Tobacco product brand names spring from a wide range of sources, from product-positioning factors to company history. VirginiaSlims, for example, is a brand name that is rich in meaning for U.S.consumers. Virginia conveys a womans name as well as the name of a U.S.state well known for tobacco farming and production. Slims, meanwhile, refers to a reduced-circumference cigarette; this product feature was innovative when the brand was launched in 1968.a Slims may also be intended to refer implicitly to the weight-controlling effects of smoking. The Winston and Salem cigarette brand names reflect that the head office of producer R.J.Reynolds is based in Winston-Salem, North Carolina; Kent, launched in 1952 by Lorillard, was named after the companys president, HerbertA.Kent.b a Kluger,R. 1997. Ashes to ashes: Americas hundred-year cigarette war, the public health, and the unabashed triumph of Philip Morris. New York: Vintage Books. White,L.C. 1988. Merchants of death: The American tobacco industry. New York: Beech Tree Books, b WilliamMorrow and Company. 63

12 3. Key Principles of Promotion and Rationales for Regulation for example, is legendary. RaymondLoewy, that is simple, familiar, easily recognized, widely considered to be the father of comprehensible, and distinctive. industrial design and well known for Acknowledging that many advertisements designing several celebrated brand attract limited and indirect attention icons, including the Exxon and ShellOil from the viewer amid all of the clutter, logos and the U.S.Postal Service seal, advertisers often design messages that produced the modern package design of draw attention or stand out but do not LuckyStrike in 1941. He was paid $50,000 require large amounts of time and effort for the design, in which he replaced the to understand. This is facilitated through green background with white (the brands the visual imagery predominating in many advertising campaigns, meanwhile, included advertisements, with its function illustrated the advertising copy LuckyStrike Green by the aphorisms, A picture is worth a has gone to war! So heres the smart new thousand words, and Seeing is believing. uniform for fine tobacco), sharpened the Market research is typically conducted typography, and made both sides of the that both informs (i.e.,pretesting) and package identical by depicting the circular validates (i.e.,posttesting) promotional motif or target on the front and back.84 planning efforts. Loewys design remains largely unchanged more than 60years later. Brand imagery is further reinforced or enhanced in advertising visuals through Taglines and Slogans the use of lifestyle portrayals, which do Taglines (or slogans) are another integral not necessarily require depictions of part of a promotional campaign and are people. Cobranding, event sponsorship, commonly developed with the objective of and endorsements exemplify three ways being understandable and memorable as of enriching the symbolic value of brands well as linking benefits or positive images or trademarks.82 Distinct trademark to a brand.82 According to AndrewStodart, meanings (and implied product users) president of the Toronto-based consulting will be communicated if one advertisement company BrandBuilders, A slogan that features tickets for an opera performance works can offer constant reinforcement on the dashboard of a Mercedes while for a product. It can be money well spent another depicts tickets for a stock car race if it is created in a way that consumers on the dashboard of a Chevy pickup truck. identify with it immediately. A tag line Product endorsement from an Olympic becomes shorthand for your companys gold medalist would potentially associate message.85(p.B11) Enduring cigarette a trademark with qualities of nationalism, advertising taglines include Id walk a leadership, and high performance. mile for a Camel and Come to Marlboro The personality of the particular athlete Country; VirginiaSlims Youve come might also be transferred to the endorsed a long way, baby; Benson& Hedgess brand. Clearly, associating a brand or The length you go to for pleasure; and trademark with other objects, settings, Newports Alive with Pleasure! The slogan, and people that are rich in meaning can Winston tastes good like a cigarette effectively convey lifestyle imagery and should, was named as one of the top brand personality.8688 10jingles of the twentieth century in Advertising Age.1 Use of Color Tobacco promotions are commonly Pictorials dominated by visual imagery, with color In pursuit of effective communication, playing an important role in distinguishing advertisers attempt to create a message trademarks and communicating both 64

13 Monograph 19. The Role of the Media imagery and product characteristics.89 leads to familiarity and increased advertising Generally, red evokes strong feelings effectiveness.9699 A dense environment of related to passion, danger, anger, love, sex, cigarette promotion and imagery gives strength, and power, whereas gold is the the impression that tobacco use is socially conventional color of money and can bring acceptable, desirable, and prevalent.100 to mind feelings of security, wealth, and The large promotional budgets that are abundance. Blue is frequently associated apparent for leading cigarette brands with calmness, coolness, introspection, reinforce and elevate consumer perceptions wisdom, and solitude, and green suggests about the popularity of those brands, and nature, renewal, new beginnings, healing, popularity is considered to be a crucial health, and harmony.90 Some brands have factor in brand desirability among youth.101 used colors as main features of marketing The persistence and pervasiveness of campaigns, such as the What can brown tobacco promotion are notable. The major do for you? advertising campaign for cigarette manufacturers in the UnitedStates the UPS package delivery company,91 and spent $13.1billion in 2005 on advertising the promotions for the Orange Savings and promoting cigarettes102 (chapter4). Account marketed by the Internet bank Repeating a basic promotional message ING Direct.92,93 with a variety of advertising executions requires a considerable advertising budget. With respect to the marketing of cigarettes, Firms often spend a large proportion red normally communicates strong flavor, of advertising expenditures on one or blue commonly symbolizes a mild brand two leading brands (i.e.,those that have extension, and green usually conveys that a demonstrated popularity). brand is mentholated.94 Moreover, industry documents and trade sources indicate that It is considered important among the color and imagery used in advertising marketers to have promotional messages executions and packaging are meant to that are consistent with the overall image imply product lightness.69(pp.217219),94(pp.i76i77) and characteristics of the brand.7,75,82,103 Promotions for brands with supposedly Companies are diligent about protecting low-tar yields often use lighter color shades their brands from negative effects related or white-on-white executions, which to inconsistent brand associations.104,105 may signify cleanliness or a less harmful According to Wells and colleagues, product and dissociate cigarettes from unpleasant aromas. According to British Because the effects of image advertising American Tobacco, light-lighter-lightest build up over time, consistency is were achieved by insistance [sic] on lighter critical to the process. You cant say one presentations - product story imagery thing today and something different - white packs - pale colours - mildness tomorrowevery ad contributes to the dominated copy.95(p.14) Colors have also image. The message must focus on what been associated with specific cigarette the image is supposed to be, and should be brands, such as red for Marlboro and consistent over a long time.106(p.207) purple for SilkCut, as described below in the section on surreal advertising in the When a promotional message is consistently UnitedKingdom. portrayed across different media contexts (i.e.,accounting for the setting of media Repetition, Consistency, and Relevance consumption, such as NewYorkCitys Repetition of a promotional message or TimesSquare compared to the living room brand identity, over time, across multiple of ones home) and across different elements media, and across advertising executions of the brand (e.g.,logos, slogans, product 65

14 3. Key Principles of Promotion and Rationales for Regulation package, product message, characters, and brand imagery. We perceive Formula brand community events), it is generally One and Indy car racing as adding, if more effective.76,107110 you will, a modern-day dimension to the MarlboroMan. The image of Marlboro is Marlboro serves as a good example of very rugged, individualistic, heroic. And so a brand or trademark that has been is this style of auto racing. From an image successfully linked to consistent imagery standpoint, the fit is good.111 over a long time. Wernick explains that Thus, the Marlboro brand image of rugged the meaning of any single message is masculinity has been communicated modified by, and depends on, the ones consistently over a considerable period of that came before. The same is true for time, yet modified over the years. Thus, ways sub-campaigns, where even the launching of communicating rugged masculinity may of a new product may build on meanings be adjusted over time, including activities previously achieved. During the 1980s, and celebrities depicted. for example, ads for MarlboroLights projected a soft focus version of the Integrated Marketing Communications: leathered cowboy which had already Marlboro as a Case Study become ultra-familiar in previous advertising for its parent brand.14(p.92) The importance of the cornerstones for effectively communicating brand image, Yet, while the image(s) communicated such as repetition, consistency, and may remain the same, different symbols relevance to a contemporary or modern can be used to help the brand remain audience, are well illustrated in a case relevant, contemporary, and appealing study of Marlboro and PhilipMorriss use to an ever-changing audience.75,82 of integrated marketing communications Marketing practitioners are mindful (IMC). A brief case study of Marlboro and that the target market is likely to evolve; IMC is presented below. that is, even though the target age group (e.g.,1824years) may remain unchanged, IMC involves the intentional coordination the individuals receiving the message will of every communication from a firm to vary over several years. For promotional a target customer to convey a consistent campaigns to remain effective over time, and complete message.4(p.433) The market practitioners need to maintain message dominance of Marlboro, for example, is salience for a contemporary audience, in part explained by PhilipMorriss well- including those not yet affected by a integrated marketing communication efforts particular campaign, and account for a (relative to competitors trademarks) and the cohort effect (i.e. with an age segment of firms ability to appeal to the all-important 1824years, for example, a set of people youth market (for examples of IMC efforts will move in and out of the target market that are substantiated by PhilipMorriss each year). internal documentation, see the written direct testimony of Krugman.112 Dewhirst EllenMerlo, Philip Morriss vice president and Davis113 provide a case study of brand of marketing services, makes clear why the strategy and IMC for Players, which is a company makes such a heavy investment in leading cigarette brand in Canada with a Marlboros being an auto-racing sponsor: positioning similar to Marlboros). Everything we do at PhilipMorris is an PhilipMorris has communicated a extension of our overall brand positioning consistent, complementary message to the 66

15 Monograph 19. The Role of the Media target consumer over time and through different elements of the promotional mix. MarlboroCountry conjures up visual images of the AmericanWest, including cowboys on horseback, the herding of beef cattle, and vistas of mountains, tree-lined streams, high rock faces, and canyons. A cowboy has been used as a Marlboro symbol since 1954. Earlier, Marlboro had been targeted to women as the essence of femininity,8 with advertising slogans such as Mild as May.13(p.493) However, the Marlboro brand was reissued and Marlboro advertisements featuring a cowboy character repositioned in 1954 and featured, in addition to the cowboy character, transportable gas grills, and gear bags, other rugged, ultramasculine figures, is promoted as durable, without limits, typically with tattoos. By 1964, Marlboro and built for adventure. During the late had become linked nearly exclusively with 1990s, promotional initiatives dubbed a cowboy, considered an ideal symbol of Party at the Marlboro Ranch provided rugged masculinity, freedom, escapism, sweepstakes winners with vacation adventure, independence, simple opportunities to ranches located in pleasures, and heroism.31,114 Legendary Montana and Arizona. These advertising ad maker LeoBurnett conceived the campaigns were preceded by Marlboro initial idea of using a cowboy.115 To this Adventure Team holiday promotions, day, the LeoBurnett advertising agency, which stipulated that which is based in Chicago, handles the Marlboro account. a hand-picked team of ten will meet in GrandJunction, Colorado, to take a Marlboros brand image is also consistently journey down white water and rock walls, conveyed through various elements across deserts and over trails that lead of the communications mix. Marlboro to places that arent even considered cigarettes are offered in a flip-top places yet. HellCanyon, LizardRock, package, which is publicized as solid and crush-proof.114 PhilipMorris has launched a lifestyle magazine titled Unlimited, which is distributed by direct mail to those in the firms database. The magazine contenthailed as Action, Adventure, and Good Timesclosely matches the psychographics of the target market for the Marlboro brand. Labels for the Marlboro Classics clothing line point to the garments combination of strength and endurance, implying that the garments can endure harsh outdoor activities like those expected of a cowboy. Marlboro Unlimited Gear, which includes Advertisement for the Marlboro branded items such as trail watches, Adventure Team 67

16 3. Key Principles of Promotion and Rationales for Regulation ThunderPass. This is the Westwhere Nowak and Phelps122 note a trend in greater you find your adventure, you dont wait for usage of databases and new expectations it to find youfor eleven days, experience from marketing communication suppliers Marlboros unforgettable world of freedom such as sponsorships (e.g.,staging contests and adventure.116(p.43) at event sites that require contestants to submit their demographic profiles During the 11-day vacation, contest winners and correspondence details) to assist were engaged in activities such as white- in database development. Duncan has water rafting, dirt biking, 4 4 automobile defined IMC as a cross-functional process driving, and horseback riding. for creating and nourishing profitable relationships with customers and other The key sponsorship properties of stakeholders by strategically controlling Marlboro are automobile racing and or influencing all messages sent to these motorcycle racing. During the early groups and encouraging data-driven, 2000s, PhilipMorris, in its FormulaOne purposeful dialogue with them.123(p.8) partnership with Ferrari, spent roughly Several tobacco firms, such as PhilipMorris, $23million each year toward race-car driver have demonstrated their strong commitment MichaelSchumachers salary and about to IMC, moving away from traditional $65million each year to have Marlboro mass media promotion to integrated forms placed in multiple locations on the race of communications such as sponsorship, car, helmet, and overalls of Schumacher public relations, direct marketing, and sales and his teammate RubensBarrichello.117,118 promotion. For tobacco companies such Schumachers performance has been as PhilipMorris, regulated restrictions on unprecedented; he holds numerous access to different media further compelled FormulaOne records such as most wins seeking a variety of nontraditional media in a single season, winner of the longest (making use of emerging technologies and string of races within a season, and seven new media). A greater use of databases overall drivers titles.119 With Schumacher and new expectations from marketing often a race leader, Marlboro received communication suppliers to provide considerable television coverage during database-building capabilities indicate an FormulaOne events, compounded by the IMC approach. A highly targeted customer- fact that the winning driver often appears focused strategy and a strategically consistent in magazines, newspapers, and television brand positioning, which are key tenets of an newscasts worldwide. It is estimated that IMC mindset, have contributed to Marlboro 300million people watch each FormulaOne becoming the best-selling and dominant race on television.120 Similarly, during a brand in the U.S.market. 94-minute broadcast of the 1989 Marlboro GrandPrix, the Marlboro brand name was Surreal Advertising in the United shown or mentioned 5,933times, and the name was seen for a total of 46.2minutes, Kingdom as a Case Study or about one-half of the total broadcast time.121 For viewers, it was easy to make the Surreal advertising for cigarettes in link between Schumacher as a leader in the the United Kingdom provides another auto-racing field and the Marlboro brand as powerful illustration of the cornerstones the market leader in the cigarette product for effectively communicating brand category. In addition, it is easy to see that image that are discussed aboveespecially the various Marlboro promotional efforts branding, pictorials, use of color, and collectively communicate a cohesive and repetition. A case study of this advertising powerful message. genre is presented below. 68

17 Monograph 19. The Role of the Media The Tobacco Advertising and Promotion smoking was required to be clearly over Act in the UnitedKingdom prohibits the age of twenty-five. Advertisements were tobacco advertising in the print media not to play on the susceptibilities of the and on billboards as well as by direct mail immature or vulnerable nor were they to and other promotions, effective in 2003. feature heroic, cult or fashionable figures The act also banned tobacco sponsorship of in a way that might appeal to the young. sporting events (other than international In the 1995 edition of the Codes, the rules events) in July of that year, and tobacco were tightened to prohibit humour being sponsorship of FormulaOne motor racing used to attract young people. ended in July2005. Regulations on indirect advertising (i.e.,the use of tobacco product Health, context and environment: brand names on nontobacco products and Advertisements were not to suggest services) and point-of-sale advertising were that smoking was safe, popular, natural, issued in 2003.124 healthy or necessary for relaxation and concentration. Cigarettes were not to be Before passage of this act, tobacco shown in the mouth and smoking was not advertising in the print media and to be associated with healthy eating or a tobacco sponsorship of sporting events wholesome life-style. in the UnitedKingdom were governed by two voluntary agreements periodically Social success: Advertisements were not negotiated between the tobacco industry to link smoking with people who were and the government.124 One of these evidently wealthy, successful or fashionable agreements required, among other things, or who possessed other qualities that adherence to the CigaretteCode.125 might command admiration or encourage The code, which was developed jointly by emulation. They were not to claim or imply the U.K.Department of Health, cigarette that smoking was a sign of masculinity or manufacturers and importers, and the that it enhanced feminine charm. Nor were Advertising Standards Authority (ASA), they to imply a link between smoking promulgated rules on the content of tobacco and social, sexual, romantic or business advertising. The ASA, which was responsible success. The attractions of smoking were for certifying advertisements as acceptable not to be exaggerated. before they were published, described the rules as follows: Promotions: Advertisements for coupon brands were not to feature products unless The essence of the Code was that those products could be obtained through advertisements were not to encourage the redemption of coupons collected people to start smoking nor were they over a reasonable period of average to entice smokers to smoke more or consumption.126 to excess. Advertising for several cigarette brands As with every other part of the Codes, the appeared in British media, demonstrating CigaretteCodes rules were applied in the creative and often bizarre uses of color, spirit as well as the letter. Broadly, they symbols, and imagery that were still included the following requirements: permitted under the code. SilkCut and Benson& Hedges (sold in the United Youth: Advertisements were not to be Kingdom by Gallaher Group Plc), as well designed or presented in a way which had as Marlboro, were the most notable brands a greater appeal to those under18 than employing surreal advertising. In most of to the general public. Anyone shown these advertisements, the only indication 69

18 3. Key Principles of Promotion and Rationales for Regulation Surreal advertisements for Benson & Hedges showing cigarettes curled by a curling iron (above) and an oversized cigarette box buried on a rocky beach (right) that cigarettes were being promoted was the government-mandated health warning shown at the bottom of the ad. According to the Wall Street Journal,127 Benson& Hedges (B&H) pioneered the genre of surreal advertising with a series commercial ever produced. And almost of ads showing the brands gold box in certainly the best-remembered.129 strange ways: The advertising campaign for SilkCut, One [ad in 1977] showed the box in front which was launched in 1983, used a series of a mouse holelikening it to a trap. of images showing purple silk that had Another [ad in 1980] showed it being been cut, or purple silk with something carried away by ants as if it were something sharp (the brands package is purple and dead. A recent ad shows someone being white). The first advertisement in this series hypnotized by a gold watch. showed a pool of silk gathered in a dreamy haphazard wayand cut with a significant Other advertisements showed the B&Hbox slit.129 A similar ad showed the silk with a floating on blue water, looking like a can bandage on it, presumably covering a tear. of sardines, partially opened to reveal Other ads in the campaign were described in the cigarettes; a pack of B&H in a bird the Wall Street Journal as follows: cage; a giant B&Hbox floating on a pond, next to a flock of ducks being fed by an One award-winning ad shows a row of elderly woman; a large B&Hbox on top scissors dancing the cancan in purple silk of which rested a curling iron, with many skirts. Another shows a rhinoceros whose curled cigarettes strewn about; and yet horn protrudes through a purple silk cap. another oversized box buried on a rocky In an obscure twist on the theme, one ad beach, reminiscent of the image of the simply showed a purple shower curtain. Statue of Liberty buried in the sand at the The implication was that the silk curtain end of the original Planet of the Apes movie. would be slashed as in AlfredHitchcocks A B&Had in the 1990s showed a dentist Psycho.127 with a perverse grin who has just pulled a gold tooth.128 A cinema commercial Many SilkCut advertisements included images of scissors, knives, and other showed a giant B&H packet swinging from cutting instruments. One showed strips of a helicopter above the Arizona desert, purple silk falling from the holes of giant, watched by bug-eyed iguanas and then building-like cheese graters, resembling a dropped into a swimming pool. It was, ticker-tape parade. Another featured a purple they said, the most expensive cinema brassiere, cupping two round and spiny cacti. 70

19 Monograph 19. The Role of the Media Surreal advertisements for Silk Cut cigarettes (above and right) Surreal advertisements for Marlboro These purposes are addressed below in cigarettes also appeared in the United greater detail. Kingdom, typically showing one prominent item in red within an otherwise black-and- To be successful, an advertisement must white scene that one might expect to find break through the cluttered sensory in Marlboro Country (i.e.,the American environment in modern society to get West). As in the case of many of the surreal noticed. The average consumer is exposed ads for SilkCut and B&H, many of these to about 2million brand messages each Marlboro ads did not show cigarettes or year across all media channels.130 No matter depict smoking. Although some of the how well an advertisement is constructed, ads proclaimed Welcome to Marlboro it will be ineffective if it is not noticed. Country,127 other ads had no obvious Unusual or bizarre images in advertising are connection to cigarettes, except for the health more likely than is traditional imagery to warning at the bottom of the ads. The red capture the attention of a reader perusing a colorthe only feature identifying the brand magazine or a person walking or driving by a being advertisedwas a link to the color of billboard. A related objective is that atypical the well-known Marlboro chevron used in advertising is more likely to garner publicity the brands logo and on its packaging. One or buzz (see chapter4 for a discussion of surreal Marlboro ad, for example, showed viral marketing). a red river flowing through the valley of a broad and desolate canyon. Another showed Another likely purpose of surreal a bright red motorcycle alongside a bleak advertisements is to engage the viewer and deserted country road. McIntosh128 has in attempting to discern their meaning. described other ads in this campaign. Academic research finds that such advertisements not only attract attention What are these surreal advertisements attempting to accomplish? They may have been designed to achieve one or more of the following goals: (1)to get noticed in a noisy marketing environment; (2)to engage the viewer in attempting to discern the meaning of the ad; (3)to affirm the intelligence of the viewer who solves the riddle of the ad; (4)to evoke humor; (5)to elicit feelings of eroticism, violence, or death; and (6)to influence smoking behavior and attitudes toward smoking while navigating through or Surreal advertisement to link the color red with the red around the provisions of the CigaretteCode. Marlboro chevron 71

20 3. Key Principles of Promotion and Rationales for Regulation but also engage consumers in more young people. The driving force for this thought.107 According to Goldman,131(p.171) modification of the code was not the surreal ads, but evidence that a baldheaded ads which are unpredictable and man named Reg, used in an advertising whose meanings are opaque, if not campaign for Imperial Tobaccos Embassy impenetrable arrest the attention of Regal brand, appealed to youth, partly the viewers. If viewers spend more through humor.133,134 time pondering the meaning of an advert, if they make more of an investment in These last two aims may overlap when a interpreting it,then perhaps they will be viewer is challenged to understand the more likely to recall the product name. humor in an advertisement. As York explains, Product name recognition is another key both campaigns [Benson& Hedges element of effective marketing campaigns. and SilkCut] confirmed the audiences cleverness and visual literacy in A third purpose of these advertisements may recognizing the elegance of the jokes. be to have viewers feel good about themselves Clever advertising driven by puns on for having figured out the meaning of an intrinsic propertiesthe box, the brand advertisement or an advertising campaign. namemade for clever, memorable Viewers who experience a sense of brands; brands with an assurance that accomplishment after solving the riddle of an made the older cigarette advertising ad132 are likely to have more favorable views approaches look decidedly klutzy.129 toward the product being advertised (and toward the manufacturer of the product). An example is an ad showing a short branch In reference to the SilkCut shower curtain with two purple, silken leaves; the pun is ad mentioned above, a creative executive at that the plant is a cutting.135 M&C Saatchi (the ad agency that produced many of the SilkCut ads) said, In an essay titled From Eros to Thanatos,128 McIntosh argues that several People recognize the connection between of the SilkCut advertisements have the advertisement and Psycho, the thriller, imagery suggestive of sexual organs, sexual so people think theyre quite clever. Its violence, and death. During a discussion smart arse. It affirms their intelligence of the semiotics of a SilkCut ad in the and their wittiness. It strikes a chord novel NiceWork,136 the female protagonist with them.128 maintained that the ad appeals to both sensual and sadistic impulses. Sexual Many of the surreal ads attempt to evoke symbolismwhether subliminal or humor. The M&C Saatchi creative executive perceptibleis not confined to surreal asserted that, cigarette ads. Pollay has identified many examples in conventional cigarette ads.137 The primary motivating factor in my culture, in my advertising culture, is Suggestions of sexual violence and death are an attempt to get humour into the in some SilkCut advertisements. Many of advertisement. [They] work if its funny, the SilkCut advertisements, as noted above, if people find it engaging.128 feature scissors, knives, and other cutting instruments, including saws, axes, and meat As noted above, the CigaretteCode was cleavers. Gallahers last U.K.campaign for tightened in 1995 to prohibit the use of SilkCut cigarettes included two ads showing humor in advertising as a means to attract a woman holding a cutting instrument in 72

21 Monograph 19. The Role of the Media Sexual imagery used in surreal advertisements for Silk Cut cigarettes (above and right) a scene with an undercurrent of violence. In one, a woman is holding garden shears, the most creative advertising in the world seemingly upset that her husband is talking is because weve had the toughest rules for with the buxom woman next door (who is so long.127 Others have recognized the same hanging her purple undergarments on a connection. Langan135 commented as follows: clothes line). In the other, a man is working on a newspaper crossword puzzle and SilkCut has managed to allude to sensual ignoring his food at the dinner table, while and sexual desire, thus demonstrating one his wife is gripping a knife in a menacing way in which [an] advertiser can attempt way. McIntosh argues that the imagery to covertly allude to qualities, or suggest suggesting sexual violence and death reasons for buying their product which, is tapping into rape fantasy and what because of the strict laws in the case of SigmundFreud called the death instinct.128 cigarette advertisements, they are not able to do overtly. Finally, the potent imagery in surreal advertisements can be seen as a strategy to Similarly, Lindstrom has noted, affect smoking behavior while circumventing the provisions of the CigaretteCode. The The SilkCut campaign was wordlessly general manager of corporate affairs for articulate and negotiated the newly Gallaher seemed to acknowledge as much introduced, mid-80s bans on cigarette when he said, One of the reasons we have advertising with such elegance, the brands image and message remained intact without the slightest reference to the product. You dont need too much creativity to imagine how a range of beautiful, silk-filled wallpaper could work for SilkCut. Instead of advertising, a branding tool stands as a work of art. Any brand communication that achieves this level of sophistication is a brand-building victory. Such a campaign could integrate its message across channels, even conquering those channels in which advertising is restricted, as is the case with tobacco and other products.130 Lindstroms allusion to silk-filled wallpaper as an extension of SilkCuts advertising is not Silk Cut cigarette advertisements suggesting violence necessarily far-fetched. As Langan explains, 73

22 3. Key Principles of Promotion and Rationales for Regulation The repetition of this metaphor [cut silk] the legitimate activity of government.139(p.7) for the brand SilkCut has produced an Because regulation involves government important effect. The signifier, the purple activities that limit the choices available colour, has become just as important as to individuals, it is often controversial.140 the brand name. It now works to anchor The regulation of tobacco promotion is no the picture,[in ads] where the silken exception. To what extent can and should sheet is absent (i.e.,through recognition the government intervene in the lives of of the colour the viewers are steered citizens? Moreover, which government towards the correct interpretation of the activities should be regarded as legitimate? advertisements). It is mainly the colour which has become the symbolic tool The key rationales for implementing a with which the viewer can approach and comprehensive ban on tobacco advertising correctly discover the preferred reading and promotion include (1)the health of the adverts. This becomes important consequences of tobacco use (including in later advertisements where the silken addiction); (2)the deceptive or misleading object and the cut are even less apparent.135 nature of several tobacco promotional campaigns; (3)the unavoidable exposure Once a color has become strongly associated of youth to these campaigns; (4)the role with a brand (e.g.,purple for SilkCut, red of tobacco advertising and promotion in for Marlboro, gold for Benson& Hedges), increasing tobacco use in the population, it is possible that the color by itself may especially among youth; (5)the targeting of serve to promote the associated product. at-risk populations through advertising and This raises the question of whether cigarette promotion, including youth, women, and companies strive to develop strong color ethnic and racial minorities; (6)the failure associations for their leading brands to of the tobacco industry to effectively self- allow the companies to continue color-based regulate; and (7)the ineffectiveness of partial brand promotions under severe marketing advertising bans. The third, fourth, and fifth rules anticipated to exist in the future. rationales are reviewed in detail in chapters Indeed, in PapuaNewGuinea, the entire 4,5,and7; the others are discussed below. exteriors of shopping centres and small The call, by the WHO FCTC and others, for a trading posts are not uncommonly painted comprehensive ban on tobacco advertising in the colours of a major cigarette brand and promotion requires discussion of and sporting a large number of posters whether this policy would violate federal and point-of-sale displays for cigarettes.138 statute or the FirstAmendment to the If legislation were to ban the posters and U.S.Constitution (see chapter8). point-of-sale displays, the cigarette colors on the store exteriors might remain, along Health Consequences of with their attendant associations with Tobacco Use specific cigarette brands. A government regulatory role in the A Rationale for creation of tobacco control policies is largely justified because cigarette smoking Regulating Tobacco represents the single most important cause of preventable illness and premature death in Promotion the UnitedStates. Smoking has been linked to a number of health problems, including Regulation, according to C.Lloyd Brown- chronic bronchitis and emphysema; strokes John, is defined as any constraint imposed and heart disease; and cancer of the lung, upon the normal freedom of individuals by lip, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, 74

23 Monograph 19. The Role of the Media pancreas, bladder, and kidney. It is by the costs attributable to smoking. In the estimated that roughly 440,000Americans United States, it is estimated that the die prematurely each year as a result of economic costs attributable to smoking smoking. Tobacco use is responsible for a are $157billion each year, including greater number of deaths among Americans $75.5billion spent on direct medical care than the total number of deaths caused by among adults, $81.9billion attributed to lost motor-vehicle crashes, suicides, murders, productivity, and $366million for neonatal AIDS, and illicit drug use combined.141 care. During 2001, the states alone spent roughly $12billion toward the treatment of An important element in the harm caused by smoking-attributable diseases.141 tobacco is the addictiveness of smoking and other forms of tobacco use.142 Because most Deceptive or Misleading tobacco users develop dependence during childhood and adolescence,78 many tobacco Promotion control programs and policies (including bans on advertising and promotion) are Deceptive advertising has been described intended to prevent the initiation of tobacco as marketing communications that likely use among youth. result in consumers having information or beliefs that are incorrect or cannot be The health effects of smoking extend substantiated.145 The Lanham Act, which beyond the smoker. Secondhand smoke contains the federal statutes governing is the combination of smoke produced trademark law in the UnitedStates, defines by the burning of tobacco (sidestream false advertising as any advertising smoke) and the exhaled smoke from a or promotion that misrepresents the smoker. Secondhand smoke consists of nature, characteristics, qualities or gases and particles that contain more geographic origin of goods, services, than 4,000chemicals, more than 50of or commercial activities.146 In addition to which are cancer-causing agents.143 misrepresentation (e.g.,a company makes An estimated 50,000deaths per year in a claim that has no validity), deceptive the United Statesfrom lung cancer, advertising may occur as a result of ischemic heart disease, and sudden infant omitted information.145,147 death syndromehave been attributed to exposure to secondhand smoke.144 In a 1,742-page decision issued on August17, 2006, U.S.District Judge The health consequences of smoking may GladysKessler ruled that the major act as an important factor in government U.S.cigarette manufacturers violated deliberations about the role that health care civil (i.e.,noncriminal) provisions of costs can and will play in the reduction of the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt the federal deficit. A reduction in overall Organizations (RICO) Act. She wrote, tobacco consumption levels is regarded as a valuable objective toward health care For several decades, Defendants have reform efforts and offsetting ever-increasing marketed and promoted their low tar health care costs. The social and economic brands as being less harmful than costs of tobacco are noteworthy. Cost- conventional cigarettes. That claim is false, benefit analyses (see the 2004 Surgeon as these Findings of Fact demonstrate. Generals report on smoking and health for a By making these false claims, Defendants thorough literature review) reveal that while have given smokers an acceptable government tax revenues from tobacco sales alternative to quitting smoking, as well are substantial, they are largely outweighed as an excuse for not quitting.148(p.740) 75

24 3. Key Principles of Promotion and Rationales for Regulation As demonstrated by Kesslers judgment, the products we make are not injurious tobacco firms have undergone particular to health. We always have and always will scrutiny for the marketing of filtered and cooperate closely with those whose task it is low-tar cigarette brands, in which product to safeguard the public health. descriptors, such as mild, light, ultra low tar, slim, smooth, and natural, have commonly Filtered cigarettes became prominent in been used. More than 30 countries have the U.S.market during the 1950s; in 1950, now banned the use of light and mild the market share of filtered cigarettes was as cigarette product descriptors.149(p.4) negligible, yet by the end of the decade, the majority of cigarette sales were for brands During the 1930s, Camel promotions with filters.152 Filtered cigarettes offered claimed, More doctors smoke Camels than reassurance to consumers about the safety any other cigarette, and the tagline for of smoking (many promotions portrayed OldGold was, Not a cough in a carload. filters as the technological fix to health During the early 1950s, however, articles concerns); they were also more profitable in scientific and lay publications reported because they contained roughly one-third research findings about the link between less tobacco than did nonfiltered brands as smoking and lung cancer, leading smokers a consequence of a shorter column, a new to become increasingly concerned about freeze-dry puffing process, and greater use the dangers of smoking, and initiating of reconstituted tobacco sheet.69,153 Cigarette what the tobacco industry referred to as promotions commonly featured taglines that a health scare. The American Cancer implied health, such as Viceroys Double- Society, for example, released a major study Barreled Health Protection, Pall Malls linking smoking with lung cancer in 1950, Guard Against Throat-Scratch, and L&Ms and Readers Digest articles in 1952 and Just What the Dr. Ordered. 1953 discussed the relationship between smoking and cancer.150 Tobacco firms became In 1964, the first Surgeon Generals report increasingly concerned about the negative on smoking and health was released, publicity, which prompted the industry to and tobacco manufacturers recognized hire Hill and Knowlton, a renowned public the competitive value of introducing relations firm, in 1953. Recommendations brands that offered further reassurance by Hill and Knowlton led to the formation to consumers concerned about the health of the NewYork-based Tobacco Industry risks of smoking. The 1970s marked the Research Committee (TIRC) in 1954. launch of several cigarette brands that were On January4, 1954, a full-page advocacy promoted with lower (machine measured) advertisement, using the headline A Frank tar deliveries. Some of the product launches Statement to Cigarette Smokers, circulated were line extensions of familiar trademarks in 448newspapers in 258U.S.cities, reaching (e.g.,Marlboro Lights was introduced by an estimated readership of more than PhilipMorris in 1971); others were new, 43million. The advertisement announced stand-alone trademarks (e.g.,Merit was that the TIRC was being established with introduced by PhilipMorris in 1976). Several a mandate to support scientific research virtuous-sounding brand names such as on the health effects of tobacco use.23,151 Merit, Fact, True, and Life are inherently The promotion cast doubt on unfavorable misleading for a product such as cigarettes. research findings and included the According to Pollay and Dewhirst, statements: We [the tobacco industry] accept an interest in peoples health as a basic the product development process for Merit responsibility, paramount to every other was as much focused on consumer and consideration in our business. We believe market testing as on product technologies, 76

25 Monograph 19. The Role of the Media per se. The final market launch strategies the cigarette closer to the butt, taking used in 1976 gave particular emphasis to deeper puffs, increasing the number of puffs, the choice of the name Merit, obviously and smoking more cigarettes per day. communicating apparent virtue, and used an advertising style that made this product Internal British American Tobacco development seem eminently scientific and documentation claimed, opportunities newsworthy and less like an ad.69(p.213) exist for filter and cigarette designs which offer the image of health Consumers likely assumed that re-assurance.162(Bates no. 110069979) Moreover, governmental agencies would not permit a Lorillard document assessed whether the use of deceptive health claims, yet consumers perceived their Kent brand to U.S.tobacco manufacturers used Federal have the best filter, stating that, best filter Trade Commission (FTC) test results is undoubtedly considered in terms of many for tar and nicotine yields in advertising different benefits including the taste the copy in attempts to gain a competitive filter delivers, ease of drawing, mild taste, advantage. For example, during the mid- as well as health.163(Bates no. 01140947) Another 1980s, when tobacco industry promotional document, expressing the thoughts of spending was overrepresented among cigarette-company research directors at a brands with supposedly low-tar yields, Hilton Head meeting on February1416, Brown&Williamson advertisements 1968, stated, the increasing popularity asserted that among all cigarettes, of filters and acceptability of low delivery Carlton is lowest by referring to the brands indicate people are worrying about U.S.Government laboratory test current the problem [the health implications of at that time.69,154 Consumers were likely smoking].164(Bates no. 1005106316) Under the to perceive the FTC-attributed tar and subtitle Attitudes Toward the Effects of nicotine ratings as precise even though Smoking on Health, a Brown& Williamson tobacco manufacturers acknowledged document acknowledged that in discussing within internal corporate documents how a smoker can limit the risks of serious that the FTC testing procedures were disease without actually giving up smoking, inaccurate.148(p.571),155,156 Cigarette papers and the respondents clearly recognized the role filters were developed that enabled smoke of high filtration cigarettes.165(Bates no. 680109289) to be air-conditioned and the smoke column to be diluted through the entry Similarly, trade sources and internal of sidestream air. These vents were placed tobacco industry documents acknowledge in locations of the cigarette commonly that mildness claims communicate obstructed by a persons fingers or lips health-related messages to consumers. while the cigarette was being smoked.157 For example, a marketing consultancy firm, Thus, tar and nicotine yields generated the Institute for Analytical ResearchInc., for cigarettes smoked by machines during in its submission of motivation research FTC testing were appreciably lower than findings to Imperial TobaccoLtd. (Canadas yields delivered by cigarettes smoked by largest tobacco manufacturer), stated that actual people.158160 FTC test results were the majority of respondents indicate that inconsistent with actual tar and nicotine they see mildness as synonymous with a yields because the machines did not initially safer product and reveal that mildness is account for the compensatory behavior a criterion for brand selection which takes demonstrated by people. To satisfy their on additional significance in the present addiction, smokers often compensate when smoking climate.166(p.104) According to a smoking lower-yield cigarettes.142,160,161 1977 British American Tobacco document, Compensatory behavior includes smoking communication strategies 77

26 3. Key Principles of Promotion and Rationales for Regulation should be directed towards providing is so much less tobacco being consumed. consumer reassurance about cigarettes For many of the women, the idea that and the smoking habit. This can be they would be getting less was a huge provided in different ways, e.g.by claimed advantage. This is an illusion, in a low deliveries, by the perception of sense, for it is the actual tar and nicotine low deliveries and by the perception of delivery which is the main factor of a mildness. Furthermore, advertising for health attribute, but most people ignored low delivery or traditional brands should this. What they wanted and liked was a be constructed in ways so as not to provoke visible cue that they were smoking less. anxiety about health, but to alleviate it, Perception is more important than reality, and enable the smoker to feel assured about and in this case the perception is of reduced the habit and confident in maintaining it tobacco consumption. It would be easy to over time 167(p.3) (emphasis in original) substantiate such a claim.170(Bates no. 2057762567) Meanwhile, market research prepared for Meanwhile, executive testimony and Philip Morris revealed that smoking an internal Imperial TobaccoLtd. documents, ultra low tar cigarette seems to relieve which were released during Canadian some of the guilt of smoking and provide court proceedings, revealed that the an excuse not to quit.168(p.11, Bates no. 2040066754) smooth product descriptor is meant to Similarly, internal documentation from convey reduced irritation to the smokers British American Tobacco95 shows that it is throat or lungs.73 useful to consider lights more as a third alternative to quitting and cutting down Failure of Self-Regulation a branded hybrid of smokers unsuccessful attempts to modify their habit on their Another rationale for regulating tobacco own.95(Bates no. 400459922) These industry views promotion is the demonstrated inability are consistent with research by Tindle and of the tobacco industry to self-regulate colleagues,169 who found that smokers using effectively. Self-regulation should light cigarettes had lower odds of smoking ensure that advertisements are not false, cessation; these investigators concluded misleading, in poor taste, unfair, or socially that smokers may still be using light irresponsible. It is a process by which cigarettes as an alternative to quitting. there is voluntary control of business conduct and performance by business itself. For many consumers, cigarettes with It is control exercised by an advertisers the slim product descriptor may imply peers, including those in the agencies that the product is risk reduced. When and media used.171(p.5) Media, advertising, PhilipMorris conducted market research and trade organizations are common of a competitors ultraslim brand, it found proponents of self-regulation, including that several consumers consider reduced- the International Advertising Association, circumference cigarettes to be a safer American Advertising Federation, American alternative relative to those brands with Association of Advertising Agencies, traditional physical dimensions. Under the Association of National Advertisers, subtitle Health Implications, interoffice Outdoor Advertising Association of America, correspondence included a summary of Motion Picture Association of America, findings gleaned from consumer testing: National Association of Broadcasters, Direct Selling Association, Direct Marketing Overriding the perception of its stylishness Association, Council of Better Business is an impression that this cigarette has Bureaus, and International Chamber of potential health advantages because there Commerce. 78

27 Monograph 19. The Role of the Media What Is a Natural Cigarette? During the late 1990s, Winstons No Additives, 100% Tobacco, True Taste campaign underwent considerable scrutiny for the apparent deceptiveness of the claim, whereby the FTC required R.J.Reynolds to include the disclaimer, No additives in our tobacco does NOT mean a safer cigarette. The Winston campaign ran for nearly two years before the disclaimer was mandated, however, and the brand experienced market share growth in the interim.a,b,c During 2004, promotions for Natural AmericanSpirit cigarettes asserted that the product consists of 100% additive-free natural tobacco and that it is the only brand that offers products made with both natural and 100% certified organic tobacco. The promotions do not specify, however, that the AmericanSpirit offerings have higher nicotine levels and tar deliveries than do conventional cigarettes. Natural, synonymous with untreated and unprocessed, is seemingly ambiguous for the AmericanSpirit mentholated line extensions or for the PowWow Blend, which combines tobacco with herbs such as red willow bark and sage.d a Shatenstein,S. 1998. Thank you for not smoking additives. Tobacco Control 7 (2): 18788. b Arnett,J.J. 1999. Winstons no additives campaign: Straight up? No bull? Public Health Reports 114 (6): 52227. Schwartz,J. 1999. FTC has a beef with no bull ads: Cigarette maker to add health disclaimer for no additives c Winstons. The Washington Post, March 4. d Kezwer,G. 1998. Organic cigarettes new fad for health-conscious smokers. Canadian Medical Association Journal 158 (1): 13. Self-regulation is often viewed as a means mechanism for handling complaints for the industry in question to avoid compared with government regulation. government regulation and an attempt Industry representatives, it is argued, at restoring the publics faith in business are more knowledgeable about their field practices.171 Boddewyn,172 an advocate of than are government officials. Finally, self-regulation and a paid consultant for when justifiable complaints surface, the tobacco industry, presents several the noncomplier is likely to adhere to the advantages and disadvantages of self- resulting decisions because the standards regulation. First, self-regulation can assist that were breached had previously been and complement statutory regulation accepted voluntarily. given that the codes and guidelines of self-regulation are often more stringent Self-regulation has several disadvantages, than those imposed by law. Second, when however, that lead many to consider it advertising practices are questioned, improbable that private interests can self- there is typically less animosity because of regulate in the public interest. Even if it self-regulation by the industry. Statutory is demonstrated that self-regulation can regulation, on the other hand, relies heavily produce responsible advertisements, on the judicial system for enforcement. the voluntary standards of self-regulation Third, self-regulation is typically seen may be purposely loose to ensure greater as a more efficient and less expensive participation of the industry members. 79

28 3. Key Principles of Promotion and Rationales for Regulation Furthermore, enforcement of and the product launches of both Carlton and compliance with voluntary codes may be True was no longer required to adhere to the deficient, and participation in the self- regulations of the advertising code that had regulation of the industry may not be been established.174176 Moreover, Richards compulsory. This has serious implications and colleagues176 demonstrate that the key in a free-market economy. What does the tenets of the code were not respected by tobacco industry do, for example, with those those remaining as participants. The code, competitors that refuse to comply with for example, stipulated that cigarette the self-regulatory standards? Consumers advertising should not depict smoking as may also be unaware of self-regulatory essential to social prominence, distinction, mechanisms, how to submit a complaint, success, or sexual attraction, even though or to whom the complaint should be Vantage advertisements using the tagline submitted. The activities of self-regulation The Taste of Success (typified by pictorials primarily involve industry-selected of a couple with their classic automobile) representatives, whereas the general public were permitted to circulate.177 Similarly, may be considered token outsiders. Barbeau and colleagues 178 found that cigarette print advertising for Camel, An examination of the history of regulation Marlboro, Newport, and VirginiaSlims of tobacco advertising makes it apparent violated the fundamental tenets of the that the tobacco industry does not code. Their study revealed that a sizable effectively self-regulate. Pollay,173 for percentage of U.S.students, 10to 15years example, assessed the efficacy of the old, perceived dimensions related to social U.S.cigarette industrys self-regulation of prominence, distinction, success, or sexual 1963 broadcast advertising, in which each attraction to be apparent in the cigarette of the major firms (with the exception of advertising shown. A majority of students Brown& Williamson) agreed to Tobacco believed that cigarette advertising linked Institute guidelines that specify that product use with popularity (ranging from programs directed at youthful audiences 50% for Marlboro to 80% for VirginiaSlims) should not be sponsored. Despite the and appearing to be cool (ranging from tobacco industrys voluntary course of 72% for Marlboro to 84% for Camel). action, American Research Bureau data While the code also stated that cigarette (accessible from an FTC report on advertising should not depict smokers cigarette advertising) combined with who had obviously just participated in census information and trade data on spot a physical activity requiring stamina or television advertising revealed that children athletic conditioning beyond that of normal and adolescents still represented 26% recreation, 78% of the students indicated of the audiences for purchased network that Marlboro advertising did so. television programming. Winston, for example, was the sponsor of The Beverly Another provision of the code reads, Hillbillies and The Flintstones programs on television. Natural persons depicted as smokers in cigarette advertising shall be at least In 1964, American tobacco manufacturers twenty-five years of age and shall not be voluntarily adopted the Cigarette Advertising dressed or otherwise made to appear to be Code, yet it was allowable for individual less than twenty-five years of age.179 cigarette firms to withdraw from the code and then later rejoin at their own volition. Mazis and colleagues180 examined how By 1967, American Tobacco and Lorillard more than 500respondents perceived the had both withdrawn; thus, advertising for ages of models in a sample of cigarette 80

29 Monograph 19. The Role of the Media advertisements. The percentage of and agreed to no longer place their respondents who perceived the models to products in movies. A review of internal be younger than 25years old reached as tobacco industry documents by Mekemson high as 76% for a KoolMilds model, 89% and Glantz,182 however, revealed that for a LuckyStrikeLights model, 79% for product placement initiatives remained a VirginiaSlims UltraLights model, and active at least three years after the code 91% for a WinstonLights model. was amended. The code prohibited advertising Another flaw in tobacco industry self- in school, college, or university media regulation is the inconsistency in policy (including athletic, theatrical and other and behavior between the cigarette programs) and the distribution of and smokeless tobacco manufacturers. sample cigarettes to persons under the For example, the cigarette companies age of 21years. In addition, it stated that had a voluntary code on the distribution no sample cigarettes shall be distributed of cigarette samples that prohibited or promotional efforts conducted on school, distribution of free samples to persons college, or university campuses, or in under the age of 21. The smokeless tobacco their facilities, or in fraternity or sorority industry had a similar voluntary code, houses.179 Nevertheless, in a survey of but it banned distribution of smokeless 10,904students enrolled in 119nationally tobacco samples to persons under the age representative four-year colleges and of 18.183 This younger age cutoff allowed universities during the 20002001 school smokeless tobacco manufacturers to year, Rigotti and colleagues50 found that conduct aggressive promotional campaigns, 8.5% of respondents had attended a bar, including free sampling, on college nightclub, or campus social event where campuses and at vacation venues attended free cigarettes were distributed. by large numbers of college students.184 In addition, the cigarette industry code Additional examples of violations of these prohibited the use of testimonials by provisions of the code are cited in chapter5. athletes and other celebrities perceived The introduction to that chapter mentions to appeal to the young, but smokeless that these provisions of the code were tobacco advertising has prominently highlighted in congressional testimony in featured well-known sports figures such as 1969 by JosephF.CullmanIII, president of WaltGarrison (football/Dallas Cowboys), PhilipMorris and chairman of the Tobacco TerryBradshaw (football/Pittsburgh Institute, who promised that cigarette Steelers), GeorgeBrett (baseball/Kansas manufacturers would comply with the City Royals), SparkyLyle (baseball/Texas provisions after cigarette advertising was Rangers), and TomSeaver (baseball/ banned from the broadcast media. Cincinnati Reds), and other celebrities such as musician CharlieDaniels.185 The practice of product placement, which involves contractual agreements that Another inconsistency in tobacco industry stipulate on-screen exposures of brand- self-regulation is that advertising and name goods and services in exchange for promotions for American brand-name fees or services being provided181 (chapters4 products in foreign countries may not and10), serves as another example of the always comply with the industrys code. failure of self-regulation. U.S.tobacco For example, despite the codes ban on the manufacturers amended the Cigarette use of celebrities in cigarette advertising, Advertising Code in 1990 (renamed as actor JamesCoburn appeared in a youth- Cigarette Advertising and Promotion Code) oriented Japanese television commercial for 81

30 3. Key Principles of Promotion and Rationales for Regulation Lark cigarettes.185 In some cases, American example, discuss breaches of voluntary brand-name cigarettes are distributed in advertising codes that occurred in Canada. foreign countries by foreign corporations; At least four studies125,188190 assess the however, the sales and licensing agreements U.K.experience, which is also addressed that allow such arrangements could require above in the section on surreal advertising compliance with the American companys in the UnitedKingdom. Chapman191 and advertising code. Winstanley and colleagues192 provide an Australian perspective. There are numerous The 1998 MSA between 46attorneys general examples from multiple jurisdictions and the major cigarette firms imposed bans in which tobacco companies have not on product placement, cigarette billboard abided by the principles of self-regulatory advertising, the use of cartoon characters, advertising codes. merchandise displaying brand logos, and any promotions that target youth. One can Ineffectiveness of Partial view this agreement as occupying a middle Advertising Bans ground between purely voluntary self- regulation and regulation or legislation. Partial advertising bans have commonly Yet even with its added teeth (compared proven ineffective because even though with purely voluntary codes), the MSA has the tobacco industry faces fewer viable suffered violations. As noted by Goldberg options in the promotional mix, the and colleagues,27 the California attorney total amount of promotional spending general has had four successful prosecutions persists. The $15.1billion spent on of R.J.Reynolds (RJR) for violations of cigarette advertising and promotion in the the MSA and state legislation on the UnitedStates during 2003 was a record- sale and marketing of tobacco products. setting level.193 Once one form of promotion A SanDiego court ruled in June2002 has been banned, tobacco firms have tended that RJR unlawfully placed cigarette to use other marketing strategies to continue advertisements in magazines with a large communicating messages and imagery for percentage of readers aged 1217years.186 their respective trademarks. The late 1960s In his ruling, the judge ordered the and early 1970s, for example, marked a company to pay $20million in fines and period in which U.S.cigarette advertising commented as follows: expenditures largely shifted from broadcast media to print. The tobacco industrys shift The evidence reveals that after it entered in promotional spending reflected that, in into the MSA, RJR made absolutely no accordance with the Public Health Cigarette changes to its advertising campaigns, Smoking Act, U.S.broadcast advertisements failed to include the goal of reducing for cigarettes were no longer permissible, Youth exposure to tobacco advertising effective January2, 1971. U.S.cigarette in its marketing plans and failed to take advertising expenditures doubled for any actions to track whether or not it was magazines and increased more than fourfold meeting its professed goal of reducing for newspapers during one year alone Youth smoking. [S]ince the MSA was (from 1970 to 1971).102,194 Several content signed, RJR has exposed Youth to its analyses confirm that, largely as the result tobacco advertising at levels very similar to of the broadcast ban, the number of cigarette those of targeted groups of adult smokers.187 advertisements found in U.S.magazines increased dramatically during the 1970s.195199 The U.S.experience with tobacco (See chapter7 for a discussion of advertising industry self-regulation is not unique. bans as related to the influence of tobacco Cunningham30 and Dewhirst,35 for marketing on smoking behavior.) 82

31 Monograph 19. The Role of the Media Removing cigarette advertising from the general development of sponsorship as a the broadcast media first appeared to marketing discipline.202204 Individual tobacco the tobacco control and public health companies turned to sponsoring broadcast communities to be a victory; over time, sports events as a means to compensate for however, the desired results were not lost broadcast advertising exposure, yet the realized from this policy.194,200 Contrary promotional messages were not required to expectation, cigarette consumption to be accompanied by health warnings or initially increased following the broadcast countervailing communications.200,205,206 ban. From 1968 to 1970, Fairness Even though cigarette advertising is not Doctrine antismoking messages were permitted on television in the UnitedStates, shown prominently on television and tobacco companies continue to receive radio, but these spots were discontinued millions of dollars worth of national following the ban.201(pp.496500) Furthermore, television exposure for their brands through important changes in print advertising sponsoring sports events such as auto were observed as tobacco manufacturers racing.121,207209 shifted their advertising resources. According to King and colleagues,199 The MSAs 1998 ban on cigarette billboard who analyzed visual aspects of cigarette advertising has prompted an increase in magazine advertising from 1954 to 1986, the prevalence of both interior and exterior picturesas opposed to wordsbecame tobacco advertising at retail outlets. Between the predominant means of communicating February and June of 1999, Wakefield information to consumers. Their content and colleagues conducted observations of analysis also revealed that models were cigarette advertising and promotion at the increasingly engaged in activities, which point of sale in 3,464tobacco-selling retail suggests that the advertisements became stores in a total of 191communities in the increasingly lifestyle oriented. Weinberger UnitedStates.210 They found that after the and colleagues,196 meanwhile, found that MSA ban on tobacco billboards took effect U.S.tobacco manufacturers responded to in April of that year, increases occurred in the broadcast media ban by directing more the presence of tobacco sales promotions resources toward print media advertising, (e.g.,multipack discount offers, gift-with- evident by more frequent use of special purchase offers), the presence and extent of positioning, color, and full-page or double- functional objects bearing cigarette brand page advertisements. Advertisements were names (e.g.,clocks, change mats, shopping typically placed on right-side pages and, baskets), the prevalence and extent of during the observed period (1957 to 1977), exterior store advertising for tobacco, and were increasingly located on the back the prevalence of interior advertising of covers of magazines. They noted, however, tobacco products. According to the authors, that some of the observed changes, such the findings suggest that the cigarette as the increased use of color, could reflect manufacturers shifted at least some of their innovations being used by magazine expenditures previously spent on billboard advertisers in general. advertising to point-of-purchase marketing following the ban on billboard advertising An additional consequence of the U.S.ban imposed by the MSA. on broadcast advertising was that tobacco companies increasingly directed their Celebucki and Diskin211 studied the amount resources toward sponsorship marketing. of cigarette advertising visible from outside In fact, the tobacco industrys involvement of over-the-counter tobacco retailers in in sport and cultural sponsorships during Massachusetts before and after the MSA. the 1970s and 1980s largely contributed to For the 556tobacco retailers in the study, 83

32 3. Key Principles of Promotion and Rationales for Regulation they found significant increases after the MSA and then fell dramatically after the MSA in the prevalence of exterior cigarette increase was reported prominently in the advertising on the buildings, windows, and news media.220 doors of gas stations and gas mini-marts. They also found that a greater amount of King and Siegel221 reported data on cigarette advertising visible from outside advertising expenditures for 15cigarette these retail establishments was associated brands advertised in a total of 38magazines, with a higher occurrence of illegal sales of both before and after the MSA. They cigarettes to minors. classified cigarette brands as youth brands if they were smoked by more than 5% of the Point-of-purchase retail settings, smokers in the 8th,10th, and 12thgrades as well as bars and nightclubs, have in 1998. They classified magazines as youth become important sites of promotion oriented if at least 15% of their readers for U.S.tobacco manufacturers.46,47,212214 or at least two million of their readers The tobacco industry has also directed were 12to 17years old. The investigators further resources toward public relations found that expenditures on advertising activities, personal selling, direct marketing of youth brands in youth-oriented campaigns, Internet advertising, package magazines increased by 3.7% between 1995 design, and trademark diversification.215217 ($56.4million) and 1998 ($58.5million) Pollay, a marketing professor at the that is, before the MSAbut increased by University of BritishColumbia, remarks, 15.2% to $67.4million in 1999 (after the Its like squeezing a balloon. You can shut MSA). Expenditures then fell to a level down one media, but the problem just slightly higher than the pre-MSA level in moves somewhere else.218(p.2) This point 2000 ($59.6million). is echoed by Saffer and Chaloupka,219 who argue that a limited set of advertising bans The Massachusetts Department of Public does not slow down advertising output but Health studied advertising before and leads instead to shifts in media spending after the Smokeless Tobacco Master by the tobacco industry. In other words, Settlement Agreement (STMSA) for when one media form is prohibited, the smokeless tobacco products in 12youth tobacco industry finds media substitutes magazines (those with at least 15% youth (chapters4 and7). readership or more than two million youth readers).222 The agency found that Tobacco companies may change the types smokeless tobacco manufacturers increased and targets of advertising within media as a their advertising in youth magazines by way to mitigate the effects of rules that limit 136% after the STMSA, from $4.7million advertising and promotion. For example, in 1997 to $11.1million in 2001. The three studies described below provide increase was 161% (from $3.6million to evidence that youth were exposed to higher $9.4million) for the largest smokeless levels of tobacco advertising in magazines tobacco manufacturer, UnitedStates after implementation of settlement Smokeless Tobacco Company, which is the agreements, even though these agreements only smokeless tobacco manufacturer to sought to reduce such exposure. Hamilton have signed the STMSA (which contains and colleagues studied cigarette advertising the same prohibition against youth- in 19magazines in which at least 15%of targeted promotions as the MSA signed by readers are youth under the age of 18years. cigarette manufacturers). Youth exposed to They found that cigarette advertising smokeless tobacco ads included 7.2million expenditures in these magazines increased adolescents aged 1217years who are dramatically after implementation of the readers of SportsIllustrated (a magazine 84

33 Monograph 19. The Role of the Media that received an average of $2.5million if they omitted the brand name and images each year in advertising revenue from the of cigarettes and smoking, could fall within UnitedStates Smokeless Tobacco Company the rules of poorly constructed legislation during the postsettlement period). and point out the care that governments need to take in the formulation and wording Companies frequently apply their brand of tobacco advertising legislation if it is to names to new and different product be watertight.223(p.187) categories (e.g.,Ralph Lauren paint), and this trend has been increasing over the past Another reason why the impact of partial decade. In the case of tobacco companies, advertising bans has been limited is that they this indirect advertising, also called brand allow tobacco companies to avail themselves extension or brand stretching, refers to of imprecise language in the law to maintain the application of tobacco brand names, or create channels of communications. logos, or other distinctive elements of For example, a seemingly comprehensive tobacco product brands (and their ads) advertising ban passed in NewZealand to nontobacco products. Examples and exempted price lists and price notices. citations are provided in chapter4. Tobacco companies then produced large, colorful ads with barely discernible prices Colors and symbols associated with cigarette shown in one corner, for prominent brands can be used in ways that facilitate display in retail outlets.224 The state of the circumvention of tobacco advertising NewSouthWales, Australia, banned most restrictions. For example, as noted above in forms of tobacco advertising at the point the section on surreal cigarette advertising of sale in 1993, including dummy stock in the UnitedKingdom, the associations in jumbo-sized cigarette packs. In response, advertisements between purple and SilkCut cigarette companies gave retailers large cigarettes, and between red and Marlboro Perspex (acrylic plastic) display cabinets cigarettes, may be intended to allow cigarette housing many cigarette cartons; the cartons companies to continue color-based brand were not easily accessible for purchase, promotions under severe marketing rules but as live stock their display apparently anticipated to exist in the future. In addition, did not breach the new law.225 The Tobacco B&H has been the sponsor of music concerts Products Control Act adopted in Canada in in Nigeria at which the brands gold color 1988 prohibited event sponsorships using and the ampersand (&) in the brands name tobacco product brand names but permitted have been prominently featured. At one of sponsorships using corporate names. these concerts, a large gold curtain, whose In response, as documented by Dewhirst, only imagery was three giant ampersands, all three major Canadian tobacco companies hung behind the band and dominated the quickly registered several of their cigarette scene. This type of promotion, with sufficient brands as corporate entities so that these repetition, could lay the groundwork for shell companiesnamed for cigarette using a freestanding ampersand to market brandscould sponsor events such as the cigarette brand at a future time when ExportAInc. extreme sports and the Craven legislation might prohibit direct advertising A Ltd. Just for Laughs comedy festival.226 and less subtle forms of indirect advertising. Indeed, Finn223 describes ads for B&H Chapter4 describes other communication in the Far Eastern Economic Review in channels and strategies through which which images of birds, lights, a helicopter, tobacco marketers can overcome laws that a monorail, and a banner were used to restrict only traditional forms of tobacco construct an abstract depiction of the brands advertising. These methods include the package. Finn comments that these ads, depiction of advertising imagery on the 85

34 3. Key Principles of Promotion and Rationales for Regulation cigarette pack itself, Internet marketing, effective product marketing. Such efforts and the use of viral or stealth marketing involve sophisticated targeting of population (e.g.,the Lucky Strike Force, attractive groups in specific market segments, as well couples working trendy neighborhoods as the development and promotion of a clear proffering hot coffee and cell-phone calls to and consistent brand identity for individual shivering smokers in winter or iced coffee tobacco products. In an environment in and lounge chairs in spring and summer).227 which marketing channels for tobacco have become increasingly restricted by Facing an increasingly stringent regulatory legislation, the ability of tobacco firms environment, the tobacco industry has to adapt their promotional strategies and largely shifted its promotional spending maintain their brand images in the public from traditional mass media to integrated eye serves as a testament to the power of forms of communications. Similarly, the their marketing activities. trend of moving away from traditional mass media promotion to sponsorship, public Tobacco advertising, promotion, and relations, direct marketing, relationship sponsorship have increasingly come under marketing, and sales promotion has been scrutiny by public health officials and other demonstrated increasingly by nontobacco health advocates. Such promotional efforts firms that do not face nearly the same are seen as encouraging the continued use of regulatory considerations. With audience an addictive product, resulting in substantial fragmentation and a decline in the perceived morbidity and premature mortality, and as effectiveness of television advertising, many being misleading or deceptive in presenting firms have diverted resources to a variety of a brand image that obscures the health other media.228230 Technology, including a risks inherent in tobacco use. These factors, greater use of databases, is another factor in along with the tobacco industrys failure to explaining why marketing communication regulate itself in this area, have motivated campaigns span more media for many ongoing attempts within the public health firms.122 These broader trends in the community to ban all forms of tobacco marketing environment, along with the promotion. tobacco industrys history of overcoming partial advertising bans, are reasons why bans on tobacco advertising and promotion Conclusions must be comprehensive in order to be 1. The promotion of tobacco products effective. The call for a comprehensive ban involves sophisticated targeting and of tobacco advertising and promotion, by the market segmentation of potential WHO FCTC and others, requires discussion customers. Common market of whether this policy would violate federal segmentation dimensions include statute or the FirstAmendment to the demographics (e.g.,age, gender, race/ U.S.Constitution (seechapter8). ethnicity), geography (e.g.,market density, regional differences within Summary a domestic or international market), behavioral characteristics (e.g.,occasions of cigarette use, extent of use, users The promotion of tobacco products during smoking status), and psychographics the past century has been a key factor in (lifestyle analysis). the success of the tobacco industry, to the point where the efforts of tobacco firms 2. Internal tobacco company documents have long been held up by the advertising reveal that two key typologies of industry and others as exemplars for cigarette consumers used by cigarette 86

35 Monograph 19. The Role of the Media firms are starters (who frequently (3)the unavoidable exposure of youth to initiate smoking during adolescence) these campaigns; (4)the role of tobacco and pre-quitters (i.e.,existing smokers advertising and promotion in increasing who need reassurance). tobacco use in the population, especially among youth; (5)the targeting of 3. The brand image of most tobacco at-risk populations, including youth, products represents the end result women, and ethnic and racial minorities, of a multifaceted marketing effort through advertising and promotion; involving brand identity, logos, taglines (6)the failure of the tobacco industry and slogans, pictorial elements, and to effectively self-regulate its marketing the use of color. The development, practices; and (7)the ineffectiveness of enhancement, and reinforcement partial advertising bans. of this brand imagery are primary objectives of tobacco promotion. 6. Substantial evidence exists from the United States and several other countries 4. Tobacco companies have designed that the tobacco industry does not their communications of brand image effectively self-regulate its marketing to use principles relating to message practices. repetition, consistency, and relevance to a contemporary audience. The brands 7. Substantial evidence exists from the image is built slowly and collectively by UnitedStates and several other countries all of the accumulated associations and that tobacco companies typically respond images of the communications strategy, to partial advertising bans in ways that such as social status, sophistication undermine the bans effectiveness. These and social acceptance, athleticism and responses include shifting promotional healthfulness, glamour and fashion, expenditures from banned media to rewarded risk-taking and adventure, permitted media (which may include and masculinity or femininity. emerging technologies and new media), changing the types and targets 5. The key rationales cited for of advertising in permitted media, implementing a comprehensive ban using tobacco-product brand names on tobacco advertising and promotion for nontobacco products and services, include (1)the health consequences and availing themselves of imprecise of tobacco use (including addiction); clauses in the legislative text of the bans (2)the deceptive or misleading nature of that allow them to continue to promote several tobacco promotional campaigns; their products. 87

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