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1 HATCHERY FEED GUIDE & YEAR BOOK 2013 from Hatcheryfeed www.hatcheryfeed.com

2 HATCHERY FEED GUIDE 2013 CONTENTS Clickontitlestogodirectlytothearticle 02 Advances in live feed Reed Mariculture Inc: Hatchery Feeds Pioneers Effects of dietary plant oils on female White Bass Morone Chrysops egg composition and progeny/ survival INVE Aquaculture: a pioneer looking towards the future How is it made? A summary of aquatic starter feeds Skretting Marine Hatchery Feeds (MHF) Spectrum product portfolio Advances in extruded feeds Production of micro feeds directly from an 01 Contents extruder cooker Introduction Manufactured feeds Product listings Species look up Water conditioners, enrichments & additives Product listings Species look up 03 Published by Hatcheryfeed 2013 Aquafeed.com LLC. Copyright & Disclaimer

3 HATCHERY FEED GUIDE 2013 Introduction Hatcheryfeed.com was launched in 2012 as an offshoot of Aquafeed.com, in response to requests for dedicated information for this specialized area of the industry. Over the past several months we have been adding to the site and have produced newsletters and started a Facebook page and LinkedIn discussion group to help bring hatchery operators together. The one question we continue to be asked is Who supplies hatchery feeds? This publication is a first attempt to answer that question. The Hatchery Feed Guide and Year Book brings together information about hatchery feeds available on the market today. It makes no claim to be comprehensive, but we hope this first issue is a step towards making the lives of hatchery operators a little easierat least when it comes to finding and selecting feeds. We hope you will give us some feedback on what you like and dont like and what you would like to see in the next one. A note about the listings: we have relied entirely on information provided by suppliers in the compilation of the listings in this guide [See complete Disclaimer information]. We appreciate the time these companies have taken and the encouragement they have given us. If you supply hatchery feeds and your products are not included we apologize; please email me to make sure we contact you in time for the next issue. We also thank the editorial contributors for the articles that are included. Please feel free to share this publication: forward it to your friends and colleaguesbut please keep in intact. Suzi Dominy [email protected] Advertisers The following companies make it possible to offer this publication free of charge. We appreciate their commitment to supporting our industry in this way click on the links below to see their advertisements: Inve Aquaculture Reed Mariculture Skretting Wenger Manufacturing

4 The best balance For close to 30 years, we have been striving to bring you the best balance between dry diets and live food, between market needs and innovation, between consistency and high quality. It is what makes us unique and your most reliable partner in todays market. Visit www.inveaquaculture.com/bestbalance for more information. shapingaquaculturetogether

5 HATCHERY FEED GUIDE 2013 ADVANCES IN LIVE FEED Gunvor ie describes the work being carried out by Scandinavian research group, SINTEF Fisheries and aquaculture, on plankton and juvenile technology In SINTEF Fisheries and aquaculture we find a research group working with different live feed organisms. This group consists of scien- tists with different backgrounds; some are cybernetics, some are working with microbiol- ogy and biology, and some are biochemists. Some of the scientists have more than 25 years experience in live feed research. The group works with development of new tech- nology and automation of processes in the live feed production and in first feeding of fish lar- vae. More automation in this production will results in more stable and pre- In the future it will probably be dictable produc- tion of both live possible to buy copepod eggs feed and fish lar- from copepod egg production vae. In addition plants to new technol- ogy some of the scientists have focus on microbial water quality. Microbial stability in the water is important during the first period in first feeding of fish larvae. Photo: T.Bardal SINTEF Fisheries and aquaculture have flexi- ble laboratories for testing different new equipment, feed types and cultivation meth- ods. The live feed organisms in question are rotifers, Artemia and copepods, in addition to different microalgae. At the moment the fo- have shown increased survival, higher growth, cus is on intensive cultivation of copepods, less deformities, better pigmentation and primarily the species Acartia tonsa. Production higher stress tolerance when copepods are of live feed organisms for feeding marine fish used compared to traditional live feed organ- larvae is an important step in rearing most of isms (rotifer and Artemia). Intensively pro- the marine fish species worldwide. Fish larvae duced copepods also facilitate cultivation of are in a critical phase of their life cycle and fish species that have previously been difficult there is a great need for live feed with an op- to rear through the first feeding phase. One timal nutritional quality. Several first feeding example is the ornamental fish mandarin fish, experiments on Atlantic cod and ballan wrasse

6 HATCHERY FEED GUIDE 2013 ADVANCES IN ducing copepod eggs are established at LIVE FEED SINTEF, and in the future it will probably be possible to buy copepod eggs from copepod egg production plants. Stable and predictable production of copepod eggs has the potential to be a profitable new industry for both aqua- culture and ornamental species worldwide. HF Photo: T.Bardal which has been reared to the juvenile stage for the first time in Norway by using cultivated ABOUT THE AUTHOR copepods. Another example is tuna, where small amounts of copepods together with the traditional live feed, resulted in increased growth in a small scale experiment. In the future it will be possible to produce co- pepod eggs in designated facilities. Copepod eggs will be produced in large tanks, and the eggs will be harvested, washed, disinfected and stored. Boxes with copepod eggs can be transported to hatcheries for use, in a similar way as Artemia cysts are used today. The Dr. Gunvor ie is the Research eggs will hatch in seawater after 24 hours and Manager in the Marine Resources grow to a suitable size in a few days and then Technology Division at SINTEF be transferred to fish larval tanks as a high Fisheries and Aquaculture. quality diet for the fish larvae. The copepod work is financed by FHF The use of copepods has been limited until (The Norwegian Seafood Research now because their natural production is sea- Fund). sonal and because they are hard to produce intensively. However, new technology for pro- E [email protected] The new information resource from Aquafeed.com Hatcheryfeed.com Website . Newsletter. Magazines

7 SUPPLIER FOCUS Reed Mariculture Inc: Hatchery Feeds Pioneers REED MARICULTURE (RMI) is the world's largest producer of marine microalgae concentrates. Our Instant Algae larviculture feeds are used by over 500 hatcheries, universities, and marine ornamental operations in more than 80 countries around the world. We also produce and distribute clean, hatchery-scale rotifer and copepods starter cultures, Otohime and TDO weaning and juvenile feeds, and related supplies. Markets Served: Commercial aquaculture; public aquariums; public and private researchers; breeders; and aquarium retailers and hobbyists. Cutting Edge Products: Instant Algae products are clean, effective and closer to nature than other feeds on the market. We produce whole-cell, whole-food microalgae feeds and enrich- ments using proprietary processes. Our products provide fish, bivalve and shrimp hatcheries with clean, convenient, long shelf-life feeds that can replace in-house microalgae. Our feeds ensure stable and rapidly-reproducing populations with excellent nutrition. Extraordinary Customer Service: We pride ourselves on our customer service and techni- cal support, and are also experts in world-wide shipping logistics. History of Innovation: Reed Mariculture was founded in 1995 by Tim Reed to grow tank-raised urban aquaculture oysters that would be safe and harvestable year-round using new technologies for large-scale grow out of marine microalgae, the feed for shellfish. In 1998 RMI changed its focus to selling the microalgae directly to other hatcheries. RMI's current core technology is a proprietary closed-system photobioreactor design that allows microalgae to be grown in clean, controlled conditions a radically different technology than the open-pond technology used for most commercial algae production. In 2003 RMI expanded its larviculture products with the introduction of live zooplankton (rotifers, copepods, and Mysid shrimp), and by distributing products such as ClorAm-X (for ammonia control) and Otohime Feeds (Japanese weaning and juvenile diets). In 2004 RMI entered the home aquarium market with the introduction of the Phyto-Feast prod- ucts, super concentrates of marine microalgae formulated for feeding coral, clams and other filter feeders popular in marine reef tanks. RMI has continued to ex- pand into the Marine Ornamental industry with the Reef Nutrition product line, which includes marine microalgae, macroalgae, rotifers, copepods, mysid shrimp, and other feeds. In 2011 Reed Mariculture launched an exciting new product line AP- Breed Hatchery Solutions for Aquarists, Propagators and Breeders. APBreed bridges commercial, ornamental and research hatchery technology and provides researchers with feed solutions customized for their unique needs. See our product listings in this guide. For more information, visit www.reedmariculture.com or call us at: 1-877-732-3276.

8 HATCHERY FEED GUIDE 2013 EFFECTS OF DIETARY PLANT OILS ON FEMALE WHITE BASS MORONE CHRYSOPS EGG COMPOSITION AND PROGENY SURVIVAL White bass have been found to require considerable amounts of n-3 LC-PUFA in the diet to achieve maximal reproductive success. By Heidi Hill, Jesse T. Trushenski, Ryan L. Lane, and Christopher C. Kohler, Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Illinois, USA. The dramatic increase in demand (Tacon and Diet-related changes in Morone spp. gamete Metian 2008) coupled with the apparent fatty acid composition have resulted in altered plateau in reduction fisheries landings (Pauly reproductive performance and early life et al. 2002) has led to significant research history success (Lane et al. 2006; Lane et al. into plant-based alternatives to fish meal and 2007; Lewis et al. 2010). In these cases, fish oil as ingredients in aquafeeds, including impaired performance has been associated broodstock or with the accumulation of C18 PUFA, particu- maturation diets. larly 18:2n-6 (linoleic acid), at the expense of ...we assessed the reproductive Broodstock nutri- bioactive LC-PUFA such as 20:4n-6 performance of female white bass tional research (arachidonic acid), 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic fed diets containing flax, canola, has long focused acid), and 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid). on long-chain Recent evidence of preferential incorporation or corn oil as alternatives to polyunsaturated of 18:2n-6 into phospholipid has been marine-origin lipid fatty acids (LC- observed in Atlantic salmon (Hvattum et al. PUFA) found in 2000), sunshine bass M. saxatilis x M. fish oil because of their importance in provid- chrysops (Trushenski et al. 2008b), and white ing metabolic energy and structural elements, bass (Lewis et al. 2010). Given the apparent i.e., phospholipids, for embryonic develop- ability of 18:2n-6 to competitively displace ment (Sargent 1995). Plant oils do not con- other fatty acids, including bioactive LC-PUFA, tain intact LC-PUFA, but most provide C18 we hypothesized that oils providing different poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), which some freshwater teleosts are able to desatu- rate and elongate into LC-PUFA in appreciable amounts (Kanazawa et al. 1979). Morone spp. seem to lack this ability , and replacing dietary fish oil with plant oils has resulted in significant changes in the fatty acid profile of Morone chrysops eggs (Lane and Kohler 2006; Lewis et al. 2010) and other tissues of Morone hybrids (Wonnacott et al. 2004; Lane et al. 2006; Lewis and Kohler 2008; Trushenski et al. 2008a). Whitebassfemalereadytospawn.

9 HATCHERY FEED GUIDE 2013 EFFECTS OF levels of this fatty acid might yield differential cacy of soybean oil (Harel et al. 1994), beef DIETARY reproductive performance in white bass. tallow (Fernndez-Palacios et al. 1995), and PLANT OILS Accordingly, we assessed the reproductive olive and linseed oil blends (Rodriquez et al. ON FEMALE WHITE BASS performance of female white bass fed diets 1998) as alternatives to marine oils in gilt- MORONE containing flax, canola, or corn oil as alterna- head sea bream broodstock diets, although CHRYSOPS tives to marine-origin lipid. We chose these conditions were not comparable among trials, EGG plant oils because they represent a range of i.e., duration and source of n-3 LC-PUFA COMPOSITION 18:2n-6 levels and thus differ in their relative differed among studies, making direct com- AND PROGENY ratios of n-3 to n-6 C18 PUFA (flax: 3.21:1, n parison of alternative oil sources impractical. SURVIVAL -3 to n-6 C18 PUFA; canola: 0.45:1; corn: Direct comparisons of alternative oils have 0.02:1; see Table 1 for diet formulations). been conducted in other broodstock nutrition trials, though the model taxa were not car- nivorous teleosts. Chinese mitten-handed crab Broodstock feeds altered egg Eriocheir sinensis broodstock fed soybean oil composition and larval survival had a higher fecundity compared to brood- C18 PUFA accumulated within eggs of brood- stock fed pork lard as the primary dietary lipid stock fed diets containing plant oils during the source (Wen et al. 2002). Reproductive out- 8-week period immediately prior to spawning, put of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus brood- even though white bass vitellogenesis begins stock fed soybean oil prior to spawning was 5 months prior to spawning (Berlinsky et al. enhanced compared to broodstock fed corn, 1995). Broodstock fed plant oils produced coconut, or cod liver oils (Santiago and Reyes eggs with similar concentrations of C18 PUFA, 1993). The most favorable alternative oil but eggs from flax oil-fed broodstock con- sources for use in broodstock feeds in the tained higher levels of 18:3n-3 and eggs of above studies contained greater concentra- canola and corn oil-fed broodstock had ele- tions of C18 PUFA than saturated fatty acids vated concentrations of 18:2n-6 (Table 2). (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids These data suggest fatty acid recycling occurs (MUFA). Moreover, tilapia broodstock fed soy- continuously within the eggs during later bean oil (n-3 and n-6 C18 PUFA) outper- stages of vitellogenesis. Nutrients provided formed broodstock fed corn oil (predominantly via the diet immediately prior to spawning can n-6 C18 PUFA), suggesting excessive dietary be reflected within the eggs relatively quickly, intake of 18:2n-6 may be detrimental to tila- ultimately leading to the differences in embry- pia egg quality and a balanced intake of 18:2n onic and larval survival we observed between -6 and 18:3n-3 is more favorable (Santiago plant oil treatments in the current study. We and Reyes 1993). Despite study-to-study found dietary intake of plant oils containing variation, some generalized themes can be elevated concentrations of 18:2n-6 negatively teased away from these differential impacted hatch rate and cumulative larval responses. Generally, increasing levels of survival at 3 DPH (Figure 1). Conversely, die- 18:2n-6 have a negative effect on reproduc- tary intake of plant oils containing elevated tive performance and progeny success concentrations of 18:3n-3 improved hatch whereas inclusion of other C18 PUFA appears rate and larval survival at 3 DPH among the less problematic. In our study, reproductive n-3 LC-PUFA-deficient treatments. performance of female white bass increased progressively as 18:3n-3 replaced 18:2n-6 as Alternative oils are generally only used to the predominant C18 PUFA found within the dilute n-3 LC-PUFA-rich lipids in broodstock plant oil source (Figure 1). Therefore, marine diets, and have not been directly compared to oil replacement with 18:3n-3-rich plant oils determine how their respective fatty acid pro- may not have the same ramifications for file influences broodstock physiology or repro- carnivorous broodstock (especially white bass) ductive output (Harel et al. 1994; Fernandez- as those associated with 18:2n-6-rich plant Palacios et al. 1995; Lane and Kohler 2006; oils (Lane and Kohler 2006). However, fur- Jaya-Ram et al. 2008). Multiple broodstock ther research is necessary to fully validate this nutrition trials were conducted evaluating effi- hypothesis.

10 HATCHERY FEED GUIDE 2013 EFFECTS OF Table 1. Formulation and composition (g*kg-1) of experimental diets fed to female white bass for 8 weeks DIETARY prior to spawning. PLANT OILS ON FEMALE ExperimentalDiets WHITE BASS MORONE Flax Canola Corn CHRYSOPS Ingredient EGG COMPOSITION Menhadenmeal a 500.0 500.0 500.0 AND PROGENY SURVIVAL Flaxoilb 85.0 Canolaoil 85.0 Cornoil 85.0 Wheatflour 336.8 336.8 336.8 Corngluten 64.2 64.2 64.2 Mineralpremixc 1.0 1.0 1.0 Vitaminpremixd 6.0 6.0 6.0 VitaminC 1.0 1.0 1.0 Choline(70%) 6.0 6.0 6.0 Fattyacidcomposition(%totalfattyacidmethylesters) SFAe 20.6 23.8 20.6 MUFAf 23.0 24.6 26.7 18:2n6 15.5 32.6 43.5 n6LCPUFAg 0.5 0.4 0.6 n6h 16.0 33.1 44.3 18:3n3 27.8 5.6 1.4 n3LCPUFAi 11.9 12.7 6.8 n3j 40.3 18.4 8.4 C18PUFAk 44.0 38.9 45.3 2.5 0.6 0.2 n3ton6 a OmegaProtein(Houston,Texas) b JedwardsInternational,Inc.(Quincy,MA) c U.S.FWSFederalPremix#3 d U.S.FWSFederalPremix#30 e Saturatedfattyacidsincludes14:0,15:0,16:0,17:0,18:0,20:0,and22:0. f Monounsaturatedfattyacidsincludes16:1n7,18:1n7,18:1n9,20:1n9,22:1n11,and22:1n9. g n6Longchainpolyunsaturatedfattyacidssumofalln6FAwithchainlength20carbonatomsanddoublebonds3;includes 20:2n6,20:3n6,20:4n6,and22:2n6 h Alsoincludes18:3n6 i Alsoincludes18:4n3 n3Longchainpolyunsaturatedfattyacidssumofalln3FAwithchainlength20carbonatomsanddoublebonds3;includes20:3n j 3,20:4n3,20:5n3,22:5n3,and22:6n3 k C18PolyunsaturatedfattyacidssumofallPUFAwith18carbonchainlength.

11 HATCHERY FEED GUIDE 2013 EFFECTS OF Table 2. Crude lipid fatty acid concentrations (mean standard error; % total fatty acid methyl esters) of DIETARY white bass eggs after feeding flax, canola, or corn oil for 8 weeks prior to spawning. Different letters PLANT OILS within rows denote statistically significant differences between treatment means (=0.05). ON FEMALE WHITE BASS MORONE ExperimentalDiets CHRYSOPS FattyAcids Flax Canola Corn EGG SFA a 17.90.4 17.90.4 17.60.4 COMPOSITION AND PROGENY 37.21.0 36.61.0 37.41.0 MUFAb SURVIVAL 9.61.3b 14.81.4a 15.21.4a 18:2n6 3.60.2 3.90.2 3.80.2 n6LCPUFAc 13.51.2b 19.11.3a 19.71.3a n6d 9.00.6a 3.40.7b 3.40.7b 18:3n3 22.31.0 22.91.1 21.71.1 n3LCPUFAe 31.41.1a 26.31.2b 25.21.2b n3f C18PUFAg 19.21.5 18.81.6 19.31.6 2.50.2a 1.60.2b 1.40.2b n3ton6 a Saturatedfattyacidsincludes14:0,15:0,16:0,17:0,18:0,20:0,and22:0. b Monounsaturatedfattyacidsincludes16:1n7,18:1n7,18:1n9,20:1n9,22:1n11,and22:1n9. c n6Longchainpolyunsaturatedfattyacidssumofalln6FAwithchainlength20carbonatomsanddoublebonds3;includes 20:2n6,20:3n6,20:4n6,and22:2n6 d Alsoincludes18:3n6 e n3Longchainpolyunsaturatedfattyacidssumofalln3FAwithchainlength20carbonatomsanddoublebonds3;includes 20:3n3,20:4n3,20:5n3,22:5n3,and22:6n3 f Alsoincludes18:4n3 g C18PolyunsaturatedfattyacidssumofallPUFAwith18carbonchainlength Fertilized and unfertilized white bass eggs Hybrid striped bass larvae--3 days post hatch.

12 HATCHERY FEED GUIDE 2013 EFFECTS OF All plant oil-based diets were Figure 1. Linear regressions estimating progeny survival of female DIETARY n-3 LC-PUFA-deficient based white bass fed flax, canola, or corn oil as primary dietary lipid PLANT OILS on previously determined sources for 8 weeks prior to spawning. Plots are (a) hatch and (b) 3 ON FEMALE WHITE BASS dietary requirements for day post hatch (DPH) survival rates vs. dietary 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 MORONE female white bass brood- intake. CHRYSOPS stock (3.9% dry matter, EGG Lane and Kohler 2006; COMPOSITION 4.0% Lewis et al. 2010). AND PROGENY Though, no dietary effects SURVIVAL were observed with regard to maternal broodstock weight (684.2 70.1 g; mean SD), growth (14.3 4.1%), a survival (100%), or fecundity (141,000 61,000 eggs/kg body weight) as a result of the 8-week feeding trial. Evidence of this deficiency was apparent as reduced survival of the plant oil-fed progeny was observed in re- lation to broodstock fed fish oil in a previous study (Lewis et al. 2010). Replacing LC- PUFA with C18 PUFA would improve the oxidative stabil- ity of fish tissues, since C18 PUFA are less prone to lipid peroxidation than LC-PUFA b (Gonzalez et al. 1992). In a previous paper (Lewis et al. 2010), we speculated that low hatch and larval survival rates among white bass lar- vae may be due to increased lipid peroxidation within eggs containing high concentra- tions of LC-PUFA. However, embryonic and larval survival were better in Conclusions previous studies when broodstock were fed menhaden oil-based diets containing 4.0% n- Based on our findings, white bass require con- 3 LC-PUFA and eggs contained higher concen- siderable amounts of n-3 LC-PUFA in the diet trations of LC-PUFA (with greater predisposi- to achieve maximal reproductive success. Of tion to oxidation). This suggests that while all diets evaluated in the present and previous lipid oxidative stability may influence brood- papers (Lane and Kohler 2006; Lewis et al. stock performance, LC-PUFA availability has 2010) addressing female white bass brood- an overriding effect on egg quality (Lane and stock nutrition, egg concentrations of n-3 LC- Kohler 2006; Lewis et al. 2010). Physiological PUFA and embryo survival are consistently impacts specific to egg C18 PUFA inclusion maximized by feeding 100% menhaden oil. rather than LC-PUFA displacement are cur- Therefore, despite environmental and eco- rently unknown. nomical concerns associated with the long-

13 HATCHERY FEED GUIDE 2013 EFFECTS OF term sustainability of marine-derived prod- lecularspeciesofAtlanticsalmonheadkidneyphosphol DIETARY ucts, menhaden oil confers greater reproduc- ipidsdeterminedbynormalphaseliquidchromatography PLANT OILS tive benefits relative to other tested oils. coupledtonegativeionelectrospraytandemmassspec ON FEMALE WHITE BASS Nevertheless, plant oils with low 18:2n-6 and trometry.JChromatogr748B:137149 MORONE high 18:3n-3 content may be suitable candi- JayaRam A, Kuah M, Lim P, Kolkovski S, ShuChien AC CHRYSOPS dates for partial marine oil substitution in (2008) Influence of dietary HUFA levels on reproductive EGG broodstock diets for female white bass, and COMPOSITION performance, tissue fatty acid profile and desaturates additional research is needed to determine AND PROGENY and elongase mRNAs expression in female zebrafish their optimal inclusion rates. SURVIVAL Daniorerio.Aquaculture277:275281 Acknowledgments Kanazawa A, Teshima S, Ono K (1979) Relationship be This research would not have been possible tween essential fatty acid requirements of aquatic ani without assistance obtaining broodstock by mals and thecapacity for bioconversion of linolenic acid Keo Fish Farm. We would also like to thank to highly unsaturated fatty acids. Comp Biochem Physiol Andy Coursey, Shawn Meyer, and Mike Hill for 63B:295298 their assistance in data collection. The LaneRL,KohlerCC(2006)Effectsofdietarylipidandfatty research was performed by the first author as acids on white bass reproductive performance, egg a portion of a dissertation to partially meet hatchability,andoverallqualityofprogeny.NAmJAqua the requirements for a Doctor of Philosophy cult68:141150 degree in the Department of Zoology, South- ern Illinois University. The project was sup- LaneRL, Trushenski JT,Kohler CC(2006) Modification of ported by National Research Initiative fillet composition and evidence of differential fatty acid Competitive Grant no. 2005-35203-15894 turnoverinsunshinebassMoronechrysopsxM.saxatilis from the USDA Cooperative State Research, followingchangeinlipidsource.Lipids41:10291038 Education, and Extension Service. Any opin- Lewis HA, Kohler CC (2008) Minimizing fish oil and fish ions, findings, and conclusions or recommen- mealwithplantbasedalternativesinsunshinebassdiets dations expressed in this material are those of without negatively impacting growth and muscle fatty the authors and do not necessarily reflect acidprofile.JWorldAquacultSoc39:573585 the views of the U.S. Department of Agricul- ture. LewisHA,TrushenskiJT,LaneRL,KohlerCC(2010)Effects of dietary marine lipid source on female white bass oo LiteratureCited: cyte composition and embryonic survival. Fish Physiol BerlinskyDL,JacksonLF,SmithTIJ,SullivanCV(1995)The Biochem36:979992 annual reproductive cycle of the white bass Morone Ling S, Kuah M, Muhammad TST, Kolkovski S, ShuChien chrysops.JWorldAquacultSoc26:252260 AC (2006) Effect of dietary HUFA on reproductive per FernandezPalaciosH,IzquierdoM,RobainaL,ValenciaA, formance, tissue fatty acid profile and desaturase and Salhi M, Montero D (1995) Effect of n3 HUFA level in elongasemRNAsinfemaleswordtailXiphophorushelleri. broodstock diets on egg quality of gilthead seabream Aquaculture261:204214 (SparusaurataL.).Aquaculture132:325337 Luquet P, Watanabe T (1986) Interaction nutrition Gonzalez MJ, Gray JI, Schemmel RA, Dugan L Jr, Welsch reproductioninfish.FishPhysiolBiochem2:121129 CW (1992) Lipid peroxidation products are elevated in Pauly D, Christensen V, Guienette S, Pitcher TJ, Sumaila fishoildietseveninthepresenceofaddedantioxidants. UR, Walters CJ, Watson R, Zeller D (2002) Towards sus JNutr122:21902195 tainabilityinworldfisheries.Nature418:689695 HarelM,TandlerA,KissilGW,ApplebaumSW(1994)The RennieS,HuntingfordFA,LoelandA,RimbachM(2005): kinetics of nutrient incorporation into body tissues of Long term partial replacement of dietary fish oil with gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) females and the sub rapeseed oil; effects on egg quality of Atlantic salmon sequenteffectsoneggcompositionandeggquality.BritJ Salmosalar.Aquaculture248:135146 Nutr72:4558 Rodriquez C, Cejas JR, Martin MV, Badia P, Samper M, Hvattum E, Rosjo C, Gjoen T, Rosenlund G, Ruyter B LorenzoA(1998)Influenceofn3highlyunsaturatedfatty (2000)Effectofsoybeanoilandfishoilonindividualmo acid deficiency on the lipid composition of broodstock

14 HATCHERY FEED GUIDE 2013 EFFECTS OF giltheadseabream(SparusaurataL.)andoneggquality. (Eriocheir sinensis) fed different sources of dietary lipid. DIETARY FishPhysiolBiochem18:177187 CompBiochemPhysiol131A:675681 PLANT OILS ON FEMALE Santiago CB, Reyes OS (1993) Effects of dietary lipid Wonnacott EJ, Lane RL, Kohler CC (2004) Influence of WHITE BASS sourceonreproductiveperformanceandtissuelipidlev dietary replacement of menhaden oil with canola oil on MORONE elsofNiletilapiaOreochromisniloticus(Linnaeus)brood fatty acid composition of sunshine bass. North Am J CHRYSOPS stock.JApplIchthyol9:3340 Aquacult66:243250HF EGG COMPOSITION SargentJR(1995)Originsandfunctionsofegglipids:nu AND PROGENY ABOUT THE AUTHOR tritional implications. In: Bromage NR, Roberts RJ (ed.) SURVIVAL Broodstock Management and Egg and Larval Quality. BlackwellScienceLtd.,Oxford TaconAGJ,MetianM(2008)Globaloverviewontheuse of fish meal and fish oil in industrially compounded aquafeeds: trends and future prospects. Aquaculture 285:146158 TrushenskiJT,LewisHA,KohlerCC(2008a)Fattyacidpro fileofsunshinebass:I.profilechangeisaffectedbyinitial First author, Heidi Hill is currently compositionanddiffersamongtissues.Lipids43:629641 the Aquaculture Research and Trushenski, J.T.; Lewis, H.A.; Kohler, C.C.; 2008b: Fatty Development Manager at acid profile of sunshine bass: II. Profile change differs Cargill Animal Nutrition. This study was completed as part of her amongfilletlipidclasses.Lipids43,643653 dissertation research at Southern Illinois WenXB,ChenLQ,ZhouZL,AiCX,DengGY(2002)Repro University. duction response of Chinese mittenhanded crab E: [email protected]

15 SUPPLIER FPCUS INVE Aquaculture: a pioneer looking towards the future INVE Aquaculture, a Belgian pioneer in larval Nutrition and health nutrition and health, is celebrating its 30th an- for fish hatcheries niversary in 2013. Established in Ghent, Belgium in 1983, the company has brought Long recognized as the true pioneer of numerous innovations to market that have industrial live food culturing and the ultimate revolutionized the aquaculture industry. supplier of superior quality Artemia cysts and Having emphasized the need for innovation other live food, the company wants to since day 1, it is safe to say the company has continue to put a bigger focus on their wide (in)directly had an impact on every fish or range of perfectly formulated, highly nutri- shrimp hatchery across the globe; whether its tional dry diets such as the o.range line. through enriching This master feeding line for fish hatcheries live food with the consists of four diets (START, WEAN, GROW SELCO products, and NURSE) that each meet the nutritional hatching Artemia requirements of the larvae during every stage cysts with the of the hatchery cycle. Specifically for the SEP-Art Technol- Asian markets they also market the NRD line, ogy (now also which can count on years of customer satis- used in the pet faction. The formulated diet line is completed industry) or finding the best balance between by the broodstock diets, such as the Lansy live food and formulation with their highly ad- Breed range (now available in 8, 12 or 24 vanced dry diets. mm pellet sizes), for a complete integration from eggs to fry. The nutrition line is perfectly Today, the company looks towards continuing complemented by the new and improved to build aquaculture as the fastest growing health line specifically designed for fish larvae, food industry in the world. Its importance to including Sanocare SURE and Sanocare the future development of our society is well- ACE for the best control of microbial flora documented, and INVE Aquaculture further during live food production. Meanwhile, demonstrates this with a renewed vision: Sanolife MIC-F and Sanolife GWS allow the shaping aquaculture together. Most impor- easiest and most professional management of tantly of course with their customers, the the larval rearing tanks. farmers, but also with every other stake- holder: suppliers, governments, aquaculture organizations, etc Nutrition and health for INVE Aquaculture specializes in three main shrimp hatcheries aquaculture segments: nutrition and health Examples of industry standards for shrimp are products for fish and shrimp hatcheries, as the FRiPPAK & LANSY dry diets, with a vari- well as health products for farms. With Ser- ety of micro-encapsulated and flaked diets, vice Centers and experienced aquaculture both of which use all the essential nutrients specialists in all major aquaculture markets, and attractants for effective supplementation they are able to not only understand the local of live feed. Next to the actual live feed, we needs of their customers, but also to update also carry a full range of culture & enrichment their product portfolio so the farmers are products. The latest innovation, BREED-S equipped to handle any obstacle they face FRESH, are semi-moist pellets that replace up during the production of fish and shrimp. to 70% of the live feed in maturation regimes

16 SUPPLIER FPCUS of marine shrimp, including complete elimina- for ongrowing shrimp and fish. Sanolife PRO tion of polychaetes. Additionally, health boost- -W, for example, promotes the rapid decom- ers from the Sanoguard S-PAK range position of waste material and helps control improve the shrimps resistance to stress and pathogenic bacteria in ponds under both aero- diseases while Sanolife MIC colonizes the bic and anaerobic conditions. Sano TOP-S is shrimps digestive tract with favorable bacte- a product that boosts the animals immune ria that will compete with pathogenic and system. It allows the most efficient and profit- opportunistic bacteria and at the same time, able plan of action during times of stress, improve the water quality. such as the transfer from hatchery to nursery, and ultimately to the farm, or during disease outbreak. Health products for fish and shrimp grow-out INVE Aquaculture has developed a range of products specifically for ongrowing shrimp and fish. These products fit in their holistic approach of increasing the farmers profits through improved biosecurity, the manage- ment of the rearing conditions & strengthen- ing the animals health. The Sanolife range of probiotics has set industry standards by providing highly concentrated and consistent formulations of Bacillus specifically designed Inve's aquaculture experts work with a customer (center) in Thailand, using a diet from our well-known FRiPPAK shrimp hatchery dry diet range.

17 HATCHERY FEED GUIDE 2013 HOW IS IT MADE? A SUMMARY OF STARTER AQUATIC FEEDS Will Henry discusses the three most common and cost-effective methods currently in use for the production of sub-millimeter aquatic feeds: pellet and crumble, direct extrusion, and spheronization. This article is not intended to be an all- Figure 1. Product Sample of Cold-Extrusion SAS encompassing resource for starter aquatic feeds, as the author is aware that technology moves at an extremely fast past and produc- ers are driven by the ever-demanding needs of a fluent market. It is probably prudent to first discuss the re- quirements of typical micro-aquatic (sub- millimeter, less than 1 .0 mm in diameter) feeds. For this article, we will discuss the fol- lowing product parameters that as an equip- ment designer/ manufacturer that our clients Each method, regardless of ask us to focus limitations, has a specific niche to on: size & uni- For discussion, let us assume we are targeting fulfill and performs well within formity, homoge- a feed cycle for 0.3 mm feed. As stated neity, shape, and above, the cost to manufacture said feed is economy. not inexpensive. As such, we want to ensure Size and uniformity that the stock grow-out to the next stage The importance of size and size uniformity, where it will require a larger feed size in a within the industry, are strict for obvious rea- timely and cost effective manner. If our feed sons (Wankowski, 1977; Wankowski & size uniformity is poor, then feed is wasted Thorpe, 1979). The foremost of these are (inability to consume over-sized pellets) and yield cost at the time of harvest and feed the grow-out time is lengthened (poor nutri- costs. To put it simply, the cost of aquatic tion due to inability of consumption). feed production is inversely proportional to Pellet Homogeneity the targeted product size. As size is de- Proper pellet homogeneity begins with formu- creased, the cost of manufacturing is in- lation and grinding. The first consideration creased. This is due to the various complexi- should be to the components of a required ties that holds true regardless of the method diet and the selection of ingredients that grind of manufacturing. Figure 1 depicts a US and mix well. Secondly, keeping the number minted dime for reference against 0.3mm, of dry components to a minimum will help 0.5mm, and 1.0mm products to render a per- reduce the risk of heterogeneity (non- spective of the size range. uniformity). For example, if we can keep the

18 HATCHERY FEED GUIDE 2013 HOW IS IT total dry ingredient count below 10 compo- For a more detailed comparison to consider an MADE? nents, it will be easier to ensure that a under-lying concern for starter feeds, please A SUMMARY uniform distribution occurs after mixing. In note the micro-graphs in Figures 4 and 5. OF STARTER AQUATIC addition, component ratio (percentage of total FEEDS batch size) is also important. Distributive Figure 4 Pelleted and crumbled mixing (measure of mixing intensity/ efficiency) is greatly improved and more pre- dictable if component ratios are greater than 5 - 7% of total batch size (J.M. Ottino, Kine- matics of Mixing: Chaos and Transport, 1990). The third consideration for pellet homogeneity is particle size. A general rule for homoge- nous pellet production is that the mean parti- cle size of the dry raw materials should be in the size range of 1/3 to 1/5 of the desired pel- let size. For example, if the target pellet size is 1 mm, then the targeted mean particle size after grinding should be in the range of 300 to 500 microns. For reference comparing good particle size to poor particle size, and the Figure 5. Extruded spheronization and effect of such on a final product, please refer- agglomeration ence Figures 2 and 3 below: Figure 2. Direct Extrusion with poor grind Figure 4 depicts a sample of 600 micron prod- uct (#1 Granule) that was produced via a pel- Figure 3. Direct Extrusion with good grind let mill and then crumbled to final target size. The dark spots are rendered from the extreme heat invoked on the process by the pellet mill, with the product being squeezed at high levels of mechanical energy through the small orifices in then die, and the sharp edges found on each pellet created by the crumbling process. The over-heated dark spots will reflect reduced feed functionality due to the destruction of vital vitamins and supplements, while the sharp edges will invariably effect mortality rates due to mouth injuries of the stock. Note the sample in Figure 5 shows a substantial reduction of both dark spots and sharp edges.

19 HATCHERY FEED GUIDE 2013 HOW IS IT The primary limiting factor in obtaining a MADE? good grind, especially for finished pellet sizes A SUMMARY A feeding trial comparison used to reflect below 1 mm, is the grinding equipment and OF STARTER the benefit of a properly designed operational cost. A simple alternative for op- AQUATIC nutritional feeding regiment, considering FEEDS erations that is close to appropriate grinding both the quality and type of feed as well as levels would be to install a form of cost- feeding schedule. effective particle classification prior to final processing. The two charts below reflect a Sieve Analysis of two identical material sam- 2.5 % Increase in Length ples. The analysis simply quantifies the ef- 10% Increase in Girth fectiveness of the grinding system, and helps 20.5% Increase in Weight to determine the true mean particle size. Fig- Appearance ure 4 sample was ground only, while Figure 5 sample was ground and then sifted to re- move out-of-spec particles. Note the im- proved consistency and precision of the mean particle size with Sample #1C2. This benefit directly correlates to improved operational efficiencies (higher EOEs due to reduced inci- dents of die blockage) and FCRs (feed con- version ratio, improved on-spec production yield and higher feed availability to targeted growth stage). Pellet Shape Figure 6: Sample #1B4 Pulverized Micron Size % Through 450 99.8% 350 99.2% 250 98.6% 149 97.8% 75 77.7% Not to say that a perfect sphere is required, Figure 7: Sample #1C2 but a smooth spherical shape has proven to show marked improvement in mortality rates Pulverized & Sifted Micron Size % Through (specifically in non-bottom feeding applica- tions) and yield uniformity. This would be 450 100.0% due in part to the smooth structure of a 350 100.0% properly formed spherical pellet. Referring 250 100.0% back to Fig. 4, you will note that sharp and jagged edges are prominent in most (if not 149 99.8% all) of the pellets. As a fingerling, the mouth 75 80.8% of your stock is extremely sensitive to injury. In terms of shape, we will need to consider During consumption of said pellet, it is prob- individual component shape as well as shape able that some injury will be incurred causing consistency. Individually, it is important to the fish to refrain from feeding properly. ensure that each pellet is round and smooth.

20 HATCHERY FEED GUIDE 2013 HOW IS IT MADE? PELLET & CRUMBLE A SUMMARY OF STARTER ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES AQUATIC High Capacity Levels 40% Yield after Post Production Sifting FEEDS Low Cost per Unit Sinking Only Simple Recipe Preparation Poor Final Appearance Poor Water Stability Sharp Pellet Edges (increased mortality) Nutritional Heterogeneity DIRECT EXTRUSION ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Oil Added Internally High Cost per Unit Pasteurization Low Production Rates 95% Yield after Post-Production Sifting Requires Dedicated Line Excellent Appearance Size Limitations Good Water Stability Nutritional Heterogeneity Floating or Sinking Good Durability AGGLOMERATION & SPHERONIZATION ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Oil Added Internally Sinking Only Moderately Low Temperatures No Pasteurization Pellet size to .150 mm Limited Production Rates 96% Yield after Post-Production Sifting Dedicated Line Recommended Nutritional Homogeneity Excellent Appearance Medicate, Vitamins Improved Growth Rates, Uniformity and FCR ABOUT THE AUTHOR Production Methodology Will Henry joined In summary, within the production industry, Extru-Tech in 2006 after you will typically see three primary methods serving as senior project of producing starter aquatic feeds: pelletize engineer with Bachelor and crumble, direct extrusion, agglomeration Controls. He presents exten- & spheronization. The pros and cons of each sively on extrusion and food method can be easily compare, and are cate- safety around the world. gorized in terms of production costs, yield, He holds a bachelors of product characteristics, and targeted feed science in electrical functions. Each method, regardless of limita- engineering from Kansas State University tions, has a specific niche to fulfill and per- and is certified in HACCP, BSL-2 and SQF. forms well within. HF E: [email protected]

21 SUPPLIER FOCUS Skretting Marine Hatchery Feeds (MHF) Spectrum product portfolio THE LIFE STAGES OF MARINE LARVAE such as sea bass and sea bream are extremely technical owing to the fact that these species are very primitive in physical form when they hatch. And because certain aspects of the life stages can vary im- mensely from one hatchery to the next and from one producing country to another, it is vital that each hatchery deploys the most appropriate feeding approach possible to optimise growth rates. Established in 2006 with the express remit to deliver specific products and services to hatcheries of marine fish and shrimp species, Skrettings Marine Hatchery Feeds (MHF) team comprises dedicated staff with locally-focused market insight, knowledge and experience all 100 percent focused on delivering top-quality marine- and shrimp- specific products and services. Through MHFs unique Spectrum product portfolio, every aspect of the animals early life cycles are catered for, from devising broodstock feeds suited to the specific stages of conditioning, maturation, spawning and recov- ery of parent fish through to green water application products, live feed components, GEMMA Micro early weaning feeds, nursery feeds and pre-on-growing diets. Furthermore, as part of its dedicated focus on hatcheries, MHF is constantly assessing what specific markets are doing and what they require. This enables the team to quickly deliver the exact products and services that hatcheries are asking for. As well as locating dedicated team members in each of its main markets to deal spe- cifically with marine and shrimp feeds, MHF has organised a senior, centrally-placed product team, led by product manager Eamonn OBrien, which also includes a product development specialist and a technical support manager. As a unit, the team proactively works across the entire MHF organisational matrix to exchange the unique experiences of different locations in order to build invaluable knowledge and expertise for the benefit of its customer base.

22 HATCHERY FEED GUIDE 2013 ADVANCES IN EXTRUDED FEED Extruded diets with fresh raw material are now able to provide complete compounded nutritional requirements for broodstock and juvenile marine fish. Extrusion consultant, Peter Hutchinson explains ... Manufacture of hatchery feeds is as much art formulations are not so much cost driven (as as science. Understanding what the customer would be the case with commercial grow-out wants, what fish require and what is feasible diets) and an all in basis is often used as a in terms of manufacture can be a balancing starting point for ingredients. Sales are very act. At the end of the day we need to form much result driven and we rely on prompt some sort of pellet which will hold together feedback from customers. So if sales are as required, meet shelf life and biosecurity growing, we figure we must be doing some- requirements, get eaten as well as meet nutri- thing right and we work closely with custom- tional requirements for growth and or egg ers to see what we can learn from their re- quality. sults. Bearing in mind results will not gener- ally be multiple replicate, peer reviewed stud- Its actually difficult to write this type of arti- ies, so intuition and experience play a signifi- cle with good science, as science is scrappy cant roll. The costs of rigorous trials are pro- for this side of hibitive given the volumes of feed utilized by In our earlier attempts with high the aquaculture the hatchery industry and therefore prompt industry and spe- end hatchery feeds (broodstock cies are varied. feedback is imperative. As is the case with and juvenile), we threw many small businesses in the research indus- Basics such as try, we dont have the luxury of big marketing everything in ... protein and lipid budgets with gimmicky concepts either. There quality and high arent many second chances out there in this protein to energy market...! ratios are a given, however in a compounded diet for marine broodstock or juveniles our In our earlier attempts with high end hatchery general understanding of these macronutri- feeds (broodstock and juvenile), we threw ents needs to be expanded when compared everything in (much like everyone one else), with grow out diets, as in themselves balanc- including various MOS, pigments, soluble pro- ing these nutrients wont generate quality re- teins, aminos, high DHA oil, ARA, high vits sults. Protein source is critical, however what and mins, natural antioxidants, stimulants, we would generally understand as quality ani- attractants and so on. To be honest, the suc- mal protein doesnt necessarily produce re- cess rate wasnt as good as using wet fish di- sults. ets. We then moved to semi-moist diets and while we had a small increase in palatability, From time to time specific ingredients may not much else changed and customers were be required by a customer and formulations still using the diets primarily as supplements tailored to fit a species in question. Clearly rather than as complete diets. We were using

23 HATCHERY FEED GUIDE 2013 ADVANCES IN standard semi-moist stabilizing techniques at wet feed, relying on these booster products as EXTRUDED that time, including phosphoric acid as an a sole source of feed has not worked well in FEED acidulant, along with the other usual sugar our experience. Feeding of formulated syrups and prop glycol to reduce water activ- dough alone from blended powders mixed ity. with water will struggle to provide required results. Extruded diets with fresh raw material It wasnt until we made a significant departure are now able to provide complete com- from these standard stabilizing methods and pounded nutritional requirements for brood- began using a blend of organic acids in con- stock and juvenile marine fish, with the added junction with fresh wet fish/mussel/squid benefits of improved bio-security and conven- meat inclusion that we began to see real ience whilst still providing the high degree of benefits. The greatly improved results from palatability required. HF utilizing fresh ingredients are likely multifac- eted in influence and as much as definitive conclusions are hard to draw, the majority of result probably relate to quality of protein (having not been rendered first), with a very slim possibility that some enzyme activity may survive the extrusion process. Also the ABOUT THE AUTHOR organic acids may be directly influencing gut flora in terms of reducing pathogenic load and as an indirect consequence, helping to im- prove length of GIT microvilli. There are mul- tiple theories surrounding use of organic acids including protection of proteins and other nu- trients during processing, stimulation of en- zyme secretion, nutrient release through acidification, increased utilization of fats and increased gastric retention. So take your pick as to the most significant role these ingredi- ents are playing, however my intuition tells me that un-rendered wet raws and organic Peter Hutchinson is the Director of E.N. acids are mutually beneficial, as their com- Hutchinson, Auckland, New Zealand bined inclusion has resulted in the most sig- nificant performance improvement we have Peter studied aquaculture in Tasmania, seen to date. Australia, in the early nineties before returning to New Zealand where he The beauty of this approach is that it need not worked primarily in the finfish hatchery be restricted to the hatchery industry. Wenger industry. In 1997 he joined the family Manufacturing have developed extrusion business (EN Hutchinson Ltd.) and equipment that is capable of utilizing in ex- established a small extrusion plant, cess of 50% wet raw material off the back of with a focus on aquaculture nutrition trends towards increasing wet meat inclusion in the pet food industry. In theory, by utilizing and general R&D. Over the last decade wet meat/fish by-products even standard Peter has consulted widely in the field salmon pellets could be produced economi- of aquatic nutrition and extrusion, for a cally, potentially with significant performance diverse range of major private and benefits. public sector companies, including development of starch based While there are generic booster/supplement bio-polymers, breakfast cereals, pet products on the market, which are designed foods, agricultural and aquatic feeds. to be fed in conjunction with wet fish diets and can supplement compounds lacking in the E: [email protected]

24 HATCHERY FEED GUIDE 2013 PRODUCTION OF MICRO FEEDS DIRECTLY FROM AN EXTRUSION COOKER The previous article gave an overview of the different methods of producing hatchery feeds. Here, Joe Kearns focuses on single and twin- screw extrusion. Extrusion cooking of aquatic feeds is a proven also known as an agglomeration system, process and is mainly used for production of usually coupled with a sphere-izer. grow out feeds in the field of aquaculture. This article deals with direct extrusion and Understanding the process and its limitations thus the first two options. It should be noted and critical design parameters allows for ex- that the agglomeration system is capable of pansion into production of what is referred to making feeds of much smaller diameters then as micro pellets or pellets suitable for use in directly off extruders, as described in the pre- starter or hatchery diets. vious article. Diameters of 200 microns or Hatchery diets are for juveniles and thus the 0.2mm are possible with a correctly designed diets are typically made from high quality in- agglomeration system. gredients resulting in a valuable product. This There are two production philosophies with is no different in regards to direct extrusion cooking of micro human and or Selection of the extruder for feeds, low capacity or high capacity. In either foods for pets as production of micro feeds is a case the process begins with the raw material examples. Higher choice that depends partially on preparation. The use of floury raw materials quality proteins, and deboned fishmeal or animal protein meals your pellet diameter more digestible are advantageous as they are either quite fine requirements ingredients as or will grind easier. It is critical that the well as increased ingredients be handled carefully due to their vitamin and mineral mixes are used. With the cost. Ingredients can be ground individually cost of raw materials being the major factor in or after combination together. Fine grinding aquatic feeds additional care in production of is essential due to the final extrusion die hatchery feeds is not that uncommon. It is orifice opening sizes. The grinding is usually also not unusual to understand that quality accomplished by micro pulverizing and sifting. processing and equipment for production of It should be noted that all raw materials these feeds is essential. There are a number including process water, oil or other liquid of methods to make micro aquatic feeds via ingredients such as possible steam injection extrusion cooking. The major three catego- be screened for large particle removal. The ries would be: formula and liquids are then introduced into - Via singles screw extrusion the equipment. - Twin screw extrusion, multiple designs both When using either a single or twin screw parallel and non parallel extruder the equipment is best utilized if it is a stand-alone system for micro feeds, in fact - Reduced heat forming extrusion or what is the best arrangement is if the entire line is

25 HATCHERY FEED GUIDE 2013 PRODUCTION solely used for producing micro feeds. The Figure 1. Extreme case of material blocking an OF MICRO extrusion die main reason is cleanliness. Any possible re- FEEDS DIRECTLY sidual large particles from other extrusion FROM AN products where extreme fineness of the raw EXTRUSION material is not required can, in the end, result COOKER in die blockage causing a shutdown of the process. If this is not possible then attention to cleaning the system completely is advised. The system defined as delivery conveyors, hoppers, mixers, grinders, sifters and any other devices that would feed into the extru- sion cooker. Table 1: Effect of Pulverizing and sifting Sample #1B4 Pulverized Micron Size % Through 450 99.8% 350 99.2% your pellet diameter requirements. It is sug- 250 98.6% gested that for diameters down to 1 mm a single screw extruder is a possible choice. For 149 97.8% diameters down to 0.6 mm a twin screw ex- 75 77.7% truded would be advised. Both single and twin screw extruders are relatively the same Sample #1C2 until the actual extruder barrel. Both are nor- Pulverized & Sifted mally complete with preconditioners where Micron Size % Through steam and water and other possible liquid ad- ditions are incorporated into the dry raw ma- 450 100.0% terials. This would be a critical part of the 350 100.0% process as it is hard to imagine you could 250 100.0% force dry raw materials through such small die 149 99.8% openings. Therefore typical moisture contents out of the preconditioner would be in the ap- 75 80.8% proximate 25 to 30 percent range. This would allow final inclusion of water and steam in the Table 1 shows the benefit of proper ingredient extruder barrel for final adjustments prior to pulverizing and sifting. As seen, the pulver- flowing out of the die in the low 30% final ized only sample still had 0.2% particles moisture level. Accuracy of preconditioning in above 450 micron and 1.4% above 250 terms of evenness in moisture inclusion, microns. The pulverized and sifted sample steam injection etc. as well as the coefficient was 100% through a 250 mesh screen which of variances in mixing would be important is quite acceptable for most micro feeds. This again so as to avoid any flow problems in the confirms the benefit of both pulverizing and extrusion die. sifting in combination for this process. This brings us to the major difference in the Single or twin? two styles of extruders, the extruder barrel. Selection of the extruder for production of mi- Single screw and twin screw extrusion are in cro feeds is a choice that depends partially on this case trying to achieve the same result, pump the material through the die while im-

26 HATCHERY FEED GUIDE 2013 PRODUCTION Figure 2. High capacity non parallel twin screw extruder for micro pellets OF MICRO FEEDS DIRECTLY FROM AN EXTRUSION COOKER parting the required heat for the cooking ABOUT THE AUTHOR process. In both cases controlled slippage of the raw materials is what increases friction between the raw materials themselves as well as the extruder parts creating heat for cook- ing. The actual extruder configuration can be adjusted to increase or decrease this phe- nomenon in singles and standard parallel sin- gle twin screw designs. The exception is the non parallel twin screw extruders referred to as Conical Co-Rotating Twin Screw Extruders. In this case the screw flighting does not allow for part changes but relies on the operation parameters of its design. Shaft speed control and open area related to the flow from a BPV, Joseph P. Kearns is the Aquaculture Proc- back pressure valve. HF ess Engineering Manager for Wenger Manufacturing, Inc. He has eight pat- ents for Wenger all with regards to aquatic feeds and/or machinery associ- ated with production of same. E: [email protected]

27 The marine hatchery feed portfolio from Skretting NEPTUNE VITALIS ORI-GO GEMMA PERLA PL Feeding your passion for fish www.skretting.com/spectrum

28 HATCHERY FEED GUIDE 2013 MANUFACTURED FEEDS SUPPLIER PRODUCTNAME SPECIES LIFE FORM DESCRIPTION MORE STAGE INFORMATION Argent CyclopEeze All All Whole Wholefrozenmicrocrustacean, WEBSITE Chemical (DeepFrozen) organism 3,000ppm+AstaxanthIn. Laboratories Argent CyclopEeze All All Whole Wholefreezedriedmicrocrustacean, WEBSITE Chemical (FreezeDried) organism 3,000ppm+Astaxanthin. Laboratories Argent HatchfryEncapsulon All Larvae Micro Completediet,hydrostable,allmarine WEBSITE ChemicalOIII PL Encapsulated proteinsMadeinUSA,Micronsizes: Laboratories HF0(3050)HFI(50150)HF2(150250) HF3(250350). Argent SpirulinaMicrofine All All SprayDried FinestpuritymadeinUSA. WEBSITE Chemical Microfine Laboratories Argent ArgentemiaPlatinum All Larvae ArtemiaCysts High3,HighhatchrateSmallnauplii. WEBSITE Chemical Grade0 PL Laboratories Fry AquaInTech BlackBoxLarvalDiets Fish Larval Custommadetotheclientsspecifications. DATASHEET Shrimp Krillbasedproteindietswithaproprietary bacterialproductsaddedforoptimumstress resistance. AquaInTech BlackBoxAcclimation Fish Nursery Custommadetotheclientsspecifications. DATASHEET diets Shrimp Krillbasedproteindietswithaproprietary bacterialproductsaddedforoptimumstress resistance.AcclimationdiethighinVita minsandminerals,glucans,nucleotidesand othermaterialsthatimpactstresstolerance. AquaInTech MATMIX Shrimp Broodstock Powdered Completelyreplacesmostlivefeedingredi DATASHEET ents(althoughrecommendedthatyoujust useless).Apowderedproductthatyoumix upinthehatcherywithsomewaterandthe ingredientsprovided.Proventopromote excellentproductivityinbroodstock. Biomat SPIROOmicroFEEDPLUS Fish Larvae Micro Patentpendingmicropackagingtechnology DATASHEET Shrimp PL packaged enablestheproductionofanewandunique Bivalve fry spirulina larvaeandfrymicrofeed,basedon100% organic,contaminantfree,closedPBR,high proteinspirulinamicroalgae.SPIROOmicro FEEDPLUSfeaturesfieldtestedneutral buoyancy,highlyattractant,palatableand digestibleproteinsandnutrientswithsupe riorwaterstability.Roomtemperaturestor age.

29 HATCHERY FEED GUIDE 2013 SUPPLIER PRODUCTNAME SPECIES LIFE FORM DESCRIPTION MORE STAGE INFORMATION BioOregon BioVitaStarter Salmon First Extruded BioVitaStarterisapremiumfishfeedwith DATA SHEET Trout feedingfry Crumbles highlevelsoffishmealandfishoil.Foruse WEBSITE infirstfeeding,itcontainsanenhancedvitamin packandpigmenttopromotehealthyfishand CONTACT naturalcoloration. Naturalpalatabilityenhancersensureanactive firstfeedingresponse. BioOregon BioClarksStarter Salmon First Extruded BioClarksStartercombinestraditionaldietary DATA SHEET Trout feedingfry Crumbles valueswithanincreasedlevelofalternative WEBSITE ingredientstoreducecostandtopromote sustainability.Foruseinfirstfeeding,it CONTACT containsanenhancedvitaminpackand pigmenttopromotehealthyfishandnatural coloration. Naturalpalatabilityenhancersensureanactive firstfeedingresponse. BioOregon MicroVita Salmon First Extruded MicroVitamicropelletsarebasedonthepre DATA SHEET Trout feedingfry MicroPellets miumBioVitaStarterformulation.MicroVita WEBSITE micropelletsareavailablein0.6&0.9mm sizes,andcanbeusedasdirectreplacements CONTACT forour#1startercrumblesizes. Micropelletsareclean,durableanduniform inshape. BioOregon BioFlake Salmon First Flakes BioFlakeisarevolutionaryflakedfeedwhich DATASHEET Trout feedingfry isdesignedtostimulatefishappetiteand WEBSITE encouragefeeding.ItisrichinAntarctickrill andprovidesalltheconventionalbenefitsof CONTACT frozenkrillwithouttheneedforrefrigeration. BioFlakecanbefedalone,orincombination withotherfeeds.Whenaddedtostarter crumbles(BioVitaorBioClarks)eventhemost finickyfishwillbeencouragedtostartfeeding. BioOregon BioVitaFry Salmon Parr Extruded BioVitaFryisapremiumfishfeedwithhigh DATA SHEET Trout Pellets levelsoffishmeal,andfishoil.Itcontainsan WEBSITE enhancedvitaminpackandpigmentto promotehealthyfishandnaturalcoloration. CONTACT Naturalpalatabilityenhancersensureanactive feedresponse. BioOregon BioOlympicFry Salmon Parr Extruded BioOlympicFryisourmostadvancedfrydiet DATA SHEET Trout Pellets andprovidesmaximumgrowthratesand WEBSITE shortenedproductiontimes.BioOlympicFry hasdemonstratedgrowthimprovementsofup CONTACT to20%incontrolledtrials. BioOregon BioClarksFry Salmon Parr Extruded BioClarksFryisamidlevelenergyfishfeedfor DATA SHEET Trout Pellets moderateorcontrolledgrowth.Itincludesan WEBSITE increasedlevelofalternativeingredientsto reducecostandtopromotesustainability.CONTACT Itcontainsanenhancedvitaminpackand pigmenttopromotehealthyfishandnatural coloration. BioOregon BioBrood Salmon Broodstock Extruded BioBroodisdesignedtomeettheneedsof DATA SHEET Trout Pellets developingandmaturingeggsandsperm.It WEBSITE containspremiumfishmealandfishoil,and extravitamins&mineralsforimproved CONTACT fecundity,spermmotility,broodhealth,egg quality,&frysurvival.BioBroodshouldbefed for612monthspriortospawning.

30 HATCHERY FEED GUIDE 2013 SUPPLIER PRODUCTNAME SPECIES LIFESTAGE FORM DESCRIPTION MORE INFORMATION BioOregon BioPro Salmon Parr Extruded BioProisahealthpromotingdietDATASHEET Trout Pellets specificallyformulatedforfreshwater salmon&trout.BioProisdesignedtobefed WEBSITE leadinguptostressfulsituations,including CONTACT periodsofhighdiseaseriskoradverse environmentalconditionssuchaselevated summerwatertemperatures,intense sunlightorlowdissolvedoxygen. BioOregon BioSupreme Salmon Smolt Extruded BioSupremeisspecificallyformulatedto DATASHEET Trout transfer Pellets preparesalmonforthetransitionfromfresh tosaltwater.LikeBioTransfer,BioSupreme WEBSITE containselevatedlevelsofdietarysaltand CONTACT nowincludesnewlyidentifiedingredients thatareessentialforincreasingfeedintake andgrowthfollowingtransfer.BioSupreme shouldbefedfor6weekspriortoreleaseor transfertosaltwater. BioOregon BioDry1000LP Salmon Parr Extruded BioDry1000LP(LowPhosphorus)isan DATASHEET Trout Pellets extruded,lowpollutionfishfeedwhichis formulatedtoreducetheamountof WEBSITE phosphorousdischargedintothe CONTACT environment.Thisdietcontainslessthan 1%dietaryphosphorus. ENHutchinson BroodMax Marine Broodstock Pellet Asoftdryfullycompoundedsteamextruded DATASHEET Fish fishfeed,designedforimprovementofegg Shrimp qualityinbroodstock.Thetextureimproves WEBSITE palatabilityandalsoenablespelletstobe CONTACT moldedtogether,forlargespeciessuchas grouper.Itcontainshighlevelsofsoluble proteinforpalatabilityanddigestibilityas wellashighlevelsofmixedcarotenoids. EWOSCanada Micro(#0,#1,#2) Salmonids Hatchery Crumbles Apremiumallfishmeal/oilfreshwaterdiet. Seeyoursalesrep Fry Resultsinexcellentracewayhygieneand fordatasheets. costeffectivegrowth WEBSITE EWOSCanada Micro1.2mm Salmonids Fingerlings Extruded Apremiumallfishmeal/oilfreshwaterdiet. Seeyoursalesrep Pellets Resultsinexcellentracewayhygieneand fordatasheets. costeffectivegrowth WEBSITE EWOSCanada Transfer Salmon Fingerlings Extruded Premiumsmoltfeedusedtopreparefishfor Seeyoursalesrep (1.5,2.0and3.0mm) Trout Smolts pellets transfertosaltwaterORwhencombating fordatasheets. stressors. WEBSITE EWOSCanada Pacific Salmon Fry Extruded Highproteinandmoderatefatdiets.Blend Seeyoursalesrep (1.2,1.5,29mm) Trout Fingerlings pellets ofpremiumfishmealsandselectalternative fordatasheets. Coho Grower proteins WEBSITE EWOSCanada Vita(1.5,29mm) Salmon Fry Extruded Moderateproteinandlowfatwithfishmeal Seeyoursalesrep Trout Fingerlings pellets andhighlydigestiblealternativeingredients fordatasheets. Bass Production WEBSITE Sturgeon EWOSCanada Calform(29mm) Salmon Fingerlings Extruded Floating/slowsinkingfeed Seeyoursalesrep Trout Production pellets fordatasheets. Bass WEBSITE

31 HATCHERY FEED GUIDE 2013 SUPPLIER PRODUCTNAME SPECIES LIFE FORM DESCRIPTION MORE STAGE INFORMATION EWOSCanada Calform(29mm) Salmon Fingerlings Extruded Floating/slowsinkingfeed. Seeyoursalesrep Trout Production pellets fordatasheets. Bass WEBSITE EWOSCanada Natura(#0,#1,#2) Pink Hatchery Crumbles Highqualityfishoil,lowtempfishmealsand Seeyoursalesrep chum Fry selectalternativeingredients. fordatasheets. WEBSITE EWOSCanada Brood(5,7,9and10.5 Salmon Feed10 Extruded Nutritionallyoptimizedfattyacids,fishmeal Seeyoursalesrep mm) Trout months pellets baseddiet. fordatasheets. priorto WEBSITE eggtake GoldCoin GoldCoinENCAP Shrimp LarvaeFeed MicroENCAPproductsaremicroencapsulatedwith WEBSITE Biotechnologies encapsulated ingredientsofthehighestqualityanddi feed gestibility.Withourprocessbeingcarried outatlowtemperaturewhereminimum heatisinvolved,thereisminimalnutrient loss.Whenusedinhatcheries,theproducts alsodisplaythefollowingadvantages: simplicitytouse,minimumwaterpollution, minimalfeedwastage,controlledbuoyancy, highattractabilityandfastergrowthtolar vae. GoldCoin GoldCoinShrimp LarvaeFeed MicroMicroparticulatedfeedisformulatedbased WEBSITE Biotechnologies Microparticulatedfeed particulated onthehighlyspecializedfeedinghabitsof feed thepostlarvae.Highlydigestiblemarine proteinsareusedtoallowtheyoungpost larvaesalimentarycanalassimilatethese importantnutrients. InveO.range Fish Larvaeup Crumbleddry Theultimatemarinefishdrydietrange. WEBSITE Aquaculture tojuveniles feed Consistsof4dietsthatperfectlyfitthefishs nutritionalneedsthroughoutthedifferent CONTACT hatcherystages.OptimalHUFAandDHA/ EPAprofiles.Excellentstabilityandfloata bility.Formulatedusingonlytopqualityraw ingredients. InveFishBreedM Fish Broodstock Powdered Aconsistent,highqualitypowderedconcen WEBSITE Aquaculture trateformoistbroodstockfeeds.Decreases oreliminatestheuseoffreshfishfeed,thus CONTACT reducingriskofinfection.Optimizesproduc tivitywhileofferingconsistentspawningand fertilizationrates. Inve LansyBreed Fish Broodstock Pellets Softpelletsthatenhancethenutritional WEBSITE Aquaculture qualityoftheoffspringandprovideamore predictableoutput.Allowsforbetterand CONTACT increasedeggproduction.Availablein8,12 or24mmpellets. Inve NRD Fish Larvaeup Crumbleddry Topperformancedrydietrangeformarine WEBSITE Aquaculture tojuveniles feed fish.Onedietlineforthecofeeding, CONTACT weaning,postweaning,nurseryand preongrowingstages.

32 HATCHERY FEED GUIDE 2013 SUPPLIER PRODUCTNAME SPECIES LIFE FORM DESCRIPTION MORE STAGE INFORMATION Inve BREEDSFRESH Shrimp Broodstock Semimoist Pioneering,softshrimpmaturationdietwith WEBSITE Aquaculture pellets freshmarineingredients.Replacesupto70% ofthefreshfeed.Offersfullbiosecurity,acon CONTACT sistentnutritionalqualityandsuperioregg qualitywhileboostingthespawningperform ance. InveEPAC Shrimp PL Crumbled Postlarvalshrimpfeedrangeforlowcost WEBSITE Aquaculture pellets applications.NEWformulathatincludesmore marineproteinsandlipids,offersbetterwater CONTACT stabilityandincreasedpalatabilityandattrac tivenesstothePLs.Maintainsacleanand healthyrearingenvironmentwhileallowinga reliableoutputofrobustPLs. InveFRiPPAKFRESH Shrimp Larvae Micro Arangeofadvancedlarvalshrimpfeeds.Mini WEBSITE Aquaculture encapsulated mizesArtemiaconsumption,offeringthebest balancebetweenlivefoodandformulated CONTACT diets.Containshighlevelsoffreshandnatural ingredients.Offershighersurvivalratesand shorterproductioncycles.NowwithNEWfor mulasfor#2CDand#3CD. InveFRiPPAKPLFEEDS Shrimp PL Crumbled Highqualitydietrangeforpostlarvalshrimp. WEBSITE Aquaculture ComplementarywithourFRiPPAKFRESHrange forthelarvalstages.MinimizesArtemia CONTACT consumptionandproducesthebestquality PLs.Increasessurvivalrates. Inve LANSYShrimp Shrimp Larvae Micro Arangeofhighqualitydrydietscoveringall WEBSITE Aquaculture PL encapsulated, hatcherystages.Replacesatleast40%ofthe crumbledand Artemianeeds.Manufacturedaccordingtothe CONTACT flaked highestsanitarystandards,ensuringconsistent survivalanduniformgrowth.Excellentbuoy ancyandwaterstability. Inve VANNA(Chinaonly) Shrimp Larvae Micro Aperformingdietrangeforeconomic WEBSITE Aquaculture PL encapsulated, vannameilarviculture.Highlynutritional,well crumbledand balancedformulation.Largelyreducestheuse CONTACT flaked oflivealgaeandArtemia.Producesstrong, healthyPLs.NonGMO. LuckyStar Initial Fish Larvae Micro Nutritionallybalancedtosatisfytherequire WEBSITE encapsulated mentsofmarinefishspecies.Slowsinkingto maximizefeedavailabilityandavoidfeedloss. Highlevelsofdigestibleprotein,utilizable lipids,cholesterolandvitamins.Effective cofeedwithrotifer,artemiaandmicroalgae. LuckyStar MPEnhance Fish Larvae Formulated Extrusionmicroparticulategranulewhichof WEBSITE particle fersaneconomicalchoice.Effective cofeedwithrotifer,microalgaeandartemia. LuckyStar MicroElite Shrimp Larvae Encapsulated MicroEliteshrimplarvalfeedisprocessedby WEBSITE themostadvancedencapsulatedtechnology withthefollowingcharacteristics:Excellent feedbuoyancyinwatercolumntomaximize feedavailability.Encapsulatedgranulesex tendingwaterstabilityandminimizenutrition leaching.Balancedfattyacidprofile. LuckyStar Brineshrimpflake Shrimp Larvae Flake LuckyStarbrineshrimpflakeisdelicatelyfor WEBSITE mulatedtosatisfythenutritional requirementsofqualityshrimplarvae.

33 HATCHERY FEED GUIDE 2013 SUPPLIER PRODUCTNAME SPECIES LIFE FORM DESCRIPTION MORE STAGE INFORMATION PacificTrading Otohime Fish Larvae Granulate Otohimeismadefromhighlyselectedraw DATASHEET Aquaculture materialswitheasilydigestedproteinandhigh qualitylipidstopromotethevitalityoffish larvae,sizes75muto1400mu.Amazingcleanli ness,excellentdispersibilityonwatersurface andidealsinkingspeed,thisisconsideredthe premiumJapaneselarvaldietaroundthe world. Skretting VitalisCAL Fish Broodstock Extruded Extrudeddietwhichshouldbeofferedto WEBSITE broodfishfromtheonsetofvitellogenesisand shouldbefeduntil1monthafterspawningto CONTACT allowoptimaldevelopment,sustenanceand recoverythroughthewholespawningperiod. Skretting VitalisREPRO Fish Broodstock Extruded Extrudeddietwhichshouldbeoffered WEBSITE outsidethespawningwindowtomaintainopti malconditionofthespawningfish. CONTACT Skretting GEMMAMicro Fish Early ColdExtruded Unique,patenteddiet,whichisspecifically WEBSITE weaning formulatedandproducedtofacilitateearly weaning. CONTACT Skretting GEMMAWean Fish Cofeed& ColdExtruded Extrudeddietwhichhasbeendevelopedtoco WEBSITE weaning feedandweanmarinelarvaeduringthelarval rearingphases.Optimaldiettofollowonfrom CONTACT rotifersandcofeedwithminimalArtemia. Skretting GEMMADiamond Fish Post ColdExtruded Extrudeddietwhichhasbeendesignedtogive WEBSITE weaning juvenilesthebeststartbyassuringfastand efficientgrowthandlowfeedconversionunder CONTACT pregrowingconditions. Skretting PerlaMP Fish Transfer& Extruded Completeminipelletstarterdietwhichhas WEBSITE pre beendesignedasaspecificpreongrowing ongrowing feed. CONTACT Skretting PL Shrimp Larval& ColdExtruded Feedingprogrammewhichhasbeenengi WEBSITE postlarval neeredtoofferadvancednutritiontoshrimp nutrition hatcheries.Itcanbeutilizedfromzoeastages CONTACT untilpregrowingstages. Skretting StarterCrumble Trout First Extruded StarterCrumble,previouslyknownasthe WEBSITE NorthAmerica feedingfry Pellets GranulatedSalmon/TroutFrydiet,isa nutrientrichcrumbledstarterfeedsuitablefor CONTACT Trout,Steelheadandarangeofothercoldand warmwaterspecies.StarterCrumbleispro ducedfromahighlydigestibleextrudedpellet. Skretting ClassicFry Trout Parr Extruded ClassicFry,previouslycalledExtruded WEBSITE NorthAmerica Pellets Steelhead,isamediumenergyextrudedsink ingorfloatingfrydiet.ClassicFryisspecifically CONTACT formulatedtoachievegoodgrowthand healthyfry.

34 HATCHERY FEED GUIDE 2013 SUPPLIER PRODUCTNAME SPECIES LIFE FORM DESCRIPTION MORE STAGE INFORMATION SkrettingNorth OncorFry Trout Parr Extruded OncorFryisSkrettingUSAsbestdietfor WEBSITE America Pellets TroutandSteelheadfry,formulatedto ensuregoodwaterstability,excellent CONTACT growthandlowFCR.OncorFryhasahigher levelofdigestibleproteinandhigherenergy contentthanClassicFrytoensurethatyour fishgetofftothebestpossiblestart. Zeigler EZArtemia Shrimp Larvae Microcapsule 100%ArtemiaReplacementformulatedasa DATASHEET PL completebalanceddiettomimicthecolor, taste,texture,andnutritionalvalueof Artemianauplii Zeigler EZLarva Shrimp Larvae Microcapsule PremiumLiquidLarvalDietdesignedto DATASHEET PL producehighqualityPLsandmaintain excellentwaterquality.Containsalgae, pigments,andhighHUFAcontent. Zeigler LarvaZPlus Shrimp Larvae Microparticle PremiumDryLarvalDietscientificallyand DATASHEET PL commerciallyproventoproducethehighest qualityPLs.Containsalgae,pigments,and highHUFAcontent. Zeigler LarvaEsencial Shrimp Larvae Microparticle DryLarvalDietdesignedtopromotefast DATASHEET PL growthwhilemaintainingwaterqualityin larvalrearingsystems.Containspigments andHUFA'sfrommarinesources. Zeigler LarvaAP100 Shrimp LarvaeMicroparticle DryLarvalDietnutritionallybalancedfor DATASHEET Fish PL marinelarvae.Containspigmentsand HUFA'sfrommarinesources. Zeigler PLRacewayPlus Shrimp PL Crumble Complete,premiumpostlarvaldietthat DATASHEET promoteslarger,healthieranimalsforstock inginponds.Containspigmentsandhigh levelsofHUFA'sfrommarinesources. Zeigler BrineShrimpFlakeRed Shrimp PL Flake Highlydigestibleflakedietforcolorationof DATASHEET thedigestivetrackinP.monodon.Contains highqualitybrineshrimp. Zeigler BrineShrimpFlakeBlack Shrimp PL Flake Highlydigestibleflakedietforcolorationof DATASHEET thedigestivetrackinP.vannamei.Contains highqualitybrineshrimp. Zeigler EZBlack Shrimp PL Microparticle Microparticleflakedietforcolorationofthe DATASHEET Flake digestivetrackinP.vannamei.Containshigh qualitybrineshrimp. By Aquafeed.com Visit us today!

35 HATCHERY FEED GUIDE 2013 Species Look up: Manufactured feeds ALL Vitalis REPRO Skretting North America GEMMA Micro Starter Crumble Argent Chemical Laboratories GEMMA Wean Classic Fry Cyclop-Eeze (Deep Frozen) GEMMA Diamond Oncor Fry Cyclop-Eeze (Freeze Dried) Perla MP COHO Hatchfry Encapsulon O - III Spirulina Microfine Zeigler EWOS Canada Argentemia Platinum Grade 0 Larva AP-100 Pacific (1.2, 1.5, 2 9 mm) FISH SALMONIDS BASS Aqua-In-Tech EWOS Canada EWOS Canada Black Box Larval Diets Micro (#0, #1, #2) Vita (1.5, 2 9 mm) Black Box Acclimation diets Micro 1.2 mm Calform (2 9 mm) STURGEON Biomat Bio-Oregon SPIROO microFEED PLUS BioVita Starter EWOS Canada BioClarks Starter Vita (1.5, 2 9 mm) EN Hutchinson MicroVita PINK CHUM BroodMax BioFlake BioVita Fry EWOS Canada Inve Aquaculture Bio-Olympic Fry Natura (#0, #1, #2) O.range BioClarks Fry BIVALVE Fish Breed-M BioBrood Lansy Breed BioPro Biomat NRD BioSupreme SPIROO microFEED PLUS BioDry 1000LP SHRIMP Lucky Star SALMON / TROUT Initial Aqua-In-Tech MP Enhance Brood (5, 7 , 9 and 10.5 mm) Black Box Larval Diets EWOS Canada Black Box Acclimation diets Pacific Trading Aquaculture Transfer (1.5, 2.0 and 3.0 mm) MAT MIX Otohime Pacific (1.2, 1.5, 2 9 mm) Vita (1.5, 2 9 mm) Biomat Skretting Calform (2 9 mm) SPIROO microFEED PLUS Vitalis CAL Calform (2 9 mm)

36 HATCHERY FEED GUIDE 2013 Species Look up: Manufactured feeds Gold Coin Biotechnologies Gold Coin ENCAP Gold Coin Microparticulated feed EN Hutchinson BroodMax Inve Aquaculture BREED-S FRESH EPAC FRiPPAK FRESH FRiPPAK PL FEEDS LANSY-Shrimp VANNA (China only) Lucky Star Micro Elite Brine shrimp flake Skretting PL Zeigler EZ Artemia EZ Larva Larva Z-Plus Larva Z-Plus Larva Esencial Larva AP-100 PL Raceway Plus Brine Shrimp Flake Red Brine Shrimp Flake - Black EZ Black

37 The Future of Feeds Superio ing r id Fe Prov eds for ts up ul erior Res S Reed Mariculture has earned a reputation for being on the cutting edge by developing innovative nutrition and production solutions for the aquaculture industry. Customers in over 80 countries depend on Reed Mariculture for timely delivery of superior nutrition products and world class customer service. Commercial Aquaculture Products Our Instant Algae including RotiGrow and Shellfish Diet products are the most convenient and effective feeds on the market for growth, enrichment and green- water productivity. We also offer 2012-2013 Reed Mariculture, Inc. All Rights reserved. Instant Algae, Instant Zooplankton, RotiGrow, Shellfish Diet, Reef Nutrition, and APBreed are trademarks or registered trademarks of Reed Mariculture Inc. Instant Zooplankton products. Hatcheries: Bivalve Shellfish, Instant Algae in our Finfish, and Shrimp 10 Liter Cubitainer Our New, APBreed Product Line APBreed provides proven hatchery technologies designed for marine ornamentals feeds and products. We currently offer zooplankton, microalgal and high- quality dry feeds with more products in development. University Research Labs Public Aquariums Marine Ornamental Breeders & Hobbyists Reef Nutrition We provide a full line of the highest quality and freshest ornamental products in the industry, backed by our customer service guarantee. Reef Nutrition Products Marine Ornamental Breeders & Hobbyists Let us know how we can help you create the future today. Factory direct and distributor sales. Experts in international logistics. See how easy it is. TOLL - FREE : 1-877-732-3276 | VOICE : 408-377-1065 | FAX : 408-884-2322 | www.reed-mariculture.com

38 HATCHERY FEED GUIDE 2013 ENRICHMENTS & SUPPLEMENTS SUPPLIER PRODUCTNAME SPECIES PRODUCTTYPE FORM DESCRIPTION MORE INFORMATION AquaInTech PRO4000X Fish,shrimp Water Tablets Targeteddeliveryoflargenumberofbacterial DATASHEET conditioner spores(>60billionpertablet)topondand probioticfor hatcherytankbottoms. hatcherytanks Noactivationrequired.Usedforbio andponds augmentationandbioremediation.Bacteria. Stablefieldprovenbacterialstrainsarethe subjectofaUSpatentforuseincatfish ponds.Sludgedegradationandammonia reduction AquaInTech AQUAPROEZ Fish,shrimp Water Bags Amixtureofselectedbacterialstrainsand DATASHEET conditioner nutrientspackagedinabiodegradablebagfor probioticfor directadditiontopondsandtanks.Sludge hatcherytanks degradationandammoniareduction andponds AquaInTech MBX Shrimp,Fish BacterialExtract Anextractfromanonpathogenicenviron DATASHEET Broodstock; mentalbacterialspeciesthatisasourceof Shrimp nucleotidesandnutrientsshowntoenhance Larvae,PL PLstresstoleranceandsurvivalsinponds Inve S.presso Fish Livefood Liquid CompleteliquidenrichmentforArtemiaand WEBSITE Aquaculture enrichment rotifers.Innovativesuspension/emulsion technologythatperformsindifferentcondi CONTACT tionsanddensities. Inve S.tream Fish Rotiferdiet Liquid Semicontinuousrotiferculturedietwith WEBSITE Aquaculture superiorperformance.Easytoadapttoany previousequipment,itisclean,easyand CONTACT quicktouse.Costeffective,canbeusedfrom 2000upto8000rotifersperml. Inve S.parkle Fish Rotiferdiet Liquid Sparklingcleanbatchdietforaconsistent, WEBSITE Aquaculture performingrotiferculture. Allowsreinoculationupto50consecutive CONTACT generations.Costeffectiveandeasytouseas itisdesignedtoreducetheworkload providingshortandhighlyproductiveruns. Inve EASYSELCO Fish Artemiaenrich Liquid Theoriginal,easytouseliquidenrichmentfor WEBSITE Aquaculture ment Artemia.Easypreparation:nomixing required.Easyapplication:1singledoseis CONTACT possible.Easystorage:enhancedtemperature stability Inve A1DHASELCO Fish Artemiaenrich Liquid AllinoneliquidArtemiaenrichment.Enriches WEBSITE Aquaculture ment upto500naupliiperml.OptimalDHA CONTACT inclusionandincreasedlevelsofnatural marinephospholipids.Bacterialcontrolduring theenrichmentcyclewhileensuring increasedsurvivalrateofthefishlarvae. Inve DHAPROTEIN Fish Rotiferenrich Liquid Allinonepowderedenrichmentforrotifers WEBSITE Aquaculture SELCO ment withanoptimalDHA/EPAratio.Ensuresa CONTACT highnutritionalvalueandallowscontinued rotifergrowthduringtheenrichmentprocess. Makesforincreasedsurvivalratesofthefish larvaewhilereducingthenumberof deformities.

39 HATCHERY FEED GUIDE 2013 SUPPLIER PRODUCT SPECIES PRODUCT FORM DESCRIPTION MORE NAME TYPE INFORMATION Inve SanocareSURE Fish Liquid Waterconditionerforimprovedrotifer WEBSITE Aquaculture quality.Improvessurvivalrateofthefishlar CONTACT vae,increasesthecolorationoftherotifers andthusalsotheattractabilityforthefish. Inve SanocareACE Fish Liquid WaterconditionerforimprovedArtemia WEBSITE Aquaculture quality.Increasesthequalityandvitalityof CONTACT hatched,concentratedandstoredArtemia nauplii.StabilizespHlevelsandavoids foamingoffduringhatching,enrichmentor storage. Inve SanolifeMICF Fish Microbialmixturefordiseasecontrol,gut WEBSITE Aquaculture microfloracolonizationandwaterquality CONTACT improvementinfishhatcheries.Inhibitsa numberofpathogenicbacteria.Produces enzymesanddegradeswaste.Colonizesthe digestivetractandimprovesgrowthand survivalrates. Inve SanolifeGWS Fish Greenwaterconditionerforlarvalfish WEBSITE Aquaculture rearing.Replacesupto100%ofthelivealgae CONTACT whilemaintainingtherotiferqualityinside thetank.Improveswaterqualityandmicro bialflora.Diffuseslightinsidethetank, reducingthestresslevelsofthefish. Inve SanoguardSPAK Shrimp Healthboosterforshrimp,forimproved WEBSITE Aquaculture resistancetostressanddiseases.Strengthens CONTACT theimmunesystemandhealth.Facilitates recoveryafteraperiodofstress.Improves survivalandgrowthrates. Inve SanolifeMIC Shrimp Microbialmixturefordiseasecontroland WEBSITE Aquaculture improvedwaterqualityinshrimphatcheries. CONTACT InhibitsVibrioandotherpathogenicbacteria. Producesenzymesanddegradeswaste.Colo nizesthedigestivetract.ProducesstrongPLs whileimprovingsurvivalandgrowthrates. LuckyStar NutriHUFA Fish Artemia/ Fluid LuckyStarNutriHUFAisanArtemia/Rotifer WEBSITE Shrimp Rotifer enrichmentproductwhichconsistsof enrichment essentialunsaturatedfattyacidsthatare desirablebymarinefishandshrimplarvae. PacificTrading SuperFresh Fish Rotiferdiet Freshlive SuperFreshChlorellaSV12hasbeendevel DATASHEET Aquaculture ChlorellaSV12 Rotifers Greenwater chilledliquid opedinJapanespeciallyforRotifercultiva technique tion.EachcellcontainsDHA,EPAandVitamin B12ensuringoptimalenrichment.Delivered liveandfreshwithin5daysoforderandis consideredavitalcornerstoneofRELIABLE stablehighandlowdensityrotifercultivation. Reed InstantAlgae Finfish Singlespecies Refrigerated Alwaysavailable.Isochrysis1800canbeused WEBSITE Mariculture Isochrysis1800 Zooplankton Microalgae,8% liquid toreplacelivealgaeproduction,augment CONTACT andArtemia dryweight concentrate; existingproductionduringpeakseason,orto enrichment, noblending haveavailableincaseofaculturecrash. BivalveShell required IsochrysisishighinDHAandoftenusedto fish,Shrimp enrichzooplanktonsuchasrotifersor Artemia.

40 HATCHERY FEED GUIDE 2013 SUPPLIER PRODUCT SPECIES PRODUCT FORM DESCRIPTION MORE NAME TYPE INFORMATION Reed InstantAlgae Finfishasa Singlespecies FrozenorRe Nanno3600isouroriginalhighyieldrotifer WEBSITE Mariculture Nanno3600 rotiferfeedor Microalgae, frigerated feed.Itisasinglespeciesproduct CONTACT forgreenwater 18%dryweight liquidconcen (Nannochloropsis)andproducesphospholipid trate;no richrotifers.ItalsoprovidesahighFeed blendingre ConversionRatewithminimalorganicwaste, quired andgivesanEPAandARApreenrichment boostforusewithhighDHAenrichment protocols.Storefrozenfor3years. Reed InstantAlgae Finfishasa Singlespecies FrozenorRe Nanno3600isouroriginalhighyieldrotifer WEBSITE Mariculture Nanno3600 rotiferfeedor Microalgae, frigerated feed.Itisasinglespeciesproduct CONTACT forgreenwater 18%dryweight liquidconcen (Nannochloropsis)andproducesphospholipid trate;no richrotifers.ItalsoprovidesahighFeed blendingre ConversionRatewithminimalorganicwaste, quired andgivesanEPAandARApreenrichment boostforusewithhighDHAenrichment protocols.Storefrozenfor3years. Reed InstantAlgae Finfish Singlespecies Refrigerated Pavlovaisasmallgolden/brownflagellate WEBSITE Mariculture Pavlova1800 Zooplankton microalgae,8% Liquid whosenutritionalprofileisverysimilarto enrichment; dryweight concentrate; Isochrysis.Itisexcellentforenrichingrotifers CONTACT BivalveShell noblendingandotherzooplankton.Itssophisticated fish;Shrimp required sterolcompositionmakesitparticularly popularincoldwaterfishhatcheries. Pavlovaisverydifficulttogrowsoitisnot producedbymanyhatcheries. Reed InstantAlgae Finfishfeed Singlespecies FrozenLiquid Tetraselmisisalargegreenflagellatewitha WEBSITE Mariculture Tetraselmis3600 stimulant microalgae, concentrate; veryhighlipidlevel.Itcontainsnaturalamino effectfor 18%dryweight noblending CONTACT acidsthatstimulatefeedinginmarine zooplankton required animals.Tetraselmisincreasesfecundityin andBrine zooplankton,isastandardfeedformany Shrimp; Bivalves,andisexcellentforincreasing Bivalve growthratesandfighting"ZoeaSyndrome"in Shellfish; larvalShrimp. Shrimp Reed InstantAlgae Finfish Singlespecies Refrigerated ThalassiosiraWeissflogiiisalargediatom WEBSITE Mariculture TW1200 Zooplankton; microalgae;6% Liquid usedinShrimpandBivalveShellfish BivalveShell dryweight concentrate; larviculture.Consideredbymanytobethe CONTACT fish;Shrimp noblending singlebestalgaeforlarvalShrimp,thelarge required cellsize(515micron)extendsthealgae feedingperioduntiltheendofthePLstage. Reed InstantAlgae BivalveShell Microalgal Refrigerated ShellfishDiet1800isamixoffourmarine WEBSITE Mariculture ShellfishDiet fish;Ascidians/ blend;8%dry Liquid microalgaethathavealldemonstrated 1800 Tunicates;Sea weight concentrate; successwithavarietyofShellfishincluding CONTACT Urchins; noblending Oysters,Clams,Mussels,andScallops. required ShellfishDietcanbeusedwithpresetlarvae allthewayupthroughbroodstockas acompletelivealgaereplacement. Reed InstantAlgae Finfish Microalgal FrozenLiquid RotiGrowPlusisaclean,highyieldrotifer WEBSITE Mariculture RotiGrowPlus Zooplankton blend;>14.8%% concentrate; feedthatmaximizespreenrichmentlevelsof feed dryweight noblending DHA,EPAandARA.Theessentialfirststepin CONTACT required theRotiGrowSystem.Dependingonthe nutritionalrequirementsofthefishlarvae,it canbeusedasastandalonefeedorin combinationwithoneofourNRich enrichmentproducts. Are you getting the Hatcheryfeed newsletter? Sign up today from hatcheryfeed.com. Its free!

41 HATCHERY FEED GUIDE 2013 SUPPLIER PRODUCT SPECIES PRODUCT FORM DESCRIPTION MORE NAME TYPE INFORMATION Reed InstantAlgae Finfish Microalgal FrozenLiquid RotiGrowNannoisaclean,highyieldsingle WEBSITE Mariculture RotiGrowNanno Zooplankton blend;>16.4% concentrate; speciesrotiferfeedthatproduces feed dryweight noblending phospholipidsrichrotifers.Ourhighest CONTACT required yieldingfeed,itprovidesthehighestbiomass conversionrateofourproducts,withthe leastorganicwasteinthetank.Givesahigh EPAandARApreenrichmentboostforuse withhighDHAenrichmentprotocols. Reed ChlorellaLtd. FinfishZoo Livemicroalgae Refrigerated ThisChlorella,growninJapan,isasuperfresh WEBSITE Mariculture ChlorellaV12 planktonfeed concentrate; algal growoutfeedenrichedwithDHAusinga CONTACT Distributortothe 14%dryweight concentrate patentedmethodology.Itprovidesamoder Americas highly ateDHA,EPAandARAenrichment(25mg/g perishable HUFApreenrichment).Itisnaturallyhighin vitaminB12,anutrientnecessaryforlarval health. Reed InstantAlgaeN Finfish Microalgal Refrigerated NRichHighPROfeedsensurethatthe WEBSITE Mariculture RichHighPRO Zooplankton blend;9%dry Liquidcon rotiferssofttissueandgutcontainthehigh CONTACT enrichment weight centrate; estlevelsofproteinsandlipidsrichin noblending phospholipidHUFAs,aswellasahostof required carotenoids,sterols,vitamins,enzymes,and otherkeynutrients.HighPROisespecially proteinrich(>45%),keepingrotifershealthy andvibrantwhiletheyarebeingenriched. Reed InstantAlgaeN Finfish Microalgal Refrigerated NRichPLPlusprovidesahighphospholipid WEBSITE Mariculture RichPLPlus Zooplankton blend;9%dry Liquidcontent(approximately50%)plusother CONTACT enrichment weight concentrate; bioavailablepolarandmembranelipidsfor noblending rapidrotiferissueenrichmentwithminimal required triglyceridestorage.Rotifersemergevibrant andswimmingfromtheenrichmentprocess. Nearoptimumenrichmentin12hourswhen usedwithRotiGrowPlus. Reed InstantAlgaeN Finfish Microalgal Refrigerated NRichUltraPLprovidesaveryhighHUFA WEBSITE Mariculture RichUltraPL Zooplankton blend;9%dry Liquid enrichmentfrombioavailablepolarandmem CONTACT enrichment weight concentrate; branelipidsforrapidrotiferissueenrichment noblending withminimaltriglyceridestorage.Rotifers required emergevibrantandswimmingfromtheen richmentprocess.ExtremeDHAenrichment inaslittleas2hourswhenusedwithRoti GrowPlus. Reed InstantAlgae Finfish Microalgal FrozenLiquid RotiGreenOmegaiseffectiveGreenwater WEBSITE Mariculture RotiGreen Greenwater blend;8%dry concentrate; withOptimumDHA,EPA&ARAnutritionfor CONTACT Omega weight noblending fishlarvaeaswellasenrichment required maintenanceforrotifersinthelarvaltank. Marinemicroalgaeconcentratesstay extremelycleanwithexcellentsuspensionin thetank.*RotiGreenOmegamayrequire specialcareforfishthatareinflatingairblad der. Reed InstantAlgae Finfish Microalgal FrozenLiquid RotiGreenNannobalancesDHA/EPAwithARA WEBSITE Mariculture RotigreenNanno Greenwater blend;8%dry concentrate; tooptimallynourishfishandmaintainthe CONTACT weight noblending healthofrotifers.Extremelyclean,itoffers required excellentsuspensioninthewatercolumn. RotiGreenNannoisaseffectiveaslive Nannochloropsis,andisreplacingourNanno 3600forgreenwaterapplications.

42 HATCHERY FEED GUIDE 2013 SUPPLIER PRODUCT SPECIES PRODUCT FORM DESCRIPTION MORE NAME TYPE INFORMATION Reed InstantAlgae Finfish Microalgal Refrigerated RotiGreenIsoisapurealgaeformulation WEBSITE Mariculture RotiGreenIso Greenwater blend;8%dry Liquid thatisaseffectiveasliveIsochrysis.A CONTACT weight concentrate;no highlynutritiousgreenwaterwhenswal blendingre lowedorgillfedbylarvae,itcanmaintain quired orfurtherincreasetheDHA/EPAratioin yourrotifersandlarvalfishtomeettheir nutritionalrequirements.Naturallyhighin thecarotenoidsnecessaryforlarvalhealth. Reed Instant FinfishLive Live Adenseculture ReedMariculturesuppliespureculturesof WEBSITE Mariculture Zooplankton LarvalFeed Zooplankton ofLiveZoo astrainofBrachionusplicatilis(Ltype)with CONTACT MiniL160 planktonpack atypicalloricalengthofabout160m.This LiveRotifers agedin11.5 speciesiseuryhaline,capableofthrivingin litersofsalt salinitiesof540ppt.Itisavailableinquan waterinbreath titiesfrom1millionto1.5billion,concen ablebags. tratedandpackagedinto"breathable" bags. Reed Instant FinfishLive Live Adenseculture Copepodsarethefeedofchoiceforwild WEBSITE Mariculture Zooplankton LarvalFeed Zooplankton ofLive marinefinfish.Parvocalanuscrassirostrisis CONTACT Parvocalanus Zooplankton asmall,pelagiccalanoidcopepod.The crassirostrisCo packagedin1 nauplii(newlyhatchedlarvae)aresmall pepods 1.5litersofsalt measuringinthe40100mrange,making waterin themasuitablefeedforsmallgapefish breathablebags. larvae.Adultsareinthe200to400m range. Reed OtohimeLarval FinfishLarval Highqualitydry Pellets: OtohimeLarvalWeaningDietsfromJapan WEBSITE Mariculture WeaningDiets WeaningDiet larvalweaning Granular, providesuperiornutritionforjuvenileand CONTACT diet Marumerized adultfish.Theyareamazinglycleanwith andExtruded excellentparticleintegrityinwater,provide OTOHIME optimalnutritionandstimulateastrong WEBSITE feedingresponseforimprovedgrowthand survivalrates.Abalanceddietsuitedfor virtuallyallfinfish. Reed APBreedRGcom Finfish Microalgal Verystable RGcompleteisasuperconcentratedmicro WEBSITE Mariculture plete Zooplankton blend;4.4%dry refrigerated algalbasedpremiumqualityfeedforfilter CONTACT Feed weight liquid feedinginvertebrates.Ithasbeensized concentrate; especiallyforBreeders,Aquarists,and APBREED includes PropagatorsandincludesbothapHbuffer WEBSITE ammonia andClorAmX(ammonianeutralizer).It control; hasalongrefrigeratedshelflifeofatleast noblending 6months.Suitableforawiderangeofzoo required planktonwithabalancedOmegaprofile. Reed APBreed Shellfish, Microalgal Verystable Amixeddietoffourmarinemicroalgae WEBSITE Mariculture SDaquarist Corals blend;4.4%dry refrigerated (Isochrysis,Pavlova,Tetraselmisand CONTACT weight liquidconcen Thalassiosiraweissflogii)thatprovides trate;includes superiornutritionforalltypesofshellfish, APBREED ammoniacon crustaceansandotherfilterfeedinginver WEBSITE trol;noblending tebratesIncreasingbothgrowthrateand required survival.Completewithammoniacontrol andbufferedforalongrefrigeratedshelf life. Reed APBreedTDO FinfishPellet Highqualitydry Pellets:Granular TDOisthetopsellinghatcherylarvalfinfish WEBSITE Mariculture izedFeed/ diet andExtruded diet"topdressed" CONTACT WeaningDiet WIthHaematococcus(astaxanthinsource), naturalfeedstimulants,anaturalimmune APBREED stimulant,andmore!Primesourceofeasily WEBSITE digestedproteinsandhighqualitylipids withanexcellentHUFAandphospholipid profile.Highinthecarotenoidastaxanthin

43 HATCHERY FEED GUIDE 2013 SUPPLIER PRODUCT SPECIES PRODUCT FORM DESCRIPTION MORE NAME TYPE INFORMATION Skretting NEPTUNE Fish Water Powder Blendofselectedmicroalgaeandmicropar WEBSITE conditioner ticlesofferingaconvenientsolutionforre CONTACT placinglivealgaeingreenwater applications. Skretting ORICULTURE Fish Rotiferculture Powder Dietwhichhasbeendevelopedtooffer WEBSITE excellentrotiferreproductionwithout CONTACT compromisingthecultureenvironmentand toincreasetherotifersnaturalproteinprofile andfertility. Skretting ORIGREEN Fish Rotifer& Powder Dietwhichhasbeendesignedtoensurea WEBSITE Artemia veryfastandefficientuptakebythelive CONTACT enrichment feed.Thealgaeintheformulationalso provideanaturalprebioticeffectandstimu laterotiferandArtemiacondition. Skretting ORIGOLD Fish Artemia Liquid NaturalblendofencapsulatedmarineHUFAs, WEBSITE enrichment suspension phospholipids,algaeandproteinsfor CONTACT enrichingArtemia.Itisboostedwithspecific proteinstoofferamorebalancedprofileand increasegutretentionintheArtemia. Zeigler EZBio Shrimp LarvaePowder AnaturalmicrobialtreatmentforVibriosp. DATASHEET PL andotherpathogenicbacteriainhatchery systems. Zeigler EZMate Shrimp Maturation Forminto Partialreplacementforfreshmaturation DATASHEET Worm foodsthatpromotesincreasednaupliipro duction;Completelybiosecureandcontains highlevelsofpigments,HUFA's,vitamins, andminerals. Zeigler Maturation Shrimp Maturation Pellet Promotesrapidovariandevelopmentin DATASHEET Supplement maturationsystems. Zeigler Shrimp Shrimp Broodstock Pellet Usespremiumingredientstopromote DATASHEET Broodstock growthandreproductivedevelopment. The 7th Aquafeed.com international conference for Aquafeed professionals AQUAFEED HORIZONS Asia 2014 April 8, 2014. Bangkok. Thailand feedconferences.com

44 HATCHERY FEED GUIDE 2013 Species Look up: Enrichments & Supplements FISH Chlorella Ltd. Chlorella V12 Instant Algae N-Rich High PRO Inve Aquaculture AquaInTech Instant Algae N-Rich PL Plus Sanoguard S-PAK PRO4000X Instant Algae N-Rich Ultra PL Sanolife MIC AQUAPROEZ Instant Algae RotiGreen Omega MBX Instant Algae Rotigreen Nanno Lucky Star Instant Algae RotiGreen Iso Nutri - HUFA Inve Aquaculture Instant Zooplankton S.presso Mini L 160 Zeigler S.tream Live Rotifers EZ Bio S.parkle Instant Zooplankton Parvoca EZ Mate lanus crassirostris Copepods EASY SELCO Maturation Supplement Otohime Larval Weaning Diets A1 DHA SELCO Shrimp Broodstock APBreed RGcomplete DHA PROTEIN SELCO APBreed TDO Sanocare SURE Sanocare ACE Skretting Sanolife MIC-F NEPTUNE Sanolife GWS ORI-CULTURE ORI-GREEN Lucky Star ORI-GOLD Nutri - HUFA SHELLFISH Pacific Trading Aquaculture Reed Mariculture Super Fresh Chlorella SV-12 Instant Algae Shellfish Diet 1800 Reed Mariculture APBreed SDaquarist Instant Algae Isochrysis 1800 SHRIMP Instant Algae Nanno 3600 Instant Algae Nanno 3600 AquaInTech Instant Algae Pavlova 1800 PRO4000X Instant Algae Tetraselmis 3600 AQUAPROEZ Instant Algae TW 1200 MBX Instant Algae RotiGrow Plus Instant Algae RotiGrow Nanno

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