X-Ray Magazine Issue 30 - October 2010

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1 Gulf Spill News :: Technical Dive Equipment :: Dive Watches Indonesia North Sulawesi Honduras GLOBAL EDITION October 2010 Utila Island Number 38 Sharks Sandtigers Amazon Pink Dolphins Ecology Cephalopods Lembeh Strait i n d o n e s i a Portfolio 1 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 Caelum Mero cover photo by eric hanauer

2 PUBLISHER DIRECTORY X-RAY MAG is published by AquaScope Media ApS & EDITOR-IN-CHIEF Peter Symes [email protected] PUBLISHER / EDITOR & CREATIVE DIRECTOR Frederiksberg, Denmark www.xray-mag.com SENIOR EDITOR Michael Symes [email protected] SECTION EDITORS Andrey Bizyukin, PhD - Features Pacific Red Octopus. Photo by Andy Murch contents Arnold Weisz - News, Features Gunild Symes Catherine Lim - News, Books [email protected] Simon Kong - News, Books Mathias Carvalho - Wrecks Associate editors Cindy Ross - GirlDiver & representatives: Scott Bennett - Photo & Travel Americas: Michael Arvedlund - Ecology Arnold Weisz [email protected] Correspondents Robert Aston - CA, USA Russia Editors & Reps: Enrico Cappeletti - Italy Andrey Bizyukin PhD, Moscow John Collins - Ireland [email protected] Marcelo Mammana - Argentina Nonoy Tan - The Philippines Svetlana Murashkina PhD, Moscow [email protected] Contributors this issue Scott Bennett South East Asia Editor & Rep: Michel Braunstein Catherine GS Lim, Singapore Mathias Carvalho [email protected] Wayne Fenior Eric Hanauer ASSISTANT editors Kelly LaClaire & representatives: Catherine GS Lim Malaysia Editor & Rep: Bonnie McKenna Simon Kong, Kuala Lumpur Caelum Mero [email protected] Andy Murch Mark Powell Canada/PNW Editor & Rep: Don Silcock Barb Roy, Vancouver Robert Sterner [email protected] Gunild Symes Peter Symes GirlDiver Editor & PNW Rep: Carol Tedesco Cindy Ross, Tacoma, USA Lawson Wood [email protected] Further information: contacts 43 49 59 plus... ADVERTISING 27 page at www. xray-mag.com International sales rep: Arnold Weisz [email protected] Utila Island Sulawesi North Sulawesi Dive Watches EDITORIAL 3 Honduras Indonesia Indonesia Editted by Peter Symes NEWS 5 Asia-Pacific rep: Simon Kong (Malaysia) by Scott Bennett by Eric Hanauer by Don Silcock & Kelly LaClaire WRECK RAP 19 [email protected] TRAVEL NEWS 24 French speaking territories: 64 89 93 EQUIPMENT NEWS 56 Mathias Carvalho Ecology: Pink Dolphins Portfolio: WHALE TALES 73 [email protected] Cephalopods of the Amazon Caelum Mero BOOKS & MEDIA 75 by James Wood by Michel Braunstein editted by Gunild Symes SHARK TALES 76 TURTLE TALES 84 Not yet subscribed to SUBSCRIPTION X-RAY MAG International Edition in English is FREE columns... X-RAY MAG? Sign up now! PHOTO NEWS 86 75 76 80 85 To subscribe, go to: www.xray-mag.com Its FREE! QUICK! EASY! click here... COVER PHOTO: Two Squids, Sulawesi, Indonesia Book Log Sharks: A Lesson Tech Talk: Technical UW Photo: by Eric Hanauer by Robert Sterner From Mother Nature Diving Equipment Field Work (Continued on page 4) by Andy Murch by Mark Powell by Lawson Wood 2 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 Amsterdam Barcelona Cape Town Copenhagen Kuala Lumpur London Moscow Orlando Oslo Paris Ravenna Sao Paulo Singapore Vancouver Warsaw

3 Andy Murch go quietly, amid the noise and haste... Editorial [ 3 hours @ 20m - no deco ] Take me to your leader Cephalopods are such fascinat- knit family struc- ing and seductive creatures, tures with a social with a weird and alien anatomy. hierarchy and Octopuses are molluscs, a seem- rules that serve to ingly primitive animal group make the group that includes clams and slugs. stronger includ- Yet, they are capable of some ing using rewards the rebreathers of choice from 6m to 160m rather brainy feats such as ob- and punishments servational learning and solving to teach and puzzlesskills supposedly seen discipline their only in higher vertebrates with young. And since sophisticated brains. acquired knowl- edge seems to In recent years, we have come be passed on to understand how much we from generation have in common with not only to generation, our closest relatives, the other pri- some researchers mates but also the large marine even talk about mammals. While we can prob- some species Greetings biped Image by Ray van Eeden of Prodivers, Kuredu, Maldives ably never know for sure what having culture. they feel, their physiological will require a huge leap of the and behavioural responses are In the Arctic, pods of orcas have imagination. After all, the brains similar to ours. The same stress been observed orchestrating of animals like the octopus hormones get released when the and coordinating complex at- evolved entirely separately from animal gets spooked or is in pain. tacks whereby they in full syn- the brains of the vertebrates, chronicity move to create a big and they have an entirely differ- Marine mam- wave, which washes a sea lion ent designperhaps they also mals and pri- mates of a icefloat. One can only won- have a unique form of intelli- nurture their young der how they communicate and gence. third party test-house approved patented dual oxygen controllers with independent displays and power sources and have coordinate such a complex ma- optional open circuit bailout mouthpiece high performance scrubber proven to 160m trimix or nitrox decompression with tight- noeuvre requiring a very precise And here is a mindboggling user variable gradient factors and multiple gasses polyethylene fibre-optic dual head up displays future proofed software ly timing. How did they come thought: Since they are also very upgradeable by user uploads & hardware upgradeable with plug and play versatility pc log download 9 language options to think of it and think it social creatures, does that im- crystal clear primary display hard memory storage - gas, options and history retained even when the batteries are removed through? ply that regardless of underlying patented scrubber monitor with effective warnings full customer support and aftersales - spares & service the equipment of construction that all creatures choice for underwater photographers, film-makers, marine biologists, cavers, under-ice explorers, deep dive specialists, deep support Its very clear from observations during their evolution converge teams, expedition divers and sport & technical diving enthusiasts worldwide - all achieving time and depth profiles previously unthinkable of cephalopods that they towards the same sort of higher are also extremely intel- understanding of their environ- ligent animals with an ment and universe we live in? AMBIENT PRESSURE DIVING anatomically complex tel: 0044 1326 563834 email: [email protected] web: www.apdiving.com brain, but what goes on in an octopus thoughts, spares & accessories online at www.apdivingdirect.com see apdiving.com for your nearest instructor Andy Murch I am one clever sucker 3 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

4 X-RAY MAG is a founding member of the Underwater Network Underwater Network.com Jivin Java SeaMugs MK25 / S600 X-RAY MAG is a member of Diving Equipment & Marketing Association: Dema.org X-RAY MAG is dis- Unsolicited manu- tributed seven times scripts, photographs per year on the and illustrations may Internet. 2004- be emailed to: 2009 X-RAY MAG. [email protected] All rights reserved. com Material in this pub- lication may not be X-RAY MAG reproduced, modi- accepts no respon- fied or transferred sibility for unsolicited electronically in any materials sent to its form without written office, nor is it liable permission from the for loss or damage copyright owner. to such materials. SeaMugs by Oceanatomy Views and informa- X-RAY MAG tion expressed in observes a strict Oceanatomy designs articles are those privacy policy. No casual, comfortable & stylish of the individual personal or private apparel, gifts, cards and foot- author and are information will be wear for divers. High quality Keds not necessarily shared with a third Champion Sneakers Lace-ups and representative of party without the Slip-ons with rubber soles. Great for MORE BRILLIANT views held by X-RAY written permission of travel, liveaboards in town, and on THAN EVER MAG or its affiliates. the owner. the beach. Organic Ts and Kids sizes, too! Bulk discounts and international In polished chrome plated brass, for excellent corrosion resistance over time shipping. Lots of other marine life SCUBAPROs ultimate regulator combination: our top-of-the line balance designs on shoes, t-shirts, Sea Mugs, piston MK25 rst stage for ultra stable intermediate pressure and extremel tote bags and gifts. Sport your spots punctual and consistent high air delivery, paired with our re-styled chrom and stripes. Find them at: accented S600 air balanced second stage, for unmatched premium breathin CLOCK- performance. WISE: DEEP DOWN YOU WANT THE BEST. Regarding news from NAUI in X-RAY Octopus, MAG: This issue of X-RAY MAG and Emporer scubapro.com others may include news and press Angelfish, releases from NAUI in sections des- Spotted Boxfish, ignated by the NAUI logo. While the Flamingo Tongue, page design is done by X-RAY MAG Spotted Grouper, as an integrated part of the maga- Mandarinfish, Laced zine, these news stories are brought to you by NAUI at NAUIs discretion. Moray, Whaleshark, Fan Coral www.zazzle.com/oceanatomy 4 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010

5 Your new companion under water UEMIS SDA The most user friendly dive computer Its all the rage News edited by Peter Symes & Catherine G S Lim NEWS Chris Jewell John Volanthen (filehoto) UK-led cave diving record in Spain Explorers Jason Mallinson, Rick karst spring. The entrance something nobody has ever Stanton and John Volanthen, is a welcoming clear blue seen before. Its that which along with Dutch caver Rene basin, which is much visited drives you forward. Houben, charted new territo- by tourists. The cave behind ry in a 50-hour voyage which the spring is filled with water The team began their two- saw them spend two nights and only accessible to cave and-a-half day foray into the camped deep underground. divers. It is widely considered Pozo Azul caves in Covenera, one of the best caves in northern Spain, on Saturday. By venturing 8.8km (5.5 miles) which to train. They used underwater scoot- into the Pozo Azul cave sys- ers to propel them through tem in Norhern Spain, the Its an incredible buzz to three sumps, or underwater British-led team beat the explore further than any- passages. 7.8km (4.8 mile) world record one has been ever before, for the longest cave dive Jason Mallinson was quoted After sump two, they penetration, set last year at by Metro UK. There was no emerged in a small dry cave Wakulla Springs in Florida. wildlife down there, just a area nicknamed Tipperary. tunnel of crystal blue clear It was there they spent two Pozo Azul (Blue Pot) in water stretching on and on. nights resting and replenishing Northern Spain is, as the The adrenaline builds when their underwater breathing name suggests, a deep blue you realise you are looking at mixtures. Rick Stanton 5 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

6 news ww w. d e m a s h o w. com Fishing skews sex ratio in fish Population collapses in To find out why this happens, Stefan The finding is likely to apply to at many species of reef Walker of James Cook University least 70 other sex-changing reef fish, tagged 232 cylindrical sandperches including many commonly caught fish may be linked to an (Parapercis cylindrica) species, said Walker, excess of males brought in a Great Barrier Reef and suggested that about by fishing a situ- lagoon, and followed Its perplexing, marine protected areas ada s , N e v veg a their movements and ation that a quota system because as popula- are a better strategy for s reproductive behaviour. conserving populations L a wont remedy. In many Cylindrical sandperches tion density drops, than fishing quotas. 2 0 , 2 010 species, particularly those are born female, but more resources o v e m ber 17 where individuals can some later change into Protected areas main- N should be available tain the density of Peter Symes males, with harems of change their sex, each two to ten females. and populations populations whereas Game! fish produces fewer young as the population Walker saw more sex quotas may still allow should increase. populations to decline, get in the density drops. changes in regions where increasing the rate of fish populations were low. sex change. This led to more males holding court to fewer females and a drop in the Many species of fishes are hermaph- number of eggs laid rodites. Some, such as the painted per square metre comber (Serranus scriba), are syn- of lagoon. chronous hermpahrodites. These fish have both ovaries and testes and can produce both eggs and sperm at the same time. Others are sequen- tial hermaphrodites. your business success awaits... These fishes start life as one sex and undergo a genetically Youre alwaYs a winner at DeMa show, register toDaY to: programmed sex change at Be inForMeD by DEMA Shows comprehensive educational programs presenting tested some point during devel- strategies, new insights for the recovering economy, and innovative ideas certain to take you the distance. opment. Their gonads have both ovarian and Be ConneCteD with the dive community while you immerse yourself in the business of diving. Learn from experts and from your peers, and apply their ideas and successes to YOUR challenges. testicular tissues, with one type of tissue pre- Be suCCessFul in boosting your bottom line with show-only promotions and specials offered by hundreds of exhibitors. In time AND money, DEMA Show provides a generous return on your investment. dominant while the fish belongs to the correspond- ing gender. Visit www.demashow.com to register! Source: The American Naturalist, DOI: 10.1086/655219. Painted comber (Serranus scriba) 6 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

7 news Florida Dive Instructor Allen Sherrod falls short on attempt at breaking the Guinness World Records mark for the longest scuba dive in open fresh water. DISABLED DIVERS I N T E R N AT I O N A L Sherrod was underwater Sherrod via underwater speak- With this marathon dive, Sherrod W W W. D D I V E R S. O RG for a total of 111 hours, ers to help fight the boredom wants to raise awareness of how of the six day dive. The team important it is to maintain and just nine hours short of was also delivering water and improve the quality of Floridas the world record mark a small amount of food puree fresh water local fresh water set by Jerry Hall in 2004 each day to keep his nutrition lakes. Full report by Wayne Fen- in a Tennessee lake. level up. ior on xray-mag.com Sherrod dove into Lake David on Sept. 27 but said he had to resurface Friday because Supplied of hypothermia. During the attempt for a new world record, Ivan maintained constant depth of 7-8 meters Bulgarian Ivan Zhelerezov sets a On this second at- tempt, a support new world record for salt water dive team was assist- ing Sherrod with knowledge gained The 27-year-old NAUI of 8m in the sea near Kiten. port crew replenished his from the first dive PHOTO: DAVID PILOSOF instructor, spent 50 During the first 24 hours air supply when necessary. which was aborted under water, Zhelezarov The support team for the because Sherrod hours and two min- was accompanied by a dive included nine divers. contracted the flu Wayne Fenior utes under water, support diver at all times, By taking turns, each diver and surfaced for setting a new world while later on, he was pro- spent time under water medical safety. record for the Longest vided support by two divers with Ivan and supplied him Discomforts such and a doctor. Despite the with new air bottles at inter- as chapped and Allen Sherrod with NAUI National Territory Manager Chad Barbay Open Saltwater difficulties, especially dur- vals of 90 minutes. Ivans cracked hands be- Scuba Dive. ing the two nights when physical condition was cause of constant the conditions were the constantly monitored by a water submersion L E The record is dedicated to hardest, the enthusiast team of physicians. are being averted the National Association of Underwater Instructors (NAUI), which celebrates its managed to hold on. Ivan returned to the surface at 3:48 pm today after spend- Ivan was equipped with a drysuit and nutrition was provided to him in liquid via a full dry-suit now equipped with dry gloves. Music (clas- B A TO E 50th anniversary this year. ing 50 hours and two min- form. The dive was made sic rock mix), was The previous record was set by Will Goodman from the United Kingdom, who man- aged 48 hours, 9 minutes utes under water. He is in good health, and after tak- ing a necessary break, he will be back in shape and using open circuit scuba. During the attempt for a new world record, Ivan maintained constant depth being sent down to D I V Allen Sherrod and 17 seconds. ready for new achieve- of 7-8 meters using a spe- (left) with his The attempt for setting a ments. cially built underwater plat- Course Director new world record began Ivan had no physical form. The entire attempt NAUI National Wayne Fenior on 27 August 2010 at 1:46 contact with the surface was recorded on camera. Territory pm, when Ivan Zhelezarov at anytime during his time Manager Chad W W W. D D I V E R S. O RG was submerged to a depth underwater, while his sup- Barbay 7 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

8 news Peter Symes Celebratinghealthyliving, ahealthyplanet,peaceable &sustainablecommunities. F LO R I DA K E Y S , N OV E M B E R 1 t h r u 7, 2 010 Spendaweekenjoyingthenatural wondersoftheFloridaKeys! Joinusincelebratingenvironmentalpreservationby swimming,divingorsnorkelingwithourunderwater neighbors.Youcankayak,paddleboard,kiteboard orjustplayonthebeach.Watchbeautifulnightly sunsetsandenjoyfabulousfreshsustainableseafood fordinner.Aboveorbelowthewater,yourfavorite activitiescanbefound! Three Sisters Springs Manatees protected Therewillbeplentytoseeanddo everydayatEcoWeek ! Threatened by the prospect of semble within the warm springs the refuge and stops the resi- Partiallistofevents: CoralRestoration development for years, Three of the area, known as Three dential development planned KayakPokerRun UnderwaterScooterRaces Sisters Springs in Crystal River, Sisters Springs, for calving and on the property. KayakNatureTours OrganicProgressiveWineDinner Florida, recently became a feeding during the winter months The protected area will be EvergladesKayakingScavengerHunt EnvironmentalComicReliefSwami protected, national wildlife ref- and during critical cold weather owned by the city of Crystal RecycleArtShow HealthyLivingExpo uge thanks to a multi-agency periods. River and the Southwest Florida UnderwaterScooterRaces EnvironmentalSummit purchase deal, which puts the The 57.8 acres of land were Water Management District. The GreenMarket GreenHomeLivingExpo springs under the manage- recently purchased for US$10.5 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service will AlternativeFuelChallenge Blue/GreenExpo ment of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife million from Three Sisters manage the site as part of the PaddleBoardRaces GreenBusinessExpo AlternativeEnergyExpo RecycledArtShow Service. Holdings, LLC. The acquisition Crystal River National Wildlife LionfishSafariHunt FIRMBicycleRace More than 150 manatees as- more than doubles the size of Refuge. www.EcoWeekFloridaKeys.com Mel Fischers Maritime Museums robbed of gold bar For 25 years, visitors to the Mel two bandits stole the 11-inch, case, but they may be of visitors Fisher Maritime Museum in Key 74.85-ounce gold bar. Security unconnected to the heist. West, Florida, had the opportu- footage shows the suspects The museums insurance com- SPONSOREDBY XRay-Mag.com nity to lift a US$550,000 gold bar breaking into the case. No pany has offered a US$10,000 NA-AUG2010 | GRAPHICS:WWW.ECOMEDIAMARKETING.COM in a special display case. The visitors or security guards were reward for the return of the 16.5- bar was recovered in 1980 from present. Detectives from Key karat gold bar, The uniqueness the Santa Margarita shipwreck West Police and the U.S. Federal of the piece places the bars a Spanish galleon off the Florida Bureau of Investigation are try- value at $550,000, Kendrick said. Keys, which Fisher discovered, ing to identify the two men who Having the [insurance] money according to the museums walked into the gallery room in its place would not be a win- website. The ship was one of around 5:10 p.m. The police ner for me, Kendrick told CNN. eight to sink in a 1622 hurricane believe one of the men served So far, there has been no and was filled with gold bars, as a lookout in the small gallery news on the recovery. jewelry and silver coins. room. Investigators are also look- On August 18 around 5:15 p.m ing at fingerprints on the display 8 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

9 news Ocean Conveyor Belt model needs a rethink The accepted picture of how a massive oceanic conveyor belt of water turns has been compli- cated by findings published in Nature Geoscience. The results could help to boost the precision of climate-change models. For decades, oceanographers have weaker, whereas the northern waters conveyor belt for the overturning was New Submarine Runs embraced the idea that Earths ocean currents operate like a giant conveyor belt, overturning to continuously trans- have flowed more strongly. The more we look, the more compli- developed decades ago, before ocea- nographers had measured the eddy field of the ocean and before they Eternally on Thermal Power port deep, cold polar waters toward the equator and warm equatorial sur- cated the ocean is, said Susan Lozier, professor of physical oceanography understood how energy from the wind impacts the overturning, said Lozier. from Ocean Currents face waters back toward the poles along narrow boundary currents. The model held that the conveyor belt was and chair of the Division of Earth and Ocean Sciences at Duke Universitys Ni- cholas School of the Environment, and The idea of the seas moving as a smooth belt is being changed by the Researchers have successfully demonstrated the first robotic under- driven by changes in the temperature lead author of the study. accessibility of satellite data, added water vehicle to be powered entirely by natural, renewable, ocean and salinity of oceanographer Jol NASA the surface Hirschi, also at the Na- thermal energy. It traps thermal energy from the ocean each time waters at high tional Oceanography it moves from deep cold water to waters on a warmer surface. latitudes. Centre and a co-author of the earlier study. The Sounding Oceanograp Scripps Institution of As tropical The essential outline hic Lagrangrian Observer Oceanography, University water from the remains, he said, but Thermal RECharging (SOLO- of California, San Diego, Equator flows on top of that conveyor TREC) autonomous under- completed the first three north in the At- picture, there is a lot of water vehicle uses a novel months of an ocean lantic Ocean, it variability going on. thermal recharging engine endurance test of the becomes cool- powered by the natural prototype vehicle off the er and denser. More details would temperature differences coast of Hawaii in March. Evaporation help to produce better found at different ocean along the way climate-change mod- depths. Scalable for use While not a true perpetu- makes it saltier els, he said. Because on most robotic oceano- al motion machine, since and further heat released from the graphic vehicles, this tech- we actually consume increases its water moving towards nology breakthrough could some environmental ener- density. In the the pole is part of what usher in a new generation gy, the prototype system frigid Arctic, the keeps Europe warm, fill- of autonomous underwater demonstrated by JPL and water sinks into ing in gaps in the data vehicles capable of virtu- its partners can continu- the depths and could provide a more ally indefinite ously monitor the then moves complete picture of ocean monitor- ocean without a southward, what might happen in ing for climate People have limit on its lifetime returning to the particular locations. and marine imposed by ener- surface once it This map shows the pattern of thermohaline circulation also known as meridional animal studies, long dreamed gy supply, said has warmed up overturning circulation. This collection of currents is responsible for the large-scale Lozier agreed, adding exploration and of a machine Jack Jones, a JPL again. exchange of water masses in the ocean, including providing oxygen to the deep that as surface waters surveillance. ocean. The entire circulation pattern takes ~2000 years. that produces principal engineer turn over, they carry and SOLO-TREC But this simpli- whatever gases are Researchers more energy co-principal inves- fied picture of above them down to at NASAs Jet than it con- tigator. what is known as meridional overturning The old model is no longer valid for the deep ocean, locking them out of Propulsion circulation (MOC) has been brought the oceans overturning, not because the atmosphere. Understanding the Laboratory, sumes and into question by a paper suggesting its a gross simplification, but because it ocean flow could help to reveal carbon Pasadena, runs indefi- The SOLO-TREC diver is the latest robot that, in the past 50 years, ocean circu- ignores crucial elements such as eddies dioxide sinks, she said. California; unveiled by NASA. The new ocean-going lation closer to the Equator has grown and the wind field. The concept of a source: Nature Geoscience and the nitely. robot is the first of its kind to be fueled entirely by renewable energy 9 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

10 news Dutch government funds coral nurseries in the Netherlands The Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality has recently selected the development of a coral nursery for financial endorsement from a short-list of innovative projects and technologies aimed at protecting biodiversity. Alien shrimp Soon, construction of a small- cal filtration systems for public facility, corals are able to grow infiltrate scale coral aquaculture facility aquaria, explains: Growing cor- under stable, controlled condi- will commence, after which the als is highly expensive, which is tions. At the heart of the Coral cost-effectiveness of the facil- why most efforts have focused Greenhouse project lies the ity will be determined during on mariculture. By letting nature unique combination of new UK waters an 18-month period. Two years do the work, costs can be great- aquarium technology with from now, the first high-quality, ly reduced. Mariculture however recent scientific advances in sustainably cultured corals may has several disadvantages. First, coral biology. find their way to wholesalers and the ocean retail stores around the globe. behaves in Highly an unpredict- invasive Coral reefs today are faced able fashion. El gammarid shrimp dis- with unprecedented threats, Nio events for including climate change, pol- example may covered by anglers in Environment Agency is working lution, disease, overfishing and lead to coral Cambridgeshire. Biologists hard to establish the extent of coastal development. The bleaching currently conducting tests to determine the problem and what action marine aquarium industry, which and destruc- may need to be taken. We need in great part relies on the collec- tive tropical the severity of the problem. to do everything we can to tion of wild corals, fish and other storms, which The highly invasive gammarid Biologists are I am protect our native wildlife and reef organisms, has been under can decimate shrimp, Dikerogammarus villo currently conduct- extremely con- young fish from the potential great pressure of late due to the entire har- sus, has been discovered by ing tests to deter- damage the killer shrimp can decline of coral reefs worldwide. vests. Second, anglers at Grafham Water in mine the severity cerned to hear cause. The sustainable aquaculture of anthropogenic Cambridgeshire. Boasting a fear- of the problem that this high- Paul Leinster, chief executive corals and other reef organisms disturbances some set of jaws, the invasive and what meas- of the Environment Agency, may be more important than such as pollu- gammarid shrimp originate in ures need to be ly invasive said: We are devastated that ever, reducing pressure on wild tion, including Eastern Europe and are far larger taken. Although species has this shrimp has been found in populations and providing a oil spills, may than United Kingdoms native the shrimp pose Britain, and very grateful to the Noahs Ark for endangered also disrupt species. The shrimps were con- no risk to drinking been found in keen-eyed anglers who found species. the efforts of firmed as likely to be the killer water supplies, Britain. it. local Asian species after samples were sent anglers using the Posters have been put up Aquaculture mariculture Gary Cranitch, Queensland Museum to the Environment Agency. An reservoir are being warning boat users to check The establishment of a coral companies. expert in Holland has now conclu- urged to make sure the invasive their equipment and vessels to aquaculture facility is a wel- EcoDecos sively identified the species. species does not spread else- stop the shrimp escaping to other come accomplishment in the technol- Aggressive hunters, they feed where. reservoirs, lakes or rivers. Native to International Year of Biodiversity. ogy however, on native freshwater shrimp, dam- I am extremely concerned to a region encompassing Romania, However, sustainable, aquac- together with selflies, small fish and water boat- hear that this highly invasive spe- Moldova, Ukraine, Russia and ulture of corals has never been new scien- mencommon sights on Britains cies has been found in Britain, Kazakhstan, the shrimp have implemented on a large scale tific insights, lakes and riversand could upset stated Richard Benyon, the min- already invaded Western Europe due to the high costs involved. offers new the delicate food chain. The ister in charge of the natural via the Danube. It is believed they As Peter Henkemans, CEO of perspectives. shrimp often kill without feeding environment. Anglian Water has have been spread via the ballast EcoDeco a company which In an ex situ Octocorals are named for the eight tentacles and can quickly dominate rivers acted quickly to put biosecu- water in ships. develops and builds biologi- aquaculture that fringe each polyp. Shown is a soft coral, and lakes. rity measures in place, and the Dendronephthya, from coral gardens off Lizard Island 10 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

11 news increase in marine residents. This is also true for other juvenile fish species like lingcod, cabezon and wolf-eels thus enhancing an over- all replenishment of the aquatic realm. I have been in contact with many of the retailers and charter operators, adds Deirdre Forbes- McCracken, spokesperson for the ARSBC and co-owner of the retail dive centre Ocean Quest in Burnaby. They have told me that over the years have seen the direct benefits these reefs bring to their businesses and communities of 2011 is a realistic possibility. to schedule a volunteer workday as well the enjoyment they bring Nonetheless, it is still business-as- or weekend. Volunteers meet at to the divers of British Columbia, usual on the Annapolis and the 8:00am in Horseshoe Bay, with the United States and abroad ARSBC is still in need of volun- free transportation to and from Annapolis Reef Project Put on Hold while being positive for the envi- ronment. teers to continue preparing the ship. Work is conducted on the weekends with Deirdre Forbes- the ship. Contact Deirdre at: [email protected] diveoceanquest.com or dmc- [email protected] Text by Barb Roy positive solution as soon as pos- water habitat for marine life. Ship prep McCracken handling the sched- For more information, visit: sible. Since then the ARSBC has utilized At this point, a sinking date is ules. Individuals and groups are www.artificialreefbc.ca British Columbia, Canada Due The entire dive community is volunteers from British Columbia, still undecided but the spring encouraged to contact Deirdre www.diveindustrybc.com to unforeseen technicalities in the behind this project, comments Alberta and Washington State to Provincial permit process for sink- Kal Helyar, President of the DIABC environmentally clean and pre- ing a ship, Howe Sound will have and owner of Porpoise Bay pare the ship for sinking. to wait a while longer for their Charters in Egmont. We have What sets this ex-military ship new wreck diving site, designated all wanted a ship in Howe Sound apart from the other large ships in for Halkett Bay on Gambier Island. for years and the underwater ter- five destinations around coastal Representatives from the Artificial rain is similar to what we had in BC is the helicopter hanger. This Reef Society of British Columbia Sechelt Inlet where the Chaudiere steam-powered destroyer escort (ARSBC) and the Dive Industry was put down both were once carried anti-submarine Sea Association of British Columbia once log dumping grounds. The King helicopters, which were used (DIABC) are currently meeting Chaudiere provided a stable plat- to extend surveillance capabilities with government officials to work form for marine life to grow on. Its of a ship and find surface vessels out the legalities and come to a now a healthy underwater area, in the dark during times of war. which is what can happen in Rockfish oasis Halkett Bay too. Although the northwest dive com- munity is excited about getting a Background wreck so close to the Mainland, In June of 2008 they are also thrilled with the the ARSBC idea of how this new reef of steel towed the HMCS will aid in their efforts to restore Annapolis (271 endangered Howe Sound rockfish feet in length) populations. to Howe Sound Previous observations by divers where it began have suggested that other artifi- to undergo its cial reefs (ships) around Canada transformation have provided a needed shelter from a ship of and habitat in their individual war to an under- areas, creating a noticeable 11 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

12 news THIS PAGE: Children participate in a Try Out Scuba session during the launch in August of Kids Scuba Denmark at the Naerum Sports Complex in Denmark Kids Scuba Launched in Denmark A group of children and teenagers Kids Scuba Denmark is the only chil- ranging from eight to 12 years old, took drens scuba school in the country. The part in the newly launched Kids Scuba Kids Scuba Discovery program brought Denmark Program by completing their together 16 children and teens in total. Try Out Scuba Discovery dive at the Taking part in the launch of Kids Scuba Naerum (Rundforbi) Sports Complex in Denmark was dive education profes- Denmark in August this year. The children sional, Syed Abd Rahman, the director did their Try Out Scuba sessions in teams of Kids Scuba Malaysiathe largest of of two under the direct supervision of the its kind in the world with over 100 chil- Scuba Rangers instructors. They dived dren as members. Rahman is a Scuba underwater in a saltwater pool with full Rangers Instructor Trainer, who flew in scuba gear for about 30 minutes. specially from Malaysia to assist with the The kids are part of the Scuba launch of the program. Rangers Program, the First Scuba The Kids Scuba program is not only Rangers Club in Denmark, which is a chil- excellent for children and families, it is drens education program of the Scuba also a good form of family bonding. School International (SSI) Scuba training Families can look forward to enjoying a program that specializes in teaching kids professionally organised program so that the session completed the Kids Scuba ages eight to 12 years old, said Nick they can focus on participating in activi- Discovery program with a smile on their J. Visser, director and Scuba Rangers ties and much more, said Rahman dur- faces after receiving their certificate of instructor of Kids Scuba Denmark. ing the launch. completion at the end of the program. The Kids Scuba The presentation of the certificate was program also edu- witnessed by the SSI (Scuba Schools cates the kids on International) Nordic Regional Director, marine awareness Ole Skjaerbaek, who came personally with marine envi- to oversee the launch of Kids Scuba ronment education Denmark. Skjaerbaek said that for the through a series of children, the achievement of scuba video presentations diving is the ultimate experience. It is before the childen something that even adults might not get into the pool be able to do, and it definitely gives the with the instruc- kids a great sense of achievement. tors. All children One of the biggest challenges of con- and teenagers are ducting a Kids Scuba program of this taught to respect kind is bringing the families together. marine life and as Visser said that it was an achievement divers; they pledge to have parents and their children to conserve the bonding, sharing their love of the sport, underwater world. and enjoying a fantastic family day out All 12 children without interruptions. Syed Abd Rahman with students in try dive participating in And of course, the logistics is another 12 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

13 news THIS PAGE: Scenes from the Kids Scuba Denmark launch at the Naerum Sports Complex in Denmark Quotes from the parents and kids: Thanks for a great Sunday. Felix was so worked up afterwardhe simply just loved it. I would like Felix to join the sessions together with his friend Rasmus. Thanks a lotAtash just couldnt stop talking about how great it was and wore his t-shirt all night yesterday. Your friend was truly a great teacher! That was really great. Thanks. Sara really enjoyed it and Syed. Please sign Sara up for the Scuba Ranger Programme. winning certified SSI (Scuba School its programme. International) Scuba Rangers Club dedi- Kids Scuba Denmark cated to conducting SSI Scuba Rangers will organize a number courses for children ages 8-12 in the of camps to the various organizes camps four times per year Nordic region. The school was founded dive destinations in the tropical climate at the beautiful marine park islands of and organised in Denmark by Visser, a and warm waters of Asia with the coop- Malaysia and Borneo. qualified SSI Scuba Rangers Instructor eration of Kids Scuba Malaysia, which Awards received by Kids Scuba who did his train- Denmark include the Award for ing for three Success for the Scuba Rangers years as a Scuba and Kids Scuba Camp at Mabul Rangers Instructor Sipadan Island in Sabah Malaysia in Malaysia. in December of 2009 and the Children are Award for Success for the first exposed to basic successful Kids Scuba Denmark scuba educa- program organized in the Nordic tion, snorkeling Region. complicated story, he added with a techniques and For more information on Kids laugh. But what is important is that the elementary scuba Scuba Denmark and its courses children feel they have accomplished diving skills, gradu- at Naerum (Rundforbi) Sports something wonderful with an experience ating to beach Complex every second Sunday, that will take them a long way in life. and shallow dives log on to www.kidsscuba.dk or A Kids Scuba session with the Scuba during orga- email Nick Visser at [email protected] Rangers program will be conducted nized Kids Scuba cuba.dk, telephone: (+45) 99 55 every second Sunday on September 5, Camps, which will 82 32 (Nick) or (+45) 50 62 21 41 19 and 26 in 2010. It will be held at the be held in June (Mette). Naerum (Rundvorbi) Sports Complex. The and July 2011. Kids Kids Scuba Denmark program was assist- Scuba Denmark At the Malaysia International Dive ed by the SSI Nordic Region, Kids Scuba integrates care Expo 2010 in Kuala Lumpur, Syed Malaysia, Hana Sea Sports and Oceanic and conserva- Abd Rahman accepted an award Dive Consultant. tion of marine life from King Tuanku Mizan for Kids in all its materials Scuba Malaysia for being the most successful Scuba Rangers program About the program imparted to all its in the world, while show organizer, Kids Scuba Denmark is the first award- students as part of Thayalan Kennedy (far left) looks on. Two of the Kings children are also Scuba Rangers 13 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

14 news Salps are the most efficient Get the tie that gets you filter-feeder in the deep noticed NEW Salps role extends to removing carbon This innovative research is from dioxide from upper ocean and atmos- phere. providing an understanding of how a key organism in marine X-RAY What if trains, planes and automo- food webs affects important biogeochemical processes, MAG biles all were powered simply by said David Garrison, direc- tor of the National Science the air through which they move? What if their exhaust and by- Foundation (NSF)s biological oceanography program, which Sting products helped the environment? funded the research. rays Such an energy-efficient, self- Reporting this week in the propelling mechanism already journal Proceedings of the on exists in nature. The salpa small, National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), the scientists have the barrel-shaped organism that found that mid-ocean-dwelling salps are capable of captur- lose! resembles a streamlined jellyfish ing and eating extremely small gets everything it needs from organisms as well as larger ocean waters to feed and propel ones, rendering them even itself. Scientists hardier and per- believe its haps more waste mate- plentiful rial may help than had remove car- been believed. bon dioxide We (CO2) from had long the upper thought that salps were about is like eating everything from a mouse to a WHOI. ocean and the the most efficient horse. In the laboratory at WHOI, Sutherland and atmosphere. filter-feeders in the her colleagues offered salps food particles ocean, said Larry Salp consumption of three sizes: smaller, around the same size Now researchers Madin, WHOI Director Salps capture food particles, mostly phyto- as, and larger than the mesh openings. at the Woods Hole of Research and one plankton, with an internal mucus filter net. We found that more small particles were Oceanographic of the papers authors. Until now, it was thought that included only captured than expected, said Sutherland, Institution (WHOI) But these results particles larger than the 1.5-micron-wide now a post-doctoral researcher at Caltech. and MIT have extend their impact holes in the mesh; smaller particles would When exposed to ocean-like particle con- found that the down to the smallest slip through. centrations, 80 percent of the particles that half-inch to 5-inch- available size fraction, But a mathematical model suggested were captured were the smallest particles long creatures showing they con- salps somehow might be capturing food offered in the experiment. are even more sume particles span- particles smaller than that, said Kelly The finding helps explain how salps efficient than had ning four orders of Sutherland, who co-authored the PNAS which can exist either singly or in chains been believed. magnitude in size. This paper after her PhD research at MIT and that may contain a hundred or moreare www.zazzle.com/xraymag 14 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

15 co-author This process starts with the mesh Roman made of fine mucus fibers inside Stocker of the salps hollow body. MIT. Salps, which can live for weeks or The most months, swim and eat in rhythmic important pulses, each of which draws sea- aspect of water in through an opening at the this work front end of the animal. The mesh is the very captures the food particles, then effective shortcut that salps introduce in the process of particle aggre- gation, Stocker said. rolls into a strand and goes into the gut, where it is digested. It was assumed that very small cells or particles were eaten mainly by other microscopic consum- ers, like protozoans, or by a few specialized metazoan grazers like appendicularians, said Madin. This research indicates that Typically, salps can eat much smaller organ- aggregation isms, like bacteria and the smallest of particles phytoplankton, organisms that are proceeds numerous and widely distributed in slowly, by the ocean. able to survive in the open ocean steps, from tiny particles coagulat- The work, also funded by the where the supply of larger food ing into slightly larger ones. WHOI Ocean Life Institute, implies particles is low. Now, the efficient foraging of that salps are more efficient vac- Their ability to filter the smallest salps on particles as small as a frac- uum cleaners than we thought, particles may allow them to survive tion of a micrometer introduces said Stocker. where other grazers cant, said a substantial shortcut in this proc- Their amazing performance Madin. ess, since digestion and excretion relies on a feat of bioengineering Perhaps most significantly, the package these tiny particles into the production of a nanometer- result enhances the importance of much larger particles, which thus scale mucus netthe biomechan- the salps role in carbon cycling. sink a lot faster. ics of which remain a mystery. As they eat small, as well as large, particles, they consume the entire microbial loop and pack it into large, dense fecal pellets, Madin said. The larger and denser the car- bon-containing pellets, the sooner they sink to the ocean bottom. This removes carbon from the surface waters, said Sutherland, and brings it to a depth where you wont see it again for years to centuries. And the more carbon that sinks to the bottom, the more space there is for the upper ocean to accumulate carbon, hence limit- ing the amount that rises into the atmosphere as CO2, said paper 15 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

16 news Planet Ocean is richer, more connected, more altered than expected. all images courtesy of coml 16 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

17 news Just released First Census of Marine Life 2010: Highlights of a Decade of Discovery (CoML, 64 pages), edited by Jesse H. Ausubel, Darlene Trew Crist and Paul E. Waggoner. all images this page courtesy of coml Culminating a ten-year exploration, 2,700 scientists from 80 nations report the First Census of Marine Life. In one of and established websites, videos and migrations tracked across the largest photo galleries report and con- seas and up and down in scientific col- clude the first Census. Over the water column, plus laborations the decade, more than the revealed ubiquities ever conduct- 2,600 academic papers of many species, demon- ed, more than were publishedone, on strate connections among 2,700 Census average, every 1.5 days. oceans. Comparisons of scientists spent Presented is an unprecedented the present ocean with the over 9,000 days at sea on picture of the diversity, distribu- bountiful ocean life portrayed more than 540 expe- tion, and abundance of all in old archives document ditions, plus count- kinds of marine life in Planet changes. The Census estab- less days in labs and Oceanfrom microbes to lished declinesand some archives. whales, from the icy poles to the recoveriesof marine abun- Released yesterday are warm tropics, from tidal near shores dance. maps, three landmark to the deepest dark depths. The OBIS directory of books and a highlights sum- Oceanic diversity is demonstrated names and addresses of mary that crown a decade of by nearly 30 million observations of known ocean species estab- discovery. 120,000 species organized in the lishes a reference against The now-completed docu- global marine life database of the which humanity can monitor mentation in books and journals, Census, the Ocean Biogeographic 21st century change. It also delin- plus the accumulating databases Information System (OBIS). The eates the vast areas of ocean 17 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

18 silver all images this page courtesy of coml that have never been explored. We prevailed over early doubts that a Census was possible, as well as daunting extremes of nature, said Australian Ian Poiner, chair of the Census Steering Committee. The Age of Discovery continues. This cooperative international 21st century voyage has cinema of dreams systematically defined for the first time both the known and the vast unknown, unexplored ocean. According to Poiner, the beauty, wonder, and impor- tance of marine life are hard to overstate. All surface life depends on life inside and beneath the oceans. Sea life pro- vides half of our oxygen and a lot of our food and regulates climate. We are all citizens of the sea. And while much remains unknown, including at least 750,000 undiscovered species and their roles, we are better www.seacam.com acquainted now with our fellow travelers and their vast habitat on this globe. 18 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

19 wreck Solution to the Hunley rap mystery inching closer Confederate Submarine H.L. Hunley, suspended from a crane during her recovery from Charleston Harbor, 8 August 2000 One of the seven coins revealed during conservation a choice Mexico City piece of eight Encrusted conglomeration yields artifacts of wealth Wikipedia and war Scientists studying the submarine to an upright sank, it was buried in mystery of the shipwreck position, exposing sec- sand listing 45 degrees Key West, Florida Keys -- The the Americas of the Confederate tions of hull not exam- to starboard. It was kept five pound encrusted con- money and submarine Hunley ined in almost 150 years. that way as slings were glomeration of Santa Margarita weaponry. The Four of ten gunners dice found in the conglomeration, still undergoing conservation are getting closer to Early next year the 23- put beneath it and it shipwreck artifacts discovered money appears understanding what ton sub will be delicately was raised and brought in the Florida Straits in May by in the form of Waters joint venture partner weaponry, silver and gold happened to the hand- rotated to an upright to a conservation lab in W. Keith Webbs Blue Water seven silver pieces of eight explained that gunners dice coins, chains and jewelry. cranked sub and its position, exposing sec- North Charleston a dec- Ventures, though still in con- treasure coins; the weaponry are approximately 1x1 bits The near-mint condition, eight-man crew. Hunley tions of hull not exam- ade ago. servation, has thus far yielded are ten gunners dice. John of square-cut iron that were Mexico City minted silver archaeologists now plan ined in almost 150 years. two prime examples of 17th Corcoran, chief conservator wrapped into a bundlesome- piece of eight coin in the to delicately rotate the When the Hunley century Spanish presence in for Mel Fishers TreasuresBlue times mixed with pieces of bro- accompanying photograph is ken spikeand from the conglomeration dis- fired from can- covered in May by BWV diver non. Kris Goodner and represents Historic British Submarine plundered One never one of about 80,000 coins still knows what to be discovered on the sunk- might be dis- en 1622 Tierra Firme Fleet gal- covered in a leon Santa Margarita. Mexico conglomeration Mint coins are particularly rare of shipwreck on the Santa Margarita as they material. Even were actually part of the cargo though gold of an altogether different fleet, Wikipedia does not typi- the New Spain Fleetwhose cally become admiral made the unfortunate encrusted in sea decision to transfer valuable The Holland 5, which sank six miles off Eastbourne in East Sussex in 1912 water, it can if it coin cargo from his fleet to the is near another better-armed, but doomed, English Heritage said Nautical Archaeology The Holland class metal such as Tierra Firme fleet ships to carry. divers stole the torpedo Society in June and con- were the first submarines iron, so a con- For more information about tube hatch of the Hol- firmed during a survey built for the Royal Navy glomeration can Keith Webbs Blue Water land 5, the only surviving dive last month. Experts ordered by the British include a variety Ventures and the Santa example on the seabed said a group of people Admiralty to evaluate of artifacts, such Margarita shipwreck, visit www. of this class of submarine would have been be- the potential of the sub- as hull spikes, bwvkw.com. in the world. The theft hind the theft but that marine with the Royal was discovered during the hatch carried very Navy. Captains Dan Porter and Mike Perna examine an E.O., and encrusted artifact, which a licensed dive by the little monetary value. conservation revealed to be a partial wooden sword handle 19 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

20 wreck rap WWII Soviet Submarine located in the Black Sea Text by Milen Milanov facts. First of all, the object is out- Bulgarian waters during the Second side Position 22, where according World War, with a location which 27 August 2010, Bulgaria Divers to the military archive, the subma- remained unknown. The cause from the Varna Black Sea Diving rine was sent. And second, on 15 of the submarines destruction is Odesos club announced that they and 16 November 1941, the bod- still unspecified. C-34 was located have found the Soviet submarine ies of chief lieutenant Violet Dushin within the framework of a large C-34, which sunk near the Bulgarian and boatswain Frol Terehov from Bulgarian mine barrier laid in the Black Sea coast in November 1941. the submarines crew were found summer of 1941, said Panayotov. They came across the remains dur- equipped with diving gear According to him, it is possible that ing a dive east of Cape Galata, on the Tsarski beach near the town the propeller tangled in a mine- which is approximately 15 miles from of Sozopol, some 90 kilometers south rope. That would explain why Dushin the city of Varna. of Varna. and Terehov went out. After they Up to now, the team has carried On the other hand, in a subse- failed with the task of untwining the out two dives on the spot with the quent article from September 1, rope, the commander of the ves- support of the Black Sea Sunrise Panayotov said that after examin- sel gave an order to move in a last cooperation. ing the photo- and video-material, attempt to free C-34, said the histo- Orlin Canev from the team says provided by the diving team after rian. As a result, the mine was pulled that the submarine lies on its right their second dive on the spot, he nearer the hull and exploded caus- board and that its hull is literally split is convinced that the object found ing a secondary inner explosion, in two. The periscope is out, which is C-34. Panayotov explained that which caused the hull to split. makes the divers believe that during the initial information that the sub- Some sources mention airbombs the accident that caused the sink- marine was on the territory of the scattered on the bottom around ing of the Soviet submarine, it was Varna Bay was corrected with the the submarine. This fact leads to at a periscope depth. addition that it was under the par- the conclusion that C-34 was also The news of the discovery allel of Cape Emine. That puts it in attacked from air. caused quite a few debates. Many Position 22, where it was ordered to Specialists hope that further inves- announcements in the Russian be. What is more, the discovery of tigation will shed more light on the media challenged the authentic- the chief lieutenant and the boat- fate of the Soviet submarine. The ity of the statement that the object swains bodies that further south Bulgarian Navy announced that, near Varna was indeed C-34. could be explained with the if the theories of divers and histo- In an August 28 article, Atanas strong currents that are present rians prove to be right, the area Panayotov, Ph.D. in history, claims in that part of the coast. where C-34 lies will be declared that it is impossible that the divers C-34 was the last of five a military cemetery. Scenes from the wreck of the Soviet submarine C-34 from the Black Sea Diving Odesos submarines from the Soviet club have found C-34. To support Black Sea fleet his claim, the historian applies two that were lost in 20 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

21 wreck rap Rare German wartime bomber found in the UK A wreck of the German bomber Dornier 17 was discovered about two years ago, on a sandbank off Deal, Kent, in southeastern Great Britain. The plane, which landed on the sandbank in 1940 before it sank, is still in good condition, hence, there are plans to recover it. Wessex Archeology has and prepare the Dornier for 10 mile long sandbank). He been working with the Royal display will be undertaken touched down safely and Air Force (RAF) Museum at the RAF Museums award- the aircraft sank inverted. and English Heritage on the winning conservation center Effmert and his observer twin-engined Dornier 17, a at Cosford. were captured, but the German bomber that was The discovery of the other crewmen died, and shot down in the Battle of Dornier is of national and their bodies were washed Britain in 1940. The plane international importance. ashore later. was found at a depth of 15 The aircraft is a unique and meters (50 feet). unprecedented survivor Only existing plane from The Battle of Britain. The Dornier was used The flying pencil It is particularly significant throughout the war and saw More than 1,500 examples because, as a bomber, it action in significant numbers of the Dornier 17 medium formed the heart of the in every major campaign bomber were built. The twin Luftwaffe assault and the theater as a front line air- engine, twin fin configura- subsequent Blitz, said Air craft until the end of 1941 tion together with the nar- Vice-Marshal Peter Dye, when its effectiveness and row fuselage and shoul- Director General of the RAF usage was curtailed, as its der-mounted engines Museum. bomb load and range were gave the aircraft a dis- limited. Production of the Controlled landing Wessex Archeaolgy tinctive silhouette and Dornier ended in the sum- earned it the nickname, With a crew of four and mer of 1940. The Goodwin The Flying Pencil. loaded with 900 kg / 2000 Sands wreck is the only lb of bombs, the aircraft, a known surviving example. Remarkable twin-engined Dornier 17 was condition part of a large enemy for- According to the RAF mation intercepted Museum the plane was by RAF fighter found in remarkable aircraft at midday condition considering on 26 August 1940 the years it has spent as they attempt- underwater, and is largely ed to attack intact with its main under- airfields in Essex. carriage tires inflated and The Dornier found its propellers still show- on the coast of ing the damage they Kent was flown suffered during its final by Feldwebel (Flt Wikimedia Commons landing. Plans to recover Sgt) Willi Effmert and preserve the plane who attempted a and eventually put it up wheels-up landing for exhibit are underway. on the Goodwin Click on the image to go to the video on The work to conserve Sands (a 16 km / our website 21 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

22 Wreck of HMS Investigator found in the high Arctic Canadian archaeologists have found the HMS Investigatora British ship abandoned in the Arctic while on a 19th century rescue mission. HMS Investigator was a mer- The Investigator was abandoned by Robert McClure, left Britain chant ship purchased in 1848 to while searching for the Franklin in 1848, ultimately making two Wikipedia / Creative Common search for Sir John Franklins lost expedition, itself lost with all its attempts to find the Franklin expe- expedition. She made two voy- crew during a mission to discover dition. ages to the Arctic and had to be the passage. The vessel was purchased by abandoned in 1853 after becom- Its an incredible site, the Admiralty in February 1848 ing trapped in the ice. Now her Canadian Minister of the and was fitted for Arctic explo- wreckage was found on Banks Environment Jim Prentice told the ration at the Blackwall yard of Island, in the Beaufort Sea. BBC by telephone from Mercy Greens. The ship accompanied Canadas government says Bay. Youre looking at what peo- HMS Enterprise on James Clark HMS Enterprise (left) and HMS Investigator (right) the discovery bolsters its claim to ple have not seen in 156 years, Rosss expedition to find the miss- sovereignty over the Northwest which is a remarkably intact British ing Sir John Franklin. Also aboard Adams. McClure, but became trapped in by another party from the Royal Passage, which is feared threat- sailing vessel. HMS Investigator on this expedi- Investigator was commanded the ice, and was abandoned on Navy. Capt McClure is credited ened by increased shipping. The Investigator, captained tion was the naturalist Edward for the return voyage by Robert 3 June 1853 in Mercy Bay on the as the first European to discover western side of the western entrance to the the Canadian Northwest Passage. Arctic, where she had been Largely intact held for nearly Archaeologists discovered the three years. The ship under about 25ft of pristine, following year, icy arctic water this week using she was inspect- sonar and metal detectors. ed by crews of You could make out all the the Resolute, still planking on the deck, the details frozen in, and on the hull, all of the detail of the reported to be timber, Prentice told the BBC. in fair condition Its sitting perfectly upright on the despite having floor of the ocean. taken on some The Canadian researchers also water during found three graves of British sailors the summer who died of scurvy on the 1853 thaw. expedition. Running low Parks Canada, a government on supplies and agency, will inventory and study food, Capt the ship and other artefacts but Robert McClure will not remove them. It has been and his men in touch with the British gov- were eventu- ernment regarding the sailors ally rescued remains. 22 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

23 wreck rap For the 11th consecutive year, the S.C. Army National Guard has partnered with the S.C. Department of Natural Resources (DNR) to donate surplus materials to the Marine Artificial Reef program, a col- laborative project known as Reef-Ex. (File photo of an artifi- cial reef deployment from 2005) South Carolina extends it artificial reefs The S.C. Department of to share these reefs, and the APC resources. In terms of budgeting, section will provide them a new DNR is only responsible to oversee Natural Resources and the option. the placement of the structure, S.C. Army National Guard Of course it will take several years while the NG cleans and prepares teamed up once again for invertebrates to colonize the their retired vehicles and takes care APCs. Over 33 permitted sites are of the logistics of barges, cranes and and placed 20 stripped active in S.C. waters, and the joint such. DNR is extremely grateful for down armored personnel program has been placing structure the work that they do. carriers (APCs) into the in these locations for the past 15 The state has one of the most pro- waters at the Beaufort 45 years. Bell said, This is a win-win situ- lific reef building programs with the ation for DNR, the S.C. Army National National Guard along the Atlantic artificial reef. Guard, fishermen and our natural Coast. The artificial reef in 45 feet of water was established about 15 years ago with concrete reef balls, retired Army tanks and even debris from the old Broad River Bridge. The APCs were distributed in a separate location, but are in the same permitted area for the Beaufort 45 Reef. I have fished at the Beaufort 45 and I have dived on it, and I can tell you first hand that this is a healthy reef. Besides seeing lots of fish around the artificial reef, I have seen sponges, soft corals and other fully developed invertebrates inhabiting the ecosystem, said Mel Bell, a fish- eries biologist with the Department of Natural Resources, Often divers and fishermen have 23 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

24 travel news Edited by Scott Bennett Eric Cheng Solmar V liveaboard becomes green(er) In 2011, Solmar V will partner with low simple principles: avoid-reduce- In recognition of this move and to Carbonfund.org to establish carbon off- offset. Partnering with Carbonfund. encourage divers who support this sets for the boats diesel emissions. org provides a great way to offset kind of action, Solmar V is offering the A part of revenues from every trip in our impact. We want to encourage Green Boat special for all January 2011 will be earmarked for this program everyone to be good stewards of the 2011 trips to Socorro Islands. The to help fight global warmingSolmar oceans. If other operators are inter- Socorro Islands offer some truly pris- Vs contribution in making the transition ested in learning how to do this, my tine diving with exceptionally large to a clean energy future possible. staff would be happy to walk them animals: 18-plus foot mantas are When thinking about our busi- through the process. said Jose Luis common as well as numerous shark ness environmental impact, we fol- Sanchez, the operator. species, dolphins and even whales. Scuba divers visiting the southern Thai provinces of army stopped manufac- turing the tanks and parts became scarce. Chinese tanks Narathiwat and Pattani now have some unusual entries After slowly rusting away in a holding yard at a to form new for their log books as 25 Thailand reefs Thai army base in Nakhon Ratchasima, the tanks have Chinese-made battle tanks become part of an artifi- (MBTs) have been dropped cial coral project initiated into the Gulf of Thailand. by Thailands Queen Sirikit aimed at improving the marine eco- provinces of Narathiwat and Pattani. The 36.7 ton (39.7 US ton) T69-2 system and increasing fish The vehicles were lowered into the tanks entered service with stocks in the sea sea off the Narathiwat coast by the Thai army in 1987 off the southern crane on August 10. and were decom- The fertile waters missioned in 2004 of the Gulf of after the Chinese Thailand are crucial to the nations fishermen, but over- fishing has left the ecosystem depleted in recent years. It is hoped the combat vehicles will soon attract coral and fish to the Wikipedia areas where they are laid to rest. Thailand still has 70 of the Chinese armored fighting vehicles still in serv- ice. 24 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

25 travel Nautilus Explorer offers trip to remote Clipperton Atoll The Nautilus Explorer is offering the other than Jacques Cousteau, of fish life is prolific, ranging from very rare opportunity to combine Scripps, the Smithsonian Institute, the endemic Clipperton angel- the adventure of a voyage to National Geographic and a fish to big schools of jacks and a remote coral atoll with diving French scientific party. The two- other panamic fish, nudibranchs the Pacific mile long atoll itself is and multitudes of free-swimming mantas and jam-packed with life green moray eels. Sharks species dolphins of including five million Laboratory, NASA Johnson Space Center include hammerhead, silky and Socorro Island. land crabs and 500,000 tiger sharks as well as mantas and Discovered boobies. It is surrounded whale sharks. Earth Sciences and Image Analysis by Ferdinand by a shallow barrier that Trips depart from Cabo San Magellan descends down to a Lucas, which is easily accessible in 1521, white sand bottom at from anywhere in North America Clipperton 175 feet. The amount or connecting from Europe. It is a Island is a one-day ocean cross- beautiful and ing out to Socorro and very remote then an additional tropical coral two days of voyaging atoll that has to Clipperton. There is been visited by very, an overnight stay on very few divers. the boat, with guests The Nautilus disembarking the Explorer offers the next morning at 8:30 only diving expedi- a.m. Trip length is 15 tions to have ever nights/16 days. visited this place Nautilusexplorer.com Galapagos Islands removed from the UNESCO Word Heritage danger list A U.N. panel has voted to Galapagos Islands to such an But the committee voted 15 to 4 withdraw the Galapagos extent that they need no longer in favor of Brazils recommendation be included on the List of World to withdraw the islands from the list, Islands from the World Heritage in Danger. saying Ecuador had made progress Heritage in Danger list. The archipelago of volcanic in recent years. At the annual meeting of the islands off the Pacific coast of Its important to recognize the UNESCO committee for World Ecuador had been on the list of effort made by the Ecuadorean Heritage Sites, which was held endangered world heritage sites government to preserve this her- this year in Brasilia, the capital of since 2007. A growing local popula- itage, said Luiz Fernando de Brazil, it was decided that Ecuador tion, fishing, and tourism had put Almeida, head of the Brazilian del- has improved the situation in the pressure on natural resources there. egation. 25 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

26 travel List of international visa restrictions How to sleep on airplanes The Henley Visa Restrictions Index is a global ranking of countries listed according to the extent of travel For most travellers, the pros- retire before you reach altitude. or somewhere you can reach it eas- create havoc on ones gastro-intes- freedom their pect of getting forty winks on Music is a great way to relax. Before ily. tinal system. Preflight, avoid gas-pro- citizens enjoy. departure, create a playlist on your Try to get a window seat near the ducing foods such as apples, apri- Henley & Partners a plane can be a nightmare. iPod with at least 20 songs that you front, where its quieter and has analyzed the Sleeping bolt upright in a find relaxing. Listening to music dur- not quite as bright. Choose visa regulations of sardine can-sized compart- ing sleep has been shown to help a window seat for the wall, all the countries ment isnt particularly easy, maintain normal blood pressure and preferably in an exit row, so and territories in good circulation throughout a long your neighbor wont disturb the world. and those long trans-oce- flight. Consider purchasing a set of you if he or she gets up. An anic flights are a virtual free sound isolating canal earphones eye mask to block all light is ticket to stress-management (Etymotic Research ER-4P Earphones, also helpful. therapy. Fortunately, catch- US$165, Amazon.com). Pressurized cabins can also New clearance programs for international ing a snooze at 35,000 feet is As the body expands at travellers going to or through the US high altitude where cabin indeed possible. temperatures can be wildly Global Entry is a U.S. Cus- line Enrollment System inconsistent, layered, com- toms and Border Protec- allows registered users to For starters, skip the coffee. Dehy- fortable, loose-fitting cloth- tion (CBP) program that enter their own applica- drating drinks such as coffee, tea, ing is best for sleeping. Take cots, beans, broccoli, cab- allows expedited clear- tions for U.S. Customs and colas and alcohol coupled with along a lightly stuffed full bage and cauliflower. Pack ance for pre-approved, Border Protection (CBP) tinder-dry cabin air can make sleep body pillow, preferably one high-fiber snacks in your low-risk travelers upon ar- Trusted Traveler Programs, even more difficult. Instead, drink made of memory foam carry-on. Dried fruit, nuts rival in the United States. and approved members plenty of water, starting the day because it can be packed and whole-grain granola Though intended for fre- to edit their information as before you fly. into a small bag. Once bars are good choices. quent international travel- needed. Once a complet- During takeoff, your body is sub- youre in your seat, pull Containing melatonin and ers, there is no minimum ed application is certified jected to increased G-forces, result- it out, fold it double and serotonin, bananas are a number of trips necessary by the applicant and the ing in feelings of drowsiness due place it on your tray table virtual sleeping pill in a peel. to qualify for the program. non-refundable payment to the decreased oxygen in the A handful of almonds can Participants may enter is successfully processed, cabin. If youre the sort of also be snooze-inducing as the United States by using CBP will review it and de- person who can fall asleep they contain tryptophan automated kiosks located termine whether or not to quickly, take advantage of this short and a nice dose of muscle- at select airports. conditionally approve the time and try to get your body to relaxing magnesium. A pre- GOESThe Global On- application. departure turkey dinner will also help! Airline meals website AirlineMeals.net is a web- site where users publish actual pictures of actual inflight meals. Since its inception in 2001, it has grown to more than 20,000 airline meal photos from approximately 600 air- lines, searchable by airline, flight class, date and route, news and forums. Non-US citizens still have to through the indignifying proces of www.airlinemeals.net having fingerprints taken upon arrival to the US as if they were criminals. Image from Washington Dulles International Airport 26 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

27 Utila Island Text and photos by Scott Bennett Jewel of Honduras 27 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

28 travel Utila If youve been to South East Asia, dont bother with the Caribbean is a phrase Ive encoun- tered many times over the last decade. Having done virtually all of my diving in Asia-Pacific, the regions legendary diversity tends to leave one a tad spoilt. When youve dived exclusively in the worlds biodiversity hotspot, its all-too-easy to assume that other areas will suffer by comparison. However, when an opportunity arose to visit the island of Utila in Honduras, I was immediately intrigued. As well as being a totally new part of home in Toronto on Sunwing, a charter I headed outside the terminal. A the world (in my own hemisphere for a airline that just started flights this past 20-minute taxi ride delivered me to the change), it was also reasonably close, winter. Better still was the fact I could West End, one of the main tourist areas with a mere two hours time difference. avoid the long stopovers required by on the island. From here, I caught I decided to cast all preconceptions connecting flights travelling through Captain Verns catamaran for the aside and enjoy the diving for what the United States. four-hour trip to Utila. I was somewhat it was. I ended up being in for a Four and a half hours after departing surprised by the nationalities of the pleasant surprise! cold and drizzly Toronto, I landed passengersvirtually all of them were Getting there proved somewhat at Roatans compact international fellow Canadians. Then Captain Vern easier than anticipated. I discovered airport. After breezing through uttered something rather ominous, Its a non-stop service to Roatan from my customs, I gathered my gear and going to be rough out there today, so Detail of fan coral on the reef at Utila (left); School of Bermuda chub (above); Juvenile spotted drumfish hovers over coral (previous page) 28 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

29 travel Utila CLOCKWISE FROM LEFT: Swimming pool at the Mango Inn; Utila ferry; Street scene in Utila; Pelican at the pier; ATVs and tourists populate downtown Utila the north Honduras coast, the Bay eclectic assortment of electric golf Islands consist of eight islands and carts, ATVs and most surprisingly, more than 60 cays. In contrast to Thai-style tuk-tuks. It became the more rolling terrain of Roatan, immediately apparent that diving Utila is quite flat, with the notable is prominently woven into the island exception being the rounded cultural fabric, with more diver summit of Pumpkin Hill. The island Traditionally, Utila was largely a fishing community with the initial settlements to be found on the Utila Cayes, 11 palm-fringed islands off the southwest coast. Only 13km long and 5km wide with much of the coastline dominated by mangroves, down flags draped from buildings and the island is virtually uninhabited flagpoles than actual Honduran flags! except for the small fishing village After checking in at the Utila Dive of East Harbour (Utila Town). Due Centre (UDC), I was driven to my home to 300 years of British influence, for the week, the Mango Inn. Nestled the main language of the islands amidst luxuriant tropical gardens buzzing I hope everybody has taken their NOT mix!) I speedily shifted to the 6000 inhabitants is English, whereas with hummingbirds, the resort was sea-sick pills. Scanning the waters non-vomiting side of the boat and mainland Honduras speaks Spanish. situated in a quiet residential area of ahead, I could see a profusion of tried to enjoy the rest of the trip. In contrast to Roatans more town, but only a 5-minute stroll from the whitecaps. Yikes! Fortunately, my stomach contents mainstream tourist scene, Utila is all the amenities and restaurants on the Within 15 minutes of departure, remained intact. When all was said decidedly more charming, boasting main street. the vessel started heaving, and and done, the trip took an hour a laid-back Caribbean vibe. Later in the evening, I met up with so did the passengers. (A word of longer than expected, and we Gingerbread houses awash in a Andy Phillips, UDCs course director. Over warning: a lack of sleep, copious finally arrived in Utila around 5:00PM. range of pastel hues lined the main a delicious pizza and a few Salva Vida amounts of beer and rough seas do Situated approximately 65km off road, while traffic consisted of an beers at the Mango Inn, Andy gave me 29 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

30 travel Utila a run-down on the islands diving. most famous resident, the whale shark. Hummingbird build their Utilas waters are home to over 100 charted dive The peak season for these gentle giants is snug nests out of local sites with a variety of environments. Suspended on between March-April and August-September. materials the rim of the continental shelf, Utilas north side is As my arrival had coincided with the for- flanked by submarine walls that plummet to over mer, my fingers were crossed! 1,000m. The drop offs are also home to the islands I also asked Andy about the political events of 2009. While widely reported by the international media as a coup, the local version was somewhat different, with the removal of former president Zelaya being entirely within the rights of the constitution. As is typical in politics, some agreed and some didnt, and demonstrations did take place. As a result, the U.S. State Department slapped a travel advisory on the country and tourism virtually dried up overnight. Utila and Roatan were hit especially hard, as tourism is the foremost component of the local economy. Despite a few incidents of unrest on the mainland, the Bay Islands CLOCKWISE FROM ABOVE: Vase sponge; Mango Inn remained trouble-free during the entire bungalow; Cozy room at the Mango Inn 30 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

31 travel Utila CLOCKWISE FROM LEFT: Pedersons cleaner shrimp (left); Utila Beach; Brown garden eel; Four-eye butterflyfish; Longspine squirrelfish episode. After elections were held yet subsided and the half -hour trip I would be spending some in November, a new president was was decidedly rough. serious time with the fish ID instated and by December, the travel After tying up at the mooring book back at the dive cen- advisory was revoked. Happily for the line, it was a real production to get tre. locals, tourism has since bounded everyone geared up and into the After an enjoyable 50 back. water. Tyson was assigned to be my minutes, we surfaced to dive buddy, and we opted to wait discover a steady rain had The diving until everyone else was in first. After The next morning, I arrived at the being helped to the rear of the wildly dive shop in plenty of time for the heaving boat, I did a giant stride and 8:00AM departure. It was a full boat, entered the water. with 14 divers including guides Tyson Despite the extreme surface chop, (a fellow Torontonian) and Josiah. the visibility was surprisingly good. After a recent liveaboard trip in the Descending to the sandy channel Philippines where all you had to do below, I got my first look at the reef was stick out your foot and someone and was immediately struck by how would put a fin on it, I quickly realized different it looked. While not boasting fast enough! Moving back to that the UDC was a the sheer number of corals Id seen in the more protected waters do-it-yourself type Asia, the growth was extraordinarily of the islands south side, our of operation, with lush. A delirious array soft corals and next stop was Little Bight. everyone responsible sponges blanketed the reef, while fan for setting up their own corals were absolutely everywhere, Little Bight gear. It had been so their fronds undulating rhythmically in Here, a coral-shrouded long since Ive done so the strong surge. wall descended 18m to that it was downright Virtually everything in sight was a large expanse of white embarrassing! totally new, especially the fish. sand, which was home Although I recognized angelfish, but- to large congregations of Spotted Bay terflyfish and squirrelfish, the species commenced. Getting on board garden eels. Sitting in front of what Our destination was were unfamiliar. Squirrelfish looked proved to be a real challenge as the appeared to be a small anemone Spotted Bay, situated virtually identical to their Pacific cous- wooden ladder bobbed madly in the was an exquisite shrimp. Sporting off the islands ins, but boasted an impressive dorsal turbulent waters. Due to the surface a pair of long white antennae, its northwest coast. Just fin when the fish became agitated. conditions and strong surge, over half transparent body was accented with getting there proved Parrotfish were especially abundant the group had opted to sit the next an assembly of vibrant purple spots. I to be an adventure, and there appeared to be many dif- dive out. later discovered it to be a Pedersons as the previous day ferent varieties (an incorrect assump- As I sat cold and shivering in the cleaner shrimp, a commonly rollicking seas had not tion, but more on that later). I knew rain, the surface interval couldnt end observed Caribbean species. 31 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

32 travel Utila LEFT TO RIGHT: Fan corals at Teds Point; Sunset in Utila; Young boy shows no fear handling a tarantuala local to the area; ATV serves as the family car in these parts the world creates a rich cultural mosaic that is downright intoxicating. Interestingly, a number of people with English names are actually Spanish, a result of the islands 300 years of British control. One night, I needed to get immediately assailed with a frenetic protruding from the underside of its bow some money exchanged, so I was bout of tank banging. Whirling in all like feathery goatee. At our safety stop, steered me towards Archie Hendersons directions, I failed to see the cause of we came across a school of large silvery place on the main street near the the commotion. That is, until I glanced fish, which Jeremy couldnt identify. They crossroads. Surprisingly, Archie was no above my right shoulderhovering in werent even in the reef guide; in fact no Brit, but thoroughly Spanish! the water column less than a metre one seemed to know what they were. There was definitely no shortage of away was a great barracuda! I quickly After doing some research back home, local characters. One afternoon, I saw shifted my position and fired off a series I discovered of exposures. Best of all, I was able to them to be capture a few images with a vibrant blue Bermuda background. chub. Topside Teds Point Just like its Still game for more, I headed out on in undersea the afternoon with dive guide, Jeremy, to environs, explore Teds Point. The fish life was rife, Utilas topside attracted by a pair strong converging residents are currents that sweep past. a diverse At the eastern end, the wall drops lot. An sharply to below 40m, while to the west, eclectic mix a gentle slope lies at 18m. The sandy of Spanish, areas were dotted with coral bommies African A fan coral boasted a trio of small have developed a unique strategy to decorated with sea fans, soft corals and English but conspicuous molluscs called consume their favourite food. Over time, and sponges. Feather duster worms heritage, flamingo tongues, their creamy shells they have evolved a group of genes were congregated in large clusters, combined garbed in a psychedelic wardrobe and proteins called a defensome that unlike the solitary individuals Id routinely with an of orange spots encircled with black. detoxifies coral compounds. encountered in Asia. assortment Although the corals have developed While scouring the white sandy bottom On the sandy bottom at 20m, a small of expats toxins to deter predators, these molluscs for additional macro subjects, I was wreck lay tilted on its side, soft corals from around 32 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

33 travel Utila one fellow speeding by the dive CJs Drop-Off shop with a large scarlet macaw In contrast to the south sides sitting on his shoulder. As a result of gentler slopes, CJs Drop-Off this extraordinary cultural mlange, boasted dizzying walls plummeting Utilas residents boast a wealth of to 1,000m. An assembly of stories. triggerfish called black durgeons One evening, I ventured out were on hand to greet us, as we to a Mexican restaurant called descended 5m to the reef top. El Picante, which was situated Hovering over the rim as it plunged adjacent to the crossroads on into the abyssal depths below was the main drag. The owner, Jean truly exhilarating. hailed from the Congo of all While descending the wall, places. How on earth did you frequent computer checks were end up in Honduras? I queried. absolutely essential, as the crystal A woman, he responded with clear visibility would make it all a broad grin. His Honduran wife, too easy to exceed recreational Theresa, was also the cook, and diving limits at the drop of a hat. she served up some of the best Back on the boat, Ryan, my guide, enchiladas that Ive ever eaten. reckoned it was the best visibility The drinks menu also offered a rather intriguing concoction called a Chimpanzee. When Jean told me the contents included dark rum, coconut milk, bananas, cinnamon and crushed ice, I was sold on the spot. It did boast a kick, so I opted to stop at one. A few more and Id probably be swinging from the treetops like its hed seen on the island in CLOCKWISE namesake! weeks. FROM FAR LEFT: Barred hamlet; More diving Big Rock Diver at CJs The remainder of the week After the deeper dives of the Drop-Off; Feather duster worms; followed a similar routine, with morning, the days final dive Barrel sponge morning dives on the north shore at Big Rock was kept decid- at Pumpkin Hill followed by afternoons on the edly shallower. Within moments, Banks; Hogfish south. Ryan gestured to nearby coral, (inset) 33 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

34 travel Utila nose puffers and one seriously large dog snapper vying for my cameras attention. UDC Jetty For macro subjects, I discovered with a patchwork of fan corals, one neednt look any further than sponges and hard corals. Swirling the Utila Dive Center jetty, whose amongst them were successions of wooden pilings are a favourite blue tang. French grunts, yellowtail haunt of seahorses. One day, with snappers and the occasional grey a few hours to spare between angelfish. During the dive brief, dives, I grabbed my camera, we were told a large green moray donned some fins and snorkel and could often be seen patrolling set out in search of them. the reef top, and sure enough he Although I did find a couple of (she?) appeared right on cue. banded coral shrimp and a school Above the reef, a shimmering of grunts, my seahorse search school of horse-eye jacks glinted in came up empty-handedthat the blue, joined by several Atlantic is, until I asked one of the dive spadefish and a school of southern instructors above, who informed sennet, a species of barracuda. me there was one attached to a The duration of the dive was spent rope right at the end of the jetty. encircling the seamounts Having a second look, I sheepishly perimeter, and every pass realized it had been right in front revealed something new. of my nose during my initial forage. While photographing a The experience ended up being fan coral, a large hogfish CLOCKWISE a real first: underwater macro appeared from beneath FROM FAR photography while snorkelling. one of the fronds. A large LEFT: Dive boat wrasse named after the hovers over where I barely discerned a diminu- While a compliant subject, the dif- Black Hills shape of the males head, reef at Duppy Waters; Sec- tive head poking out of a hole. ficulty of focusing on such a small A firm favourite amongst many they are also highly valued retary blenny; Barely the size of a pencil eraser, fish coupled with the incessant visitors, Black Hills is considered to for their meat (which does Seahorse; its owner was a secretary blenny. surge present made for moments be one of the Bay Islands premier not taste like pork). Decorated Photographing the tiny creature of extreme frustration. Photo sub- dive sites. An isolated seamount, nudibranch proved especially challenging, as jects abounded for the remainder its nutrient-rich waters attract fish Duppy Waters (sea slug); it was difficult enough just SEEING of the dive, with Pedersons shrimp, like a magnet. Its summit, starting For our next dive, we Dog snapper it through my cameras viewfinder! arrow crabs neon gobies, sharp- at a depth of 10m, was shrouded headed over to the north 34 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

35 travel Utila where these corals can be observed at such shallow depths. Descending the wall, I came across one of Utilas smaller but most spectacular residents. Flitting above a rich tableau of table corals was a juvenile spotted drum. Attired in plenty of other fish on view including schoolmasters, honeycomb cowfish, blueheads, Creole wrasse, porkfish and groupers. During our surface interval, we had lunch at a charming seaside restaurant called The Purple Pelican. Sitting astride a white palm fringed beach offering expansive views to side to Duppy Waters. Duppy the nearby Cays, it even had trans-lates to ghost in the local a pelican (albeit not purple) dialect, and the site receives its perched out front on a wooden name from the light shimmering pylon over the reef. Legend has it Afterwards, we paid a visit to that if anyone sees a flash Black Coral Wall. of light, his or her days are numbered. While no ghosts Black Coral Wall made an appearance, the reef The site was aptly named, as was wondrous to behold, with the walls were home to a profu- exuberant coral growth at each sion of young black coral trees. and every turn. In fact, it is reputed to be one After swimming through a of the few places in the world meandering canyon hewn into the reef top, we emerged at a precipitous wall. The waters beyond were hued in the most incredible shade of blue Ive ever seen, CLOCKWISE FROM ABOVE: Reef scene with visibility easily from Duppy Waters; Lizardfish; Nassau surpassing 30m. While no Grouper; Branching vase sponge at Black whale sharks made an Coral Wall; French grunt; Tobaccofish appearance, there were 35 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

36 travel Utila CLOCWISE FROM LEFT: Pillar corals at Black Coral Wall; School of sennet, a species of barracuda; White vase coral and pink vase coral at Black Coral Wall a striking wardrobe of black and white The Bay Islands Foundation, accented by an elegant sinuous dorsal a private non-profit orga- fin, it flitted incessantly above the cor- nization committed to the als, seemingly oblivious to my presence. protection of the countrys Especially captivating were the endangered flora and myriad of sponges on display. Boasting a wild array of shapes, sizes and colours, they soon became one of my favourite photo subjects. One species, however, was like nothing Ive seen before. Standing erect like inverted bugles, vase sponges were garbed in a rich palette ranging from cream to vivid fuchsia. Dominating fauna through a series of conserva- the reef top was an immense pillar tion projects. coral. Resembling the ramparts of The IRBS was born in 1997 with the a submarine medieval castle, the main purpose of protecting and towering spires attracted swarms of preserving the spiny-tailed iguana, Bermuda chub, Atlantic spadefish and a species endemic to Utila. Known a couple of hefty drum fish. I ended up locally as swampers, the iguanas doing this dive several times during my are threatened with extinction due stay. Each visit revealed new surprises, to illegal hunting, uncontrolled with the undisputed highlight being a development and destruction of pair of spotted eagle rays gracefully their mangrove forest habitat. swimming side by side. The foundation receives volunteers Iquana excursion interested in doing scientific One afternoon, I took a break from research of the islands biology and diving and hopped on a tuk-tuk for ecology as well as in participating a visit to the Iguana Research and in the conservation projects for Breeding Station (IRBS) on the outskirts iguanas. Helder then took me on a of town. Under the guidance of biolo- tour of the centre, which featured gist Helder Perez, the project is part of a number of informative displays 36 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

37 travel Utila CLOCKWISE FROM LEFT: Iguana at mealtime; Stoplight parrotfish; Red shrimp; Banded coral shrimp; Juvenile swamper iguanas of varying Night dive sizes were kept. After rushing back to the dive centre, The first housed I was fortunate to join a group of dive- contingent of masters for a night dive. Our destina- juveniles, which tion was Silver Gardens, a short boat would shortly be away. I couldnt wait to see what returned to the macro treasures Utilas waters would wild. It was also reveal at night. Frank, my dive guide, feeding time soon proved adept at finding crit- and the juveniles ters and my cameras shutter clicked heartily tucked away happily for the ensuing 50 min- into the provided utes. on the islands ecology. Despite termites with wild abandon. Nearby, Shrimp were everywhere, their its compact size, Utila is home to another enclosure contained a pair of beady eyes glowing red in my strobes a remarkable number of species, fully-grown breeding adults as well as with new discoveries being made a large green iguana that was missing all the time. One room housed a its left forelimb. large cabinet containing a series of It was also feeding time for a high- incubators, where the iguana eggs are land iguana, the third of the islands kept prior to hatching. To date, 750 iguana species. The meal consisted hatchlings have been released in the of an odd pairing of fiddler crabs and wild. hibiscus flowers, which the hun- Afterwards, we went outside to gry lizard greedily gulped a series of enclosures, where down with gusto. Perched beside the enclosure door was another island resident, a formidable looking Honduran taran- tula. The centres volunteers wouldnt touch it with a ten-foot pole, but a small boy gleefully plucked the large arachnid from its perch! 37 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

38 travel Parrotfish at night (left) Red nudibranch (bottom left) Utila Spotted scorpionfish at night (below) a noise that I first took to be our case that evening, as the elusive boatman revving the engine in a creature retreated into to a dark series uniform of bursts. Confusingly, recess before I was able to catch it seemed to grow louder and a glimpse of it. then softer again for no apparent Still, the dive had one more reason. Then, at one point it got surprise in store. Just as we were REALLY loud. In fact, the sound approaching the ladder, a Carib- became so intense I could feel the bean reef octopus regarded us vibration right down to my very suspiciously from the reef top bones! Nearby, I could see Frank before vanishing under some diligently searching for something corals. underneath a rocky overhang. While consulting the reef guide Then, I remembered a convers- back at the resort, I made a ation from the previous day, and a surprising discovery. It seems that light went off in my head. It had to two of the parrotfish species I had be a toadfish! With their broad and been observing all week was, in flat heads sporting barbels, spiny fact, one. The stoplight parrotfish check protrusions and enormous undergoes a dramatic colour mouths brimming with scores of metamorphosis as it reaches sharp teeth, these sluggish bottom adulthood. Juveniles are light grey dwelling fish are more often heard in colour with a lattice pattern than seen. It certainly was the of chocolate brown punctuated spotting lights. A couple of familiar es there was almost a bit TOO much faces even showed up: a pair of life, as the water was literally seething banded coral shrimp. I even spotted with masses of wriggling red worms. a large bright-red nudibranch, a rarity For some reason, they seemed to be in Caribbean waters. Although resem- utterly entranced by the spotting lights bling a Spanish dancer, Frank said it of my underwater strobes, more so was another species entirely. than everyone elses torches. The sandy area between bommies I also had a close encounter with was crawling with spotted goatfish, one of the Caribbeans most unusual while a foraging blue conger eel was residents, not visually but audibly. an unexpected surprise. In some plac- Early into the dive, I kept hearing faint 38 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

39 travel THIS PAGE: Scenes from the Haliburton wreck Lionfish of debate. One version theorizes that Utila several escaped from an overturned The poster aquarium when Hurricane Andrew said it all, slammed into Florida in the 1990s. Wanted: Others put the blame on Hurricane Dead or Katrina. Whatever the reason, alive. lionfish are now firmly entrenched in Emblazoned Caribbean waters with the potential underneath of wreaking environmental havoc the bold on local ecosystems. In their natural type was home in the Pacific, lionfish breed only a large image of a lionfish, Utilas once a year, but in the Caribbean, it newest and most unwelcome arrival. has been discovered that they breed Since its first appearance in Utilas fives times a year. To combat this waters in the middle of 2009, the local potentially catastrophic problem, a community has declared all-out war vigorous eradication programme has on this destructive interloper. Just how been implemented to rid Utilas waters they arrived is open to a good deal of this uninvited menace. vessel sits upright on a flat, sandy bottom at a depth of 30m. An inter-island supply ves- sel, it was deliberately sunk in 1998 by the Utila Dive Operators Association to create an artificial reef. Descending the mooring line into the blue, the ghostly outline of the ship soon became visible. This was one seriously big wreck! Stretching 30m from bow to stern, I could already see the dive time wasnt going to be nearly long enough. Although its by a vivid crimson belly. mating strategy than the possible to penetrate Near the bow, an H-bitt a number of items had Adult males are blue-green terminal phase males of the the cargo hold, I decided for securing mooring lines been adhered to the railing accented with pink. In same species. The verdict? to concentrate on the was enveloped with red ranging from a mannequins most parrotfish, individuals Mass confusion all around! exterior. On the sand below star encrusting sponges head with mask to a PADI start out as females and was a decidedly unusual and capped with a pore card. I later discovered that change to males. Adding to The Haliburton Wreck sight: the skeleton of a pilot rope sponge, looking like an some divers like to leave the confusion is that some One of the weeks highlights whale. Nearby, a corroded oversize stick of dynamite. personal mementos behind. stoplight parrotfish develop was a dive on Utilas biggest bicycle tire played home to As fairy basslets and queen While everyone doesnt directly to males from the get and most famous wreck, the a lizardfish and arrow crab angelfish flitted past, a approve of this practice, it go. These individuals often Halliburton. Situated off the while a large spiny lobster peculiar jumble of objects has nevertheless become resemble the initial phase, islands south coast less than peered out from an opening caught my attention. On the something of a tradition. and often display a different ten minutes from town, the at the vessels base. vessels uppermost section, On a decidedly smaller 39 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

40 travel THIS PAGE: Scenes from the Jade Seahorse garden created Utila by the owner out of glass, bot- tles, tiles, ceramic plates and other found objects with detail. Overlooking the proceedings was the Treetanic Bar, a ship wrecked in the branches of a trio of mango trees towering over the front yard. There was even a hotel called Nightland, consisting of several private cabins. The detail was astonishing, and the hour I spent wandering the grounds was not nearly long enough. Definitely worth a return visit. Pumpkin Hill On my last diving day, Andy had a very special dive in mind. Like an undersea version of Pumpkin Hill, the Pumpkin Hill Banks is a large and round-topped seamount situated off the islands southeast coast. It was also deep, with the top lying abundant fish life included blue chromis, Jade Seahorse Spanish hogfish, four-eye butterflyfish, Before I knew it, the week was rapidly tobaccofish, barred hamlets and a drawing to a close. However, there was school of blue tang. one more land-based attraction that I Venturing along the wall towards was told I simply couldnt miss. All week Teds Point yielded a few more sur- Id been hearing about a place called prises. Hovering beside a fan coral was the Jade Seahorse, which was barely a a massive yet tolerant Nassau grouper. minutes walk from my hotel. Comprised Unfortunately, I was equipped for macro, of a restaurant, cabins and bar, the so I had to content myself with some somewhat unassuming exterior bore no facial portraits. A small canyon jutting portent as to the marvels that lay inside. off the main wall proved to be a real As I entered through the main gate to bonanza. After firing off a few images the garden, I literally stopped dead in of an arrow crab, I practically bumped my tracks. Before me lay a whimsical set- into a spiny lobster. A scant metre from ting straight out of Alices Wonderland. that was a massive red crab followed by Over a number of years, the owner an adult spotted drum. At nearby Moon has lovingly crafted his verdant property Hole, I spotted a gorgeous flatworm into marine-themed fantasyland of flecked with orange spots, something glazed tile, bottles and glass. An unbri- scale, Rons Wreck is also a lot shallower, by a veritable tangle of sponges I hadnt encountered during my entire dled assortment of platforms, gazebos, lying at a depth of 14m. Since it sank and corals and is home to Christmas visit. bridges and pathways were swathed in 1991, the vessel has been colonized tree worms, shrimp and lobsters. The with incredible mosaics jam-packed 40 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

41 travel Utila Utila Centre for Marine Ecology Established in 2006, The Utila biodiversity and now provides Centre for Marine Ecologys aim technical capacity in marine is to improve the welfare and research to the Honduran economic growth of Utila by government. Research focuses supporting the management on identifying and studying and sustainable use of its factors that create, maintain marine biodiversity. With its and influence the islands bio- unique location and variety of diversity, providing information, marine habitats, Utila is an ideal which can guide management centre for ecological research. decisions and underpin effec- In addition, the island provides tive conservation. Combining an interesting development cutting edge marine science model as the community shifts with volunteer programmes from strong historical links with and educational courses, divers fishing to its current reliance on and non-divers alike can assist reef based tourism. national and international Currently, Utilas dive industry researchers as they study the supports up to 85 percent of islands wealth of biodiversity. the island economy. While A variety of projects are cur- global coral reefs face rently underway, including the increasing threats, major establishment of a locally man- bleaching events in recent aged conch farm, studies on years have hit Caribbean reefs assessing the extent and health especially hard. The projects of the mangrove systems, lion- goal is to identify and reduce fish eradication and studies local stressors to coral reefs, to monitoring local fish popula- make them more resilient to tions. The local community is global environmental changes highly supportive of the centres and will achieve this by efforts and is actively integrated integrating targeted research, into the various research stud- with ongoing monitoring and ies, working side by side with community management. marine biologists and conserva- The UCME has grown tion specialists to better under- rapidly to become a focal stand and conserve Utilas CLOCKWISE FROM ABOVE: Diver in the sun; Fan coral at Black Hills; Diver and reef at Teds Point point for the investigation of threatened marine environ- tropical marine and island ment. but we lucked out and were knobby corals and a plethora of Pacifics biodiversity? Of course able to descend quickly. As it squat barrel sponges. I just got not. Instead, I embraced the at a depth of 32m. Swept by needed GPS to pinpoint the was a blue water descent, Frank myself in position to take a photo differences rather than bemoan strong currents that bring in the exact location. Not necessary, took along a second tank as a and realized my depth was them and experienced its nutrients, local fishermen have he responded. He can find it safety precaution. 42.6m. My remaining bottom wonderful dive sites and array long known the spot to be a by sight. Using the outline of Moments after descending, time was all of three minutes! of brand-new species. Alas, the prime fishing ground. Pumpkin Hill and a few distant the seamounts dim silhouette Not wanting to go into deco, whale sharks failed to make an Our group was small, with trees as landmarks, Anthony loomed into view. Glancing at I reluctantly started to ascend appearance, but the diversity only myself, two ladies from was able to find the spot with the depth on my computer, I with the others. Final dive time: of undersea life, combined New York, Andy and Frank. With minimal difficulty. To help maxi- saw my bottom time steadily 20 minutes. Short but sweet. with wonderful people and an two of the islands most experi- mize bottom time (which admit- click down into single digit That sentiment also summed easygoing island ambiance enced diversmasters on hand, I tedly wouldnt be long) we went numbers. Due to the incessant up my weeklong visit. Utila took makes Utila a must for all divers. knew we were in good hands. I down on Nitrox. Surface currents battering by strong currents, the me completely and happily I guess Ill just have to come asked Andy if Captain Anthony here can sometimes be strong, summit was covered with short by surprise. Did it have the back for the whale sharks. 41 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

42 fact file Honduras RIGHT: Location of Honduras on global map BELOW: Location of Utila Island on map of Honduras FAR RIGHT: Detail from the Jade Sea- horse garden source: cia.gov world factbook History In 1821, Honduras became Environmental issues independent of Spain. Military rule fol- include exanding urban popula- Caribbean lowed for two and a half decades tion; deforestation due to logging Sea SWAN BELIZE ISLANDS until 1982, when a freely elected civil- and clearing of land for agricul- ISLAS DE LA BAHA ian government came to power. The ture; soil erosion and further land country proved a haven during the degradation accellerated by Puerto Corts Puerto Castilla 1980s for anti-Sandinista contras fighting uncontrolled development and La Ceiba the Marxist Nicaraguan Government. farming of marginal lands; heavy GUAT. San Tela rates: 1EUR= 24.84HNL;1USD= 18.92HNL; Honduras was also an ally to Salvadoran metal contamination of freshwa- Santa Rosa Pedro 1GBP= 29.42HNL; 1AUD= 17.94HNL; Government forces, which were fighting ter sources by mining activities. de Copn Sula Juticalpa 1SGD= 14.21HNL leftist guerrillas. In 1998, the country was Honduras is party to the following Comayagua devastated by Hurricane Mitch, which agreements: Biodiversity, Climate TEGUCIGALPA Population 7,989,415; Below pov- killed around 5,600 people and caused Change, Climate Change- San Danl erty: 59% (2008). Ethnic groups: mestizo EL SALVADOR Lorenzo about US$2 billion in damage.The econ- Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Choluteca (mixed Amerindian and European) omy has slowly rebounded since then. Endangered Species, Hazardous 90%, Amerindian 7%, black 2%, white Government: Democratic constitutional Wastes, Law of the Sea, Golto de NICARAGUA 1%. Religions: Roman Catholic 97%, Fonseca republic. Capital: Tegucigalpa Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protestant 3%. Internet users: 658,500 Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical (2008). NORTH PACIFIC Geography Honduras is located Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, OCEAN in Central America and borders the Wetlands. Language Spanish, Amerindian dia- Caribbean Sea, between Guatemala lects and Nicaragua. It also borders the Economy Honduras is the sec- however security and political issues Gulf of Fonseca (North Pacific Ocean), ond poorest country in Central America. may be detering potential investors. Health There is a high degree of risk between El Salvador and Nicaragua. It suffers from extremely unequal dis- Marginal economic growth in 2010 will for food or waterborne diseases such Coastline: 820km. Terrain is mostly moun- tribution of income, as well as high not improve living standards for those as bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and tainous in the interior with narrow coastal unemployment and underemployment. in poverty, which is almost 60 percent typhoid fever as well as vectorborne dis- plains. Lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0m. Heavily reliant on a narrow range of of the population. The fiscal deficit is eases such as dengue fever and malaria Highest point: Cerro Las Minas 2,870m. exports such as apparel, bananas, and growing, despite improvements in tax and water contact disease such as lep- Note: While the country has a short coffee, the nations economy is vulner- collections because of increases in cur- tospirosis (2009) Pacific coast, it has a long Caribbean able to changes in commodity prices rent expenditures to cover increasing shoreline, including the mostly uninhab- and natural disasters; but, investments in public wages. Natural resources: tim- Hyperbaric Chambers ited eastern Mosquito Coast. the maquila and non-traditional export ber, gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, iron Utila Hyperbaric Chamber sectors are contributing to a gradual ore, antimony, coal, fish, hydropower. Bay Islands College of Diving Climate Lowlands are subtropical; diversification of the economy. Almost Agriculture: bananas, coffee, citrus, Utila, Bay Islands of Honduras Mountainous regions are temperate. half of the countrys economic activ- corn, African palm; beef; timber; shrimp, www.dive-utila.com Natural hazards include common but ity is directly tied to the United States. tilapia, lobster. Industry: sugar, coffee, mild earthquakes as well as frequent In 2006, the U.S. Central America Free textiles, clothing, wood products, cigars. Websites damaging hurricanes and floods along Trade Agreement (CAFTA) came into Lets Go Honduras the Caribbean coast. force. It has helped increase investment, Currency Lempiras (HNL) Exchange www.letsgohonduras.com 42 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

43 Sulawesi Indonesias Muck diving & diversity Text and photos by Eric Hanauer 43 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

44 travel Sulawesi Text and photos by Eric Hanauer Sulewsi came on my radar when I ing against Steenes book, I vowed www.ehanauer.com first set eyes on Roger Steenes book, to return. Ive never been a fan of Coral Seas, published in 1998. At checklist diving, but after seeing shots Sulawesi is one of those plac- the time, the last thing on my wish of mimic octopuses, rhinopiases, bob- es on nearly every divers list was another coffee table book. I bit worms and stargazers, I realized had been diving nearly 40 years and that Id missed the boat. So, when bucket list. If not, it ought to thought Id seen just about every- the opportunity finally arose, nobody be. A dozen years ago, peo- thing I wanted to see underwater. had to twist my arm. ple would have thought you But when I spotted the weird, exotic This time, it would be a slow and daft to go diving there, much animals in that book, I realized what leisurely two weeks, split between Id been missing. An inordinate num- two land based resorts: Cocotinos in less build a dive resort in an ber of them were photographed in the Bunaken area, and Kasawari in area dominated by dark vol- Sulawesi. Lembeh Strait. Bunaken Island fea- canic sand. Yet in Sulawesi My first trip to Sulawesi was in 2005 tures the dropoffs, walls and colorful on the liveaboard Aqua One, motor- invertebrate life we all associate with there are nearly two dozen ing through Bunaken and Lembeh the tropical Indo-Pacific. Yet, theres resorts vying for divers dol- Strait. When I returned home and also excellent muck diving offshore. lars, yen and euros. matched all the critters still miss- Lembeh Strait has a few coral reefs to Flamboyant cuttlefish (above); Bangai cardinalfish school (left); Wonderpus in water column (previous page) 44 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

45 travel Sulawesi He seemed to know where every frogfish of every color was hanging out, as well as every boxfish and pipefish. The best spot was a rubble pile with three sea horses and two kinds of scorpi- onfish. Despite the walls, I spent most of my dives at Cocotinos shooting macro. Kasawari At Kasawari Lembeh Resort, I renewed acquaintances with two Indonesian div- ers who had pioneered the art of muck diving: Nuswanto Lobbu and Ali Umasangadji. Nus is now the manager of Kasawari, complaining that his office duties preclude very much go along with all the bottom dwelling wall dives with virtually every inch diving. Although he is a critters. The good news is that both are covered by sponges, tunicates and relative newcomer to underwater within a two-hour drive from Manados hard corals. Clouds of anthias flitter photography, Nus uncanny ability airport, Bunaken on the western side about the reef, joined by fusiliers in the to find critters has resulted in images of the peninsula and Lembeh to the blue. Whats missing is big critters; a that make the pros jealous. Ali, despite east. shark sighting was a big deal. But to many years of guiding, still radiates joy me the big deals were mating nudi- when finding rare and exotic marine Muck diving branchs, ribbon eels, First, lets define Sulawesis brand of a juvenile lionfish muck diving. The substrate isnt really and an extremely muck, but dark brown to black vol- cooperative jaw- canic sand. Thats important for sev- fish. I kept peering eral reasons. First, the big grains settle down the wall, but quickly instead of remaining in suspen- the computer and sion and destroying visibility. Second, Nitrox nixed those its okay for a diver to lie down on the thoughts. bottom, allowing for eye level shots. The first thing No delicate corals will be smooshed, my guide, Tono, but watch out for urchins and stargaz- promised was to ers and the like. Finally, the dark colors find me a pygmy wont be blown out by the lights of seahorse. The first strobes, providing an excellent back- thing I replied ground for underwater photographs was that every- and videos. body had pygmy seahorse photos, Bunaken Im not into super Bunaken Island is about a 45-minute macro, so lets find boat ride from Cocotinos Boutique other things. Tono Beach Resort. Its a series of classic seemed relieved. LEFT TO RIGHT: Carrier crab with fire urchin; Amicus scorpionfish; Hairy frogfish 45 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

46 travel Sulawesi their nuptials. My problem was that three layers of red plastic made the light too dim to focus by. On the following night, I used only one layer, which was like no red light at all. But I aimed it downward, until the mandarins began their upward sprint into ecstasy. Then, I was able to get the beam on them, autofocus the bottom. After a few and shoot. That technique resulted in strobe flashes, he seemed about five times the keepers of the to resent this invasion of pri- previous night. Mandarins are the most vacy and buried the female beautiful fishes on the reef, and they in the sand, leaving only her know it. eyes protruding. Bobbit worm Mandarinfish Another night critter on my wish list Mating mandarin fishes at was a bobbit worm. A meter or more dusk presented a different chal- lenge. For those who havent tried shooting them, the exer- life. In Sulawesis muck, a shooter is cise consists of almost totally dependent upon the 50 minutes of boredom guides. Occasionally, I was able to followed by five minutes locate my own subjects, but for at of chaotic action. Thats least 80 percent of the images in this when the male and spread, credit must be shared with female suddenly spurt out Tono, Ali, Robin, Hanni and Indra. of the coral maze into the water column, release Critters their eggs and sperm, On the first night dive in Lembeh, I and dash back under made a find of my own: a pair of mat- cover. Common practice ing crabs. The male was on top of the is to use a red modeling female, and slowly dragged her along light to avoid inhibiting CLOCKWSIE FROM TOP LEFT: Mandarinfish pair; Box crab; Diver hovers over lush reef; Bobbit worm; Mating crabs 46 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

47 travel Sulawesi Rhinopias is an exotic variety of scorpionfish, another ambush predator that crawls along the bottom on prehensile feet. It took nearly all of the two weeks to find one. Then Indra and I were grubbing around the bot- tom when we ran into some other divers and guides. He inquired via signs and a slate, and they took us to the rhinopias. At first glance, it was disappointing: a tiny brown fish about the size of a childs fist. But strobe shots showed it to be a brilliant orange. My final shot was the keeper: mouth open, lit from underneath for a touch of menace. There are six spe- cies of rhinopias; this one was an Eschmeyers. Mimic octopus CLOCKWISE FROM ABOVE: Stargazer; Rhinopius; Mimic octopus The mimic octopus is the star of the show in Lembeh. This unusual long, it stays mostly buried in the sand, one, but several. cephalapod gets its name from the but will dart up when a piece of bait is A little fish swam close by, and the incredible shape, texture and color dangled out there. It wont stay for long, stargazer erupted out of the sand and shifting it goes through to escape from just grabbing for the bait and retreating inhaled it. I was too slow on the trigger to predatory photographers. These shapes again. Depending on your frame of refer- catch the action. may include a ray, a sea star, a lionfish, ence, it resembles a sandworm from the Stargazers Dune books by Frank Herbert, or a big are so ugly penis. they are cute. The animal was named after Lorena Their perpetual Bobbit, who chopped off her husbands toothy frown is organ after he had been unfaithful. reminiscent of Carrying the parallel a step further, a a stonefish, as popular folk myth states that the female is their Jabba worm bites off the males penis after the Hutt shape copulation and feeds it to her young. Not and venomous true. Bobbit worms are broadcast spawn- spines. Like frog- ers, releasing sperm and eggs into the fish, they have a water column. Mama will never see her fleshy lure that ugly babies. attracts victims for ambush pre- or even a crab. Whether talents of its own, but not to the extent Stargazers dation. these shapes are random of the mimic. How can a diver tell them One basic rule I followed in Lembeh was or intentional is open to apart? The mimic octopus has a white to never miss a night dive. I had botched Rhinopias conjecture, but either way stripe running down the underside of my stargazer shots on the previous trip, A rhinopias its quite a performance. each tentacle. Both species were discov- so I asked Ali to find me one. It was like was at the top The wonderpus is a close ered only within the past 15 years. ordering food off a menu. He found not of my wish list. relative, with shape-shifting 47 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

48 travel Sulawesi Lasting Impressions FACT FILE After a while I started looking for more on my own. Fire urchins often hide tiny zebra crabs Getting there From Singapore, Silk in their spines. They in turn are often car- Air, a subsidiary of Singapore Airlines, ried along the bottom on the backs of car- has regular flights to Manado. Most rier crabs. Delicate porcelain crabs may be resorts will pick you up at the airport found in the same anemones as clownfishes. by van. Rides to the resort range Slipper lobsters roam the sand at night on from one to two hours. long, spindly legs. The giant among Lembeh nudibranchs is the solar power nudie, nearly a Passport A current passport with foot long, with fleshy lobes all along its body. 6 months remaining is required. A One of my favorite sites from the earlier trip 30 day visa is $US25, payable at the was the police pier. Among the rubble, there immigration counter in US dollars were hundreds of the beautiful Bangaii car- or rupiah. Airport departure tax is dinalfishes, hanging out among sea urchins, 100,000 rupiah, payable in rupiah. anemones and old tires. Unfortunately, the (Dont panic, see next paragraph.) pier is now actively used by big boats, so div- ing underneath and around it is forbidden. Currency One euro is equivalent However, we did make a dive about 50 yards to 11,811 Indonesian Rupiah Credit away, where we encountered a white man- cards are accepted in almost all tis shrimp. Id seen all sorts of colorful mantis tourist facilities. ATMs are located in shrimps but this was the first white one. I sus- most towns. pect its a regular stop on the police pier tour. By the end of two weeks, the only critter Language Bahasa Indonesian. missing on my to-do list was the blue ringed English and Japanese is widely spo- octopus. But thats a good thing, because its ken in tourist facilities. a strong incentive to returnas if I needed an excuse. Electricity 230 volts, European and/or British plugs Climate Tropical humid. December through April is the rainy season, but diving is good all year round. Water temperatures range from 26 to 28 degrees Celsius (78 to 82 degrees Fahrenheit). A 3mm wet suit will be sufficient for most divers. Tourist facilities Those catering to American/European clientele offer a wide range of amenities including Nitrox, wifi, satellite television, spa and massages, and land excursions. Websites Cocotinos Cocotinos-manado.com Kasawari Kasawari-lembeh.com Thanks to Cocotinos and Kasawari resorts for their help in preparing this CLOCKWISE FROM LEFT: Squat lobster on nudibranch; Juvenile bangail cardinalfish in pink anemone; article. Close-up portrait of a pipefish 48 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

49 North Sulawesi Indonesia Text by Don Silcock Photos by Eric Hanauer and Don Silcock The island of Sulawesi lies like a large broken star in the middle of the vast archipelago that forms the country of Indonesia. Its remote location, roughly a third of the way between the huge islands of Borneo to the west, and New Guinea to the east, places Sulawesi right in amongst what is generally considered to be the richest marine environment in the world the Coral Triangle. 49 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED eric hanauer

50 travel Sulawesi eric hanauer eric hanauer CLOCKWISE FROM ABOVE: Zebra crab on fire urchin; Nudibranch; Pipefish. PREVIOUS PAGE: Shrimp on sea cucumber Defined by the Nature Conservancy the Philippines in the north to the of water that marine scientists refer to both Jakarta and Bali, although as the global epicenter of marine Malaysian state of Sabah on the tip of as the Indonesian Throughflow plays that usually involves a short stop at biodiversity, the Coral Triangle is the island of Borneo in the west and a significant role (see sidebar on next Makassar (Udjung Pandang) in South characterized by more than 600 the Solomon Islands to the east. In page). Sulawesi. species of coral and 3,000 species of between lies Indonesia, East Timor and At the tip of North Sulawesi are the reef fish. Papua New Guinea. Diving North Sulawesi Bangka and Gangga Islands, which To put those numbers into The scientific reasons for this Divers are basically spoilt for choice receive the full force of the Indonesian perspective, the Red Sea has around tremendous biodiversity are complex when it comes to exploring this part Throughflow as it first touches land, and 200 coral species and 1,000 fish and relate to a combination of of Indonesia. The area has its own offer some exceptional diving if you species, and the Caribbean, 50 and factors including such technical issues international airport at Manado, are an experienced diver and know 900 respectively. as water salinity, temperature and serviced by direct flights from how to handle strong currents. Geographically, the Coral speciation rates. However, there is Singapore with Silk Air four times a On the east coast, there is the Triangle covers six countriesfrom little doubt that the phenomenal flow week. Plus its easily accessed from critter mecca in the sheltered Lembeh eric hanauer 50 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

51 travel Sulawesi don silcock area of almost 90 hectares and 97 percent of it is water with the five islands in the parkBunaken, Manado Tua, Mantehage, Siladen and Nainoccupying the other three percent. Each of the five islands has its own flavor but the dormant volcano, Manado Tua, with its classic cone shape and sheer size, simply dominates the park. While Siladen Island, with eric hanauer its white sandy beaches and densely wooded interior, has a Straits and some of the most without a doubt a world class real desert island look about it. unusual things you will ever see destination that justifies an Bunaken Island, in the shadow underwater, while on the west extended stay to make the of Manado Tua, is the most coast there is the magnificent most of the tremendous diving populated island and supports Bunaken Marine Park with its available. a population of around 4,000 steep walls and blue water people as well as the majority diving. Bunaken of the dive resorts that operate The whole area of North National Marine Park in the Marine Park. Sulawesi is very well served by One of the first parks to be The area is renowned for its eric hanauer an assortment of dive resorts established in Indonesia, the blue waters, wall diving and plus a number of resident Bunaken Marine Park was pelagic encounters. Its easy CLOCKWISE FROM TOP LEFT: Wolf lionfish; Lembeh Strait with the volcanic and visiting liveaboards and is created in 1991. It covers an to see why, when you look at mountain looming on the horizon; Angelfish and trupetfish; Nudibranch eric hanauer 51 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

52 travel Sulawesi eric hanauer eric hanauer White mantis shrimp; Transparent shrimp; Nudibranch; Leaf fish the variables at work, nourished by the nutrients from the but the end results deep water basins to the north. are biodiversity hot But the underwater topography spots that produce between the islands, and the some wonderful dive 1,500m deep Manado Bay to the sites. The sites around south, creates the swirling counter the crescent shaped currents that feed the multiple Bunaken Island dive sites on the southern side of best illustrate these Bunakensuch as Lekuan One, mechanisms, because Two and Three on the southwest the islandlying as side and the really excellent Fukui it does in the middle on the southwest side. of the park faces Diving these sites is a heady into the predominant experienceparticularly on the eric hanauer northeast current. vertical walls, which drop down the sea charts and have a basic the nutrient rich Throughflow surges The current is at into the abyss and create a feeling understanding of the Indonesian past the five islands of Bunaken its strongest on the eastern and akin to vertigo on a clear day if Throughflow. The deep basins to Park, it creates numerous counter western sides of the islands and you look down! the northand west of Bunaken and currents around them. the sites there, such as Timur One A mid-morning dive at Timur to the south in Manado Bay are The underwater topography and Two are rich in hard and soft One and Two on the east coast the source of the blue water. As and lunar cycles are just some of corals, sponges and schooling fish, of Bunaken is simply superb, and eric hanauer 52 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

53 travel auer eric han Sulawesi eric hanauer ever tried to get a really good probably my image of just one of these tiny but favorite dive of incredibly photogenic creatures all, because the actually looking at the camera will sun is perfectly know why I was so excited about positioned to two of them both posing for me and illuminate the for long enough for me to actually sloping wall and press the shutter. profusion of corals that There are some very basic rules for provide the perfect backdrop to and photographing critters. First, you obviously the clear blue waters. brought a smile to have to be at a site where they can be Fukui was also a memorable dive Andrew Loks face. found. Then, you need the right camera with giant clams, schooling batfish and Andrew, the general manager of and lens combination to fill the frame, and sweetlips. My encounter with the huge, Cocotinos where I based myself for this finally, you need to be able to spot them, ancient and completely indifferent green trip, had assured me that there were some and this is where the dive guides come turtle at Lekuan One was something I will excellent critter diving sites less than ten in. There really is no substitute for a good always remember. minutes from the resort, but having dived guide, and I was constantly amazed at the So many sites, so much to see, so little the Lembeh Strait the year before, I have critters Fendi could find and direct me to. time. to say that I was not really convinced. Bunaken Critters So, when I came back The number of critters I encountered while on just the second day diving Bunaken pleasantly surprised me of the trip with excellent photographs of two pygmy seahorses and a new Bahasa phrase learned from Fendi, my excellent Indonesian guidedua pygmy, empat mata (two pygmies, four eyes)I knew it was my turn to buy the beers for Andrew! eric hanauer Anybody who has CLOCKWISE FROM ABOVE: Colorful invertebrates; Wonderpus; Hermit crab with anemones; Nudibranch; Slipper lobster eric hanauer eric hanauer 53 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

54 travel Sulawesi CLOCKWISE FROM FAR LEFT: Local transport through the jungle; A busy day at the pier; Crinoids on sea fan quite cool, and the visibility, challenging at times. Plus, if you are not taking photographs, critters that can disguise themselves to look don silcock just like a rock or Cocotinos Resort is located dangerous creature in the sea Located as it is between a crinoid look like rocks and right in the fishing village of for underwater photographers! the eastern side of the tip crinoids and may not hold your don silcock Kima Bajo in Wori Bay, north of Posi Posi to the south of Wori of North Sulawesi and the attention like a stunning coral Manado, and there are some Bay is the place to be as the island of Lembeh, the strait reef can. great critter sites to the north sun goes down because of its benefits from the rich flow I chose to stay at Cocotinos of the bay at Aba Point and resident colony of mandarin of deep sea nutrients of the because its location at Kima Odyssea Point and to the south fish and their nightly mating Indonesian Throughflow, and Bajo meant that I could get to at Gabet and Posi Posi. ritualbut make sure you get its cold waters plus sheltered all the main dive sites around Aba Point is a classic critter there early and get a good bays on both the mainland Bunaken. Plus, its a relatively site, located in a small bay spot, as it can get crowded and Lembeh side provide the easy 90-minute drive over to that provides protection from with boats from other resorts. protected areas for the critters Lembeh, which means that rough weather with a small Being so close to the worlds to thrive. you can have the best of both river providing a constant critter mecca of the Lembeh And thrive they certainly worldsdiving the walls and source of organic nutrients Strait is obviously challenging, doattracting divers and reefs of Bunaken plus some of and nearby deepwater for the and you wont find the really underwater photographers the famous sites in Lembeh like essential cold water upwellings exotic critters, such as hairy from all over the world to Hairball and Nudi Falls. critters seem to thrive on. It frogfish and Ambon scorpion witness the incredible selection Having spent a week at was there that I was able to fish in Bunaken, but there is of the weird, wonderful and Lembeh last year dedicated capture the two pygmies no doubt that there is a lot downright strange creatures to critter diving, this balance on a small gorgonian fan at of small stuff to see on the the sea can offer. of a couple of days there in 30m, but spent so long with western side of North Sulawesi. For underwater between the rest at Bunaken them my beeping computer photographers, its a must proved to be a perfect way limited further exploration to an Lembeh do, and many divers will to spend ten days in North extended 5m deco stop. There really is no other place enjoy it, too. But it has to be Sulawesi. The pygmy seahorse is in quite like the Lembeh Strait said that its not everybodys For more information, visit: my opinion the single most its simply unique! cup of tea. The water can be www.indopacificimages.com eric hanauer 54 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

55 fact file RIGHT: Location of Sulawesi Island on global map. BELOW: Location of Sulawesi Island on map of Indonesia Indonesia Andaman Gulf of Sea Thailand VIETNAM PHILIPPINES Philippine THAILAND Sea South China Sea NORTH sources: cia.gov world factbook, BRUNEI starfish.ch MALAYSIA PACIFIC History In the early 17th cen- the Indian Ocean and Medan Celebes OCEAN line: MALAYSIA Sea tury, the Dutch began to colonize the Pacific Ocean. SINGAPORE BORNEO Indonesia. From 1942 to 1945, Coastline: 54,716 km. 17.8% Japan occupied the islands. The terrain is mostly Pekanbaru Pontianak Equator (2006). After Japans surrender in WWII, coastal lowlands with Padang Kalimantan Biak Internet Indonesia declared its indepen- interior mountains Sulawesi users: 30 mil- Sumatra dence, however, it took four years on the larger islands. Banjarmasin lion (2008) Palembang of negotiations, recurring hostili- Lowest point: Indian New Guinea PAPUA NEW Java Sea Ambon ties and mediation by the United Ocean 0m. Highest Makassar Language Bahasa Indonesia GUINEA Ciwandan JAKARTA Nations for the Netherlands to point: Puncak Jaya Semarang (which is the official, modified finally agree to transfer sovereign- 5,030m. Note: Indonisea Bandung Banda Sea form of Malay), English, Dutch, Java Surabaya ty in 1949. 1999 marked the year is made up of 17,508 local dialects (Javanese is the the of Indonesias first free parliamen- islands of which 6,000 INDIAN Denpasar Aratura most widely spoken) OCEAN Kupang TIMOR-LESTE Sea tary election after decades of are inhabited. It strad- repressive rule. The worlds third- dles the equator in a Timor Health There is a high degree largest democracy, Indonesia is strategic location adja- Sea of risk for food or waterborne dis- A U S T R A L I A the worlds largest archipelagic cent to major sea lanes eases such as bacterial diarrhea, state. It is also home to the worlds from Indian Ocean to hepatitis A and E, and typhoid largest Muslim population. Current Pacific Ocean. Piracy and armed Desertification, Endangered tive and presidential elections in oil, copra; poultry, beef, pork, fever, as well as vectorborne challanges include: improveing robbery has been known to occur Species, Hazardous Wastes, 2010. Economic advances and eggs. Industries: petroleum and diseases such as chikungunya, education, alleviating poverty, against ships in the territorial and Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer significant reforms in the financial natural gas, textiles, apparel, foot- dengue fever and malaria. curbing terrorism, initiating eco- offshore waters in the Strait of Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical sector, including tax and customs wear, mining, cement, chemical Note: There have been cases in nomic and financial reforms, Malacca and South China Sea. Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, reforms, the use of Treasury bills, fertilizers, plywood, rubber, food, Indonesia of the highly pathogen- controling corruption, holding the Wetlands. The country has signed, and capital market develop- tourism. ic H5N1 avian influenza. However, military and police accountable Climate Indonesia has a but not ratified Marine Life ment and supervision, were made it poses a negligible risk to visitors. for human rights violations in the tropical, hot, humid climate with Conservation. under President Yudhoyono. Currency Indonesian Rupiah past, addressing global warm- more moderate temperatures in Increasingly robust GDP growth (IDR). Exchange rates: 1EUR = Hyperbaric Chambers ing, and controlling bird flu. An the highlands. Natural hazards Economy As a vast polyglot and sound fiscal stewardship 11,715.31 IDR; 1USD = 8,980.00 IDR; Manado (Sulawesi): Malalayang historic peace agreement with include severe droughts, occa- nation, Indonesia has been able has steadily reduced Indonesias 1GBP = 14,032.15 IDR Hospital, tel: 0812-4302970; and armed separatists in Aceh was sional floods, earthquakes, tsuna- to weather the global financial debt-to-GDP ratio in recent years. Professor Dr Kan-dou Hospital, tel: reached in 2005, which led to mis, volcanic activity and forest crisis relatively smoothly due to Pursistent challenges include pov- Population 240,271,522 (July (+62) 8134-0000840 democratic elections in Aceh fires. its heavy reliance on domes- erty and unemployment, inad- 2010 est.) Ethnic groups: Javanese in 2006. However, the govern- tic consumption as the impetus equate infrastructure, corruption, 40.6%, Sundanese 15%, Madurese Makassar (Sulawesi): Rumah Sakit ment still faces sporadic armed Environment Deforestation; for economic growth. To coun- a complex regulatory environ- 3.3%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Betawi Umum Wahidin Sudirohusodo resistance by the separatist Free water pollution from industrial ter the effects of the crisis, the ment, and unequal resource dis- 2.4%, Bugis 2.4%, Banten 2%, Tel: (+62) 0411-584677 Papua Movement. Government: wastes, sewage; air pollution in government used fiscal stimulus tribution among regions. Natural Banjar 1.7%, other groups 29.9%. republic. Capital: Jakarta urban areas; smoke and haze measures and monetary policy resources: petroleum, tin, natural Religions: Muslim 86.1%, Protestant Websites from forest fires. Indonesia is and offered cash transfers to gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, cop- 5.7%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu Tourism Indonesia Geography Indonesia is an party to agreements including: poor families. Consumption was per, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver. 1.8%, other religions 3.4% (2000 www.indonesia.travel archipelago of islands located Biodiversity, Climate Change, partially buoyed by campaign Agriculture: rice, cassava, pea- census). Living with AIDS/HIV: North Sulawesi Promotion Board in Southeastern Asia, between Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, spending in advance of legisla- nuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm 270,000 (2007 est.) Below poverty www.north-sulawesi.org 55 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

56 The FActs and viewpoints in this section ARE NOT NECESSARILY THE VIEWS OF x-ray mag. EQUIPMENT PRESENTED IN THIS SECTION HAve NOT BEEN tested BY x-ray MAG STAFF, NOR ARE THE ITEMS warranteEd. information PROVIDED IS CONDENSED from manufacturers DESCRIPTIONS. Texts are usually edited for length, clarity and style. Links are active at the time of publication point & click on bold links Equipment Let it roll Watershot Video Lights The latest in the STRYKER series of underwater lights is Atomic Aquatics Cobalt the addition of a video light to The engineers of Atomic Aquatics have created an OLED (organic light its round up. The lights can be set emitting diode) faced dive computer that sets the stage for the next up in tandem for use with video set ups or con- gen- eration of dive computers. Aside from its beautiful figured as a single dive light. The light head can display (think iPhone), the computer packs be set to high lumen output or adjusted to three advanced features that will appeal to different levels, or strobe mode. www.sitech.se recreational divers and technical divers alike. Running algorithms from the RGBM (reduced gradient bubble model), the com- Icaro Titan puter can handle three gas mixes (up to 99 percent O2), and user configurable conserva- Tech Into its third generation and boasting ten years of experience tionism. Topped out with digital compass, air A BCD is the newly designed Titan regu- integration, rechargeable battery (AC or USB designed lator. This balanced diaphragm from a laptop), and 40 to 60 hours of dive time. with needs T-shaped design is made from The test unit we were able to dive with this sum- of a tech stamped brass with multi-plated mer performed flawlessly, and the user interface and diver, but chrome finish. With the option to menu design were quickly and easily mastered without equally useful use either the right or left hand, the a manual. www.atomicaquatics.com for the recreational second stage has a quick discon- diver or underwa- nect and does not need tools. With its ter photographer. The single hp port and four mp ports and ABC Safari bag Icaro Tech offers complete independ- a second model for cold water (the The iQ-ABC-Bag ence from the harness to the air-cell. Titan Supreme) this regulator should comes with Extremely light weight 3,050 grams fit the need for most divers. Complete two shoulder (less than seven pounds), easily adjust- specifications at: www.aqualung.com straps, so that it able, and fully accessorized with six can be carried 55mm D rings. The outer material is poly- as a urethane coated 1000 denier Cordura back- and finished with three convenient dump pack. valves. www.seacsub.com With netting, so that the bag is well ventilated. Made from100% Polyester, robust 600 Denier fabric IQ-Company 56 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

57 equipment The Equipment News is brought to you in part by Gear Check, compiled by Robert Sterner of Sterner Editorial Services. Suggest products to review and read earlier Gear Check items by product cat- egories at www.sternereditorial.com Nautilus Lifeline This new radio and GPS for divers is designed to work with any marine radio and comes with Digital Selective Calling (DSC) capability to transmit GPS position or distress calls. DSC radio is the latest in marine radio technology. Digital Selective Calling is part of a global upgrade in maritime distress communications. Intuitive and easy to use. Use the button on the right to talk to every boat around you on CH16the worldwide marine hailing frequency. Use the button on the left to chat with your dive boat or other divers. Advanced software prevents you from acciden- tally jamming the frequency and even automatically adjusts your squelch. Press the DSC button, and your GPS position will be transmitted to every boat and marine VHF DSC radio within 6km. Their radios will Kata handy switch to CH16, alarms will sound, red lights will flash and your position will be shown on each radio dive gear tote Kata bags werent display. nautiluslifeline.com designed for divers but they should have been. The Scuba Pro Black Tech sturdy but Regulators very light- weight bags are Paired with either exclusive high found in photo stores with flow piston MK25 or high-performing some designed to snuggle specific brands and diaphragm MK17 first stage, the models of cameras and others as general gadget bags. A700 systems are phenomenal in Bags are made with water-resistant fabric and zippers. Some even beauty and in breathing performance. have cushions that can be inflated after gear is inserted, pro- The Black Tech incorporates a PVD (Physical Vapor viding the ultimate in protection from jarring and making Deposition) finishing process, which increases rug- the bag buoyant should it fall overboard. Bags typically gedness, scratch resistance and surface hard- have dividers that are handy for organizing gear and ness. PVD finishes are already found on military a pillow to protect lenses from jostling. Toblerones are equipment, watches and tools. It is applied built into the bottom and edges to absorb shocks and using titanium nitride and boasts a hardness to keep the bag above standing water. Click handles of 2500 HV (chrome is 900 HV; stainless steel provide an ergonomic grip at different angles and dual- is 190 HV). The second stage has precision purpose buckles optimize carrying in various angles. handcrafted all metal construction for a life- The multi-sided shoulder strap fits left or right shoulders, time of diving. The regulator has unparalleled slung either straight down or across the chest, and breathing performance regardless of depth, tempera- its slotted to let air circulate under the strap. The ture or breathing positionnow with a newly aligned co-axial optional trolley eases lugging the heavier bags and VIVA (Venturi Initiated Vacuum Assist) system for more precise breath- ing is sturdy enough to pile on another bag or two of assistance, control and comfort. Finished with two HP ports, five LP ports and swiveling tur- luggage, too. www.kata-bags.com ret. Available is chrome or Black Tech, and DIN or yoke. www.scubapro.com 57 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

58 Exhibitor list October 16/17 Speakers and Topics Ambient Pressure Diving Amphilogic Antti Apunen & Janne Suhonen Evan Kovacs Martin Parker The Molnar Janos Cave System beneath the 3D Deep Ocean Imaging; A look at producing Staying In The Loop; Accident Analysis Bonex Scooters City of Budapest 3D films underwater Cathx Ocean Diving Finnish Mines Awesome 3D films from the Woods Hole Eduardo Pavia Custom Divers Team The Viminali Deep Italian Wreck diving on Deep Ideas this awesome Ocean Liner lying off Sicily John Lamb Dive-In Cyprus Abuse of Oxygen Sensors with the expert Mark Powell Dive-Tech from Vandagraph Decompression Planning; Translating Fourth Element decompression theory practically with PC Planning Tools Greenforce Deep Stops and Bubble Models in Deco Hollis Theory Hugyfot Leigh Bishop Hydrogom Britannic 2009; When deep wreck diving goes Daniel Rice EUROTEK.2010 - the bi-annual Advanced and Technical fatally wrong Freebreathe Technology Jetsam Technologies Must Diving have tickets are now Event - willonbe saleheld for theon bi-annual Advanced Saturday 16thand and Sunday 17th Kent Tooling Diving Technical Diving event EUROTEK.2010. Held on Saturday 16th and Sunday October in Halls 9, 10 and 11 of the Convention International Convention Mark Caney Phill Short Products 17th October in Halls 9, 10 and 11 at the International Centre, Closed Circuit Rebreathers; Tec or Rec Jos Santaria Marques Cave Diving Adventures; one mans worldwide BroadCentre, Broad Street, Street, Birmingham; EUROTEK Birmingham, has proved to England, B1.a be popular with & Armando Riberio cave diving exploits Liquivision plethora of divers. Craig Challen Deep Portuguese Wreck Diving; a look Technical CCR Workshop focusing on Midlands & London Declared a phenomenal Weekend and the best Cocklebiddy; Extreme Cave Diving in the at some stunning wrecks off the coast of Rebreather Safety Diving Chambers In 2008 the vast majority of the delegates declared it a phenomenal weekend Australian Desert Portugal and theConference best conferenceof of the year the year by many , stated Rosemary .08E Lunn, Delegates, EUROTEKEUROTEK is a Arne Sieber Meridian Chartware must Just Co-Organiser. attendabout event for name every major any thats diveranything wanting to doto get more out of with Carl Douglas Gareth Lock The future technology of Sensors Miflex technical diving attended and we had experienced their diving. You dont need to be a techie, just divers travel from Finland, curious and Shipwreck Discoveries in the Baltic Sea Risk Management In Diving MR Diving Sweden, Denmark, Holland, Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Ireland, USA and Filming Deep Wrecks in the Baltic Tomaz Stachura Narked @ 90 South hungry for part. Africa to take more Im information. delighted to say thatTickets will be available this international trend has when Note: the awesome photography that complements Graff Zeppelin; Deep Wreck Divers explore doors continued open because at already weve 08.00 hadSaturday morning ticket requests priced from Spain, 43 and 75 Belgium, these talks is by Jonas Dahm Hitlers Aircraft Carrier Oceanic Ireland, Iceland, Greece,for respectively Russia, SouthWeekend a Day/ Africa, Canada and Equador, and in Pass. OMS UK one month we sold half the ticket allocation. You dont need to be a techie Martyn Farr Rick Stanton OThree diver to attend this, just a diver wanting to get more out of their diving. Spaces Classic Dark Site Diving; Cave Diving around Doux de Coley and other European During are limited, so tothe weekend guarantee in addition your place to thedont at EUROTEK.2010, 40 different exciting leave it to the Europe Cave Projects Otter talksbuy last minute, and useful your workshops ticket now or you could over twoupdays, well end theres a display of very disappointed. Cave Diving in the UK; a look at traditional Papua Diving historic rebreathers and diving equipment being brought over British Cave Diving Phil Grigg Technical Weve got a mouth-watering list of 29 speakers thanks to Co-Organiser Jos Santaria Marques Diving especially Leigh Bishops fromIm hard work. the Netherlands, thrilled and a storming to say weve successfully Expo with secured such & Armando Riberio over luminaries as40 UK cave and Jill explorer overseas specialistcinematographer Heinerth, underwater companies exhibiting. Carl This Erich Glese; Deep Wreck Diving on a Nazi Red Sea Diving Douglas, Algorithm makes Author Bruce Wienke EUROTEK.2010 (sponsoredopportunity the perfect by Suunto), andfor tech you to spend Destroyer off Narvik College legend Tom Mount (sponsored by IANTD). In addition the ever charming and time andMitchell talk directly to the manufacturers and training agen- rEvo Rebreathers popular Dr Simon will be talking again. At 2008 his presentations were Barry McGill & Ian Lawler packed cies out, and get and not your got everyone questions to hear himanswered. speak, hence weve invited him Deep Wrecks of Ireland a look at the Santi back to EUROTEK.2010. Simons got the knack of being able Carinthia, HMS Curaco and others Rick Stanton & Leigh Bishop Scuba Industries to explain in quite simple terms complex physiological information to divers, Just about every name thats anything to do with technical DPVs for Wreck and Cave Diving Trade Association whilst at the same time keeping the medics engaged. No wonder it was Kevin Gurr diving standing will in room only behisattending talks! to listen to a mouth-watering list of Rebreathers; Fact, Fiction or Voodoo Rich Stevenson Shearwater Research 29 speakers. Were delighted that we have secured such Getting started in CCR Diving Silent Planet The Diving Industry has luminaries as been very generous the record with theirCave breaking supportExplorer and wed like Rick Stanton, Stansted Fluid Power to thank Ambient Pressure Diving, DiveLife, Fourth Element, Silent Planet and Submerge A phenomenal Suuntounderwater expo, Bruce becauseWienke exhibiting Mount Cinematographer for sponsoring EUROTEK (sponsored we have more and a(sponsored display of historic byrebreathers IANTD),coming Carl Douglas, this year. Its enabled than 35 UK by and Suunto) stated us to put on Algorithm and tech overseas specialist overRosemary a storming Author legend Tom companies from Holland.E Lunn, Productions Suex Scooters weekend and the Theres also a chance for you to win a VRX Computer, a X-Scooter Deep Ideas EUROTEK Cuda DPV drysuitdemand Co-organiser. worth 4,000, a Rich WalkerIn from Otter, aistwinset the ever Halcyoncharming additionCourse, Fundamentals Regulator Set and back Professor DrPlanet from Silent Simon by popular a bespoke Mitchell. (2 regs), Agnes Milowka Cave Diving Down Under Caves of Florida; new discoveries and classic Suunto Diving UK Tech Thailand best conference and various other diving goodies. The proceeds raised will go to the Disabled Diving Charity, Deptherapy. At 2008 it was standing room only in his presentations and Jill Heinerth Extreme Cave Diving in Bahamian Blue Holes complimented by the Wes Skiles beautiful dives. (The stunning images are by the late Wes Skiles) Rich Stevenson & Leigh Bishop The Development of British Wreck Diving over The Rebreather Site TillyTec VR Technology of the year Finallynot Over 370 everyone on the EUROTEK.2010. got to Saturday evening delegates including West Diving, quiteSuunto, complex TDI and wehear Simon will be him Analox,hasCustom speak, hosting VR Technology information physiological hence a special theDivers, knack of MR GUE, being have already booked his return Gala Award Dinner. to able Diving, Southto explain tables in quite sim- to divers photography Digital Photography Still Imaging Clinic Diving the Ice Caves of the Antarctic Dr Simon Mitchell Physiology of Divers Inwater decompression; current issues that the last two decades Bruce Wienke Waterproof Wreck Diving because they know theyre in for a fantastic night. The Gala Dinner is truly ple terms have been topics of several forum debates Decompression Algorithms; The Good, The Magazine good humoured andwhilst keeping great fun. the medics Its the perfect engaged. opportunity to network andDivers tend to CO2 Issues with Rebreather Diving Bad and The Ugly leave socialise, his up catching talks withwith someaold key piece friends of information and meeting new people,that has sud- so come Valuable Technical Diving Resources XRay Magazine denly and join become crystal clear whilst pondering now why didnt the party! Tom Mount The Evolution of Technical Diving; how I see that before? No wonder the room is always packed Prebooked/paid tickets come in at 38.19 for a One Day Pass, 70.50 technical diving came about Please note that these talks and speakers Agencies when Simon for a Weekend is on. Pass, whilst SoAward the Gala come to EUROTEK.2010, Dinner is 52.88 a head. catch up with Survival Dynamics; A look into the philosophy are subject to change without notice. GUE UK somefor The deadline old friends, booking your meet newispeople dinner ticket Friday 24thand learn more about September. of diver survival IANTD UK advanced and technical diving. PADI TecRec Tickets will also be available for purchase on the door priced at 43 and 75 for a Day / Weekend pass. TDI 58 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

59 The FActs and viewpoints in this section ARE NOT NECESSARILY THE VIEWS OF x-ray mag. ITEMS PRESENTED IN THIS SECTION HAS NOT BEEN tested BY x-ray MAG STAFF, NOR ARE THE ITEMS warranted, information PROVIDED IS CONDENSED from manufacturers DESCRIPTIONS. Texts are usually edited for length, clarity and style Links active at the time of publications point & click on bold links Edited by Kelly LaClaire Gunild & Peter Symes all photos courtesy of the MANUFACTURERS OR VENDORS When trying to determine if Dive Watches resistance ratings provided out of materials like stainless Time, Technology & Style in so it seals tight against the means it must go in for a renewed pres- a particular watch is suitable by manufacturers result from steel, titanium, ceramics and o-ring to prevent any seepage sure test in hyberbaric chamber, so make for diving, first of all, look for a testing done under controlled synthetic resins or plastics. around the stem. sure you return your precious time piece water-resistance rating of at circumstances. Basically, they Gold may be a problem just to an authorized dealer. least 200 meters, or 20 atm. The indicate resistance to water because its softer. Pressure testing apparent overkill on the depth penetration, assuming there Changing batteries in a Bezel rating means that the watch is no movement by either the Seals must be used at each dive watch invariably also Analog diving watches will often fea- should hold up fine underwater watch or the water, at a par- point where the case can be ture a rotating bezel, which allows for most normal diving condi- ticular depth. The ratings do not opened, and at other joints. The Rolex Oyster for an easier reading of elapsed time tions. But a watch claiming to take into account what hap- This is primarily the case-back Perpetual Submariner of under one hour from a specific be water-resistant to 100 meters pens if the watch is bumped or and crown (covering the stem). is a line of watches point. This is also used to compute (330 feet) should be sufficient jarred. They may also be placed manufactured by the length of a dive. The bezel is uni- for recreational scuba diving, between the crystal and case Rolex, designed for directional, i.e. it contains a ratchet, diving and known especially since those safe div- In reality, several factors are at unless a sealant is used. These so it can only be turned counter- for their resistance ing limits are set at 40m (130 work simultaneously on a watch seals, or gaskets are usually to water. The first clockwise to increase the apparent feet). while underwater. Pressure is o-rings made of rubber or some Submariner was elapsed time. This is an important fail the most significant, but as a other synthetic. Every watch introduced to the safe feature. If the bezel could be So whats the deal? diver moves through the water, made for diving should also public in 1954 at turned clockwise, this could suggest It is a matter of conventions additional pressure is exerted. feature screw-down case- the Swiss Watch Fair. to a diver that the elapsed time was that are, if not outright mislead- The watch cases of diving backs and crowns. A case- Copied by other shorter than it was, thus indicating a ing, then certainly grounds watches must be adequately back that screws down tight watch makers, the falsely short elapsed time reading, and for a great deal of confusion. water (pressure) resistant and against a seal works much bet- Rolex Submariner is therefore, falsely low air consumption However, the table (below) be able to endure the galvanic ter than any type of back that recognised as a classic assumptions, which are highly danger- which has has appeared should provide some guidelines corrosiveness of seawater. So, is pressed in. The same goes for ous. Some dive watch models feature a in eleven James Bond for buyers. First of all, the water- the cases are generally made the crown; it needs to screw movies lockable bezel to minimize the chance of unintentional bezel operation under water. Classification of diving watches Ornamental feature of the past Watches are classified by their degree of water resistance. With the advent of digital dive watches and the widespread use of dive computers, the Water resistance rating Suitability Notes exclusive use of a rotating bezel is now con- Water Resistant to 50 m Swimming (no snorkeling related activity) and fishing. NOT suitable for diving sidered a rudimentary diving technique. Most Water Resistant to 100 m Recreational surfing, swimming, snorkeling, sailing and water sports NOT suitable for diving contemporary dive watches with conspicuous Water Resistant to 200 m Suitable for professional marine activity and serious surface water sports NOT suitable for diving. 15 or 20 minute markings on their bezels are the result of copying a Rolex bezel design of Divers 100 m Minimum ISO standard (ISO 6425) for recreational scuba diving. 100 m and 150 m ratings are mostly seen on older watches. the 1950s. Back then divers typically planned Divers 200 m or 300 m Suitable for recreational scuba diving. The most common ratings for modern dive watches. a dive to a certain maximum depth based on Divers 300+ m for mixed-gas diving Suitable for saturation and advanced technical diving Watches designed for mixed-gas diving will have an additional now obsolete U.S. Navy dive tables, and dove marking divers watch L M for mixed-gas diving. according to the planned dive profile. 59 X-RAY MAG : 37 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

60 Standards for dive watches Timeline The standards and features for dive watches are regulated by the International Organization for Standardization in the ISO 6425 standard. Besides water resist- Early dive watches were Dive Watches ance standards to a minimum of 100-meter depth rating, ISO 6425 also pro- vides minimum requirements for mechanical dive watchesquartz and digital often developed in response to military and professional needs. Later, watches have slightly differing readability requirements. they were designed for commercial diving, which IWC started to appear in the 1960s. As a result, profes- Swiss watchmaker IWC Schaffhausen, partner and sponsor of the Jacques-Yves Cousteau Society, has dedicated sional dive organisations a fifth special edition to Le Commandant in honor came into being, touting of his 100th birthday: the Aquatimer Chronograph needs for tool watches to Galapagos Islands Edition. This finely crafted time- help conduct dives safely piece begins with a stainless-steel casing coated at great depth. with matte black rubber making the watch pres- sure resistant to 12 bar (120m, 393ft) and comes 1927 Rolex is credited with with a barrage of special features. The sapphire creating the first water- glass dial makes the face nearly scratch proof proof watch. (you can mar the surface with a diamond but nothing else will affect it) and the mechani- 1932 Omega introduced cal chronograph movement is self-winding and the Marine, considered to has a 44-hour power reserve. Each watch has be the first dive watch. an external rotating bezel, date and day display and a patented quick-change bracelet system for 1930s Panerai produced a use with business or formal attire. IWC makes a siz- number of dive watches able contribution generated by proceeds from the sale for the Italian Navy, water- of the Aquatimer to the Galapagos-based Charles Darwin proof to 650 feet. Foundation. For 50 years, the foundation has been mak- TAGHeuer ing visitors aware of the archipelagos uniqueness 1953 Blancpain produced and providing them with guidelines to ecologically the Fifty Fathoms dive sound behavior and acting as sentries to ensure THE AQUARACER 500M CALIBRE 5 is as nice watch worn by Jacques a dive watch as you will find anywhere and Cousteau in the film, Le Oris that the waters are not plundered and that the animals do not fall victim to poachers or gives the wearer all the high-end options Monde du Silence. Swiss manufacturer Oris has predators imported from other seas. needed. The brushed stainless steel casing joined forces with the Australian www.iwc.com houses an ultra fine chronograph move- 1954 Rolex introduced the Marine Conservation Society ment with automatic date surrounded by a Submarinerthe watch of (AMCS) by launching the Great unidirectional, soft-touch rubber bezel and choice for James Bond in Barrier Reef Limited Edition dive is water resistant up to 30 bar (300m, 984ft). the first ten films. Poseidon watch. Fifty Swiss francs from each The crystal face is made of sapphire glass piece sold will be donated to making scratches a virtual impossibility and 1957 Omega Seamaster AMCS to help protect and preserve Poseidon takes a more traditional the antireflective coating lets the lumines- was introduced. the worlds largest and most stun- approach to dive watches by cent hands and face indexes stand out in ning reef system. Water resistant to a offering the Chrono. Each watch any light. For serious sport and technical div- 1967 Rolex Sea-Dweller staggering 100 bar (1000m, 3281ft) the has a large, easy to read rotating ers, the 500M has a fine-brushed automatic introduced,first ultra water Oris boasts a host of impressive design ele- bezel, ultra accurate chronograph helium valve which allows gas buildup in the resistant dive watch, ments: multi-piece stainless steel casing with super movement, super luminescent face watch to release due to time spent in pres- capable of depth to 610m. scratch resistant sapphire face; automatic mechani- index and hands as well as three sure chambers or diving stations. The black cal movement; easy to read centralized hour and separate timing dials for seconds, rubber strap has a solid titanium clasp with 1970 Omega Seamaster minute displays with dark orange luminescent hands minutes and hours. Chronos casing safety push buttons for easy release and Professional introduced, and face markings; helium buildup release button is made of stainless steel and is water changes. www.tagheuer.com capable of depth to 600m. for divers who use pressure chambers; neoprene resistant up to 20 bar (200m, 660ft) and carrying case with logo and key fob. Also comes comes in a plethora of face colors mak- with a customized AMCS divers log book. ing this a fine timepiece for any serious www.oris.ch diver. www.poseidonwatches.se 60 X-RAY MAG : 37 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

61 RedSea Holystone Watch strap RedSea, a new company started just Dive Watches this year by two avid watch enthusi- asts, offers the Holystone, a profes- sional dive timepiece with all the The choices you have for a strap are typically Rubber, Stainless Steel or rugged extras you need when div- Titanium. ing. Water resistant to 30 bar (300m, 984ft), this beautiful dive watch Rubber: If its genuine comes in your choice of stainless make sure to checkrub- steel or black PVD (a long lasting ber is strong, comfortable protective coating used on high and flexible. It will last for friction cutting tools). Each watch quite some time but will crystal is made of sapphire glass eventually deteriorate, and the arms and face mark- and become brittle and ings are layered eight times with susceptible to tearing. special Lume-Tech coating for ultimate brilliance in dark areas. Stainless Steel: Is fine for Both colors of the Holystone dive watches; the only come with three separate thing to watch out for is bandsa five link steel brace- checking that it is genuine let for dressing up, Black nylon for more casual wear or a dark rubber dive stainless steel since other strap for saltwater use. The large clicking bezel is easy to grab, even with metal straps will rust or cor- gloves, and best of all, this new watch is priced below US$600. All watches rode. will be available this winter, and if you place a pre-order, you will be auto- matically entered to win a free RedSea timepiece of your choice. Titanium: The best choice, Redseawatches.com if you can afford it, since it is stronger by a third over Luminox stainless steel and signifi- cantly lighter too, making Halios BlueRing Luminox has been the watch of choice for it feel more comfortable professionals like Navy SEALs, SCUBA legend as well. Its also more The Halios BlueRing is an aesthetic and Stan Waterman, the U.S. Coast Guard, law durable and more corro- beautifully crafted dive watch from a great enforcement divers and many more. After sion resistant than stainless Audemars Piguet independent brand in Vancouver, British 20 years of making 200 meter water resis- steel, and hypoallergenic, Columbia, Canada. With only 100 mod- tant watches, Luminox has announced its too, which may be anoth- The high-class Royal Oak Offshore diver watch els of each dial color, it offers exclusivity 50 bar (500m, 1500ft) Deep Dive series. er consideration. by Audemars Piguet can withstand pressures of in ownership that extends beyond the Specifically designed and constructed 30 bar due to fine quality gaskets and the unique distinct design and excellent pack- for use by professional divers, these Further consideration: wet- hexagon screw design mounting the case and aging. If you missed your chance on watches can be taken to the deepest suit clasp. This is a special face as secure as a sub hatch. With a new twist, earlier models, such as the Holotype, depths by technical divers doing their clasp that makes the classic click bevel has been replaced with an the BlueRing should be secured quickly jobs, with all the attributes a true diving the strap extend- internal rotating ring with diving scale that is con- since previous editions sold out in watch needs, including: stainless steel, able so its trolled by a rubber coated crown mounted at 10 months, and the BlueRing is setting a PVD coated casing; screwed on crown easy to oclock on the case. This keeps a diver from inad- pretty fast pace as well (as of late sum- with guard cover; sapphire glass face adjust vertently moving the bezel while diving, always mer only the silver dial with brushed sil- with anti-reflective coating; highly and assuring any headings are taken and kept accu- ver case is still in stock). Features include: durable rubber strap; automatic wear rately. The finer points of the timepiece are just as water resistant up to 30 bar (300m, 984ft); helium release valve. The night vision over a impressive: self-winding, Calibre 3120 movement; highly calibrated ETA 2824-2 movement; sil- tubes covering the dial, hands and wet- stainless steel casing; luminescent coatings on ver dial with black bezel; domed sapphire bezel are ultra bright and are rated suit. watch dial and hands; hours and minute dive time crystal for outstanding scratch resistance. Now to last twenty-five years. This is seri- measurements. We especially liked the rugged, is the time to order a highly exclusive dive watch ous gear for serious divers. octagonal face shape that dominates the face. from a trusted and well known brand. www.luminox.com www.audemarspiguet.com www.halioswatches.com/bluering 61 X-RAY MAG : 37 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

62 Porsche Design Dive Watches The first dive watch by Porsche Design since 1983, the P6780 is not only uber-cool to look at but meets every high performance demand that can be placed on it. Capable of withstanding pressures at up to100 bar (1000m, 3281ft), the stainless steel case houses an ultra fine automatic movement and bright luminescent dial that is easy to read even in the darkness at its furthest depth range. The strap has a special extension that allows a diver to easily slip it on a wetsuit covered wrist without the has- sle of popping the clasp open. But perhaps the most unique and functional design element is a special hinge that allows the watch case to swing upwards out of the titanium bracket. This allows the wearer to quickly move the Breitling crown without interference and blocks accidental movement while diving. Warning, if youre ADD like some of us folks with fins, youll be flipping it up and down endlessly. Breitling has revived the design of the legendary divers www.porsche-design.com instrument it launched in 1957. While the technical quali- ties that have forged the Superoceans reputation have been always been respected, the timepiece has been given a thoroughly updated look. The rubber- molded unidirectional bezel features sloping numer- als that look and feel like a dive compass, and the notched edges make it easy to manipulate underwater even with heavy gloves for cold water diving. The strikingly distinctive dial is a continua- tion of the same vigorous design with oversized Victorinox Swiss Army numerals and hour markers standing out nicely against the matte black face. This sleek and Precision timing meets extreme diving in the classy watch is water resistant up to depth of Reactor new Dive Master 500 Black Ice Chrono, now 1,500 meters and has all the attributes of a equipped with precision, self-winding move- professional instrument, like the safety valve Our new Poseidon has a number of ment in the same ultra-rugged and highly that automatically releases the accumu- firsts for us in terms of technology. In functional 43 mm sport watch from Victorinox lated helium when the internal over-pressure addition to the extreme 1,000m depth Swiss Army. The 50 bar (500m, 1650ft) water reaches around three bar, the self-winding rating, the watch features an internal resistance, which gives its name to the Dive chronometer certified movement and the rotating bezel that can actually be Master 500 line, is maintained in this Chrono extremely scratch resistant sapphire crys- adjusted underwater, stated Jimmy version which boasts a screw-in case back tal that is anti-glare coated on both sides. Olmes, president of Reactor, on their and crown, sapphire crystal with anti-reflective For deep and dark dives, the hands and website. Their most seaworthy model treatment. Of course, youll find a unidirectional hour markers are brilliantly lit making to date, Reactors Poseidon is built from bezel and luminescent hands, hour markers, timed calculations a breeze. Several stainless steel and has a substantially logo and bezel markers for super bright readings bracelet designs (rubber or steel) and thickened case back and crystal face. in deep or dark waters. This dive watch features inner dial color combinations (yellow, The watch is available with a black and enhanced legibility of its separate twelve-hour red, blue, silver and black) are avail- red dial with rubber strap, a yellow and counter at 10 oclock, date window and small sec- able. www.breitling.com black dial with two-tone black stainless ond counter at 6 oclock. The strap is genuine rubber bracelet, or a limited edition black and and comes in several colors to match the dial you orange combination that will include both choose (black, red and orange). For a more stylish, bands. The stainless bracelets include a sophisticated look, a stainless steel bracelet with wetsuit expander, another first for Reactor. gunmetal coated PVD is also available. www.reactorwatch.com www.victorinox.com 62 X-RAY MAG : 37 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

63 The Hammerhead Chrono XL by Freestyle Dive Watches performer with analog and digital readoutwitha men and women? If so, what are they? nightvision backlight. CL: Not necessarily for the Arctic diver Freestyle consumer, they are technical diver, generally looking to us for a diving the extremes in dependable dive watch at a fair Just for Kids the polar regions:The price. Speedo Junior UV analog Hammerhead. Why? watch Kids will love Itsthe staple of our dive GS: What is the future of dive this fun and entertain- line, no-nonsense style watches? New technologies on ing watch as the strap and durability. the horizon? New fashion and changes color when style attitudes? New philosophies outside in the sun while Researchers in watches in general? simultaneously offer- conservationists and ing UV protection to eco-conscious divers: The CL: For now we dont have the skin underneath. Submersion.Why?Choice any plans on investing in new Features include: fashion between metal or technologies,as most of the forward design and fun graph- in our product standards.Every polyurethane band timenew technology will drive ics; water resistant to 100 meters; Freestyle Speaks watch we make is water resistant and comes with a nightvision the price of watch up.We unique comfort strap with pin- to minimum 100 meters, alldive backlight. like our position in the market less buckle; lightweight and Freestyle dive watches specific watches to 200 meters, catering to the entry level diver, waterproof case. Available stand out from the pack. and we back all of them with a Economy-minded and we want toconcentrate on in other sporty colors. limited lifetime warranty. middle class divers and offering the most durable and Retails for US$40.00. X-RAY MAGs Gunild university students: The dependable dive watcheswe www.speedousa.com Symes interviewed GS: There are different types of Hammerhead.Why? We canmake in the US$100-175 Freestyles marketing divers out there. Which watch do challenge anybody to find a range.If anything, we willfind manager, Chad LaBass, to you recommend for each type of better dive watch for under $100. ways to make them even more diver and why? stylish and comfortable. Caretaking find out just what makes Weekend warrior Subjecting your watch to quick hot and cold temperature chang- them tick. CL: Freestyleoffers entry level occasional diver who wants GS: Tell us about your es makes it much more likely to leak due to rapid expansion and dive watches.We arentin the to impress peers with a great sponsorships in the field of diving. contraction of the metal. In addition, chemicals like chlorine are GS: What makes your dive business of competing with dive watch: TheHammerhead hard on seals. watches different from the others dive computers orexpensive Chrono XL.Why? For a stylishand CL: Currently, we dont have Take time following any saltwater diving, or swimming in a chlo- on the market? dive watches. Weoffer quality boldlook inand out of thewater. any sponsorship agreements rinated pool to rinse off your watch with fresh water. Rotate the and value-packed dive with divers,however we do bezel also to flush out any CL: Affordability and durability watches from US$100-$175 for GS: Which models of your mens plan on adding that category salt and add up to an overall value the price-conscious diver. Our and womens dive watches are later in theyear.In fact, we that separates us from our recommendations: the most popular and why? have recently opened up a competitors.We understand sponsorship application for that investing in dive equipment Warm water diver CL: The Hammerhead is our most aspiring divers: can be very expensive; we are dives in the tropics, lodging in popular model and has been www.freestyleusa.com/ sand. Taking an extra cou- proud to make dependable dive luxury resorts and liveaboards: for years.Its just one of those sponsorship ple seconds for rinsing will make a big difference watches that dont have to be The Hammerhead Chrono XL. things, whether from word of in terms of longevity, same as it does for expensive to be effective. Why?For a stylishand boldlook mouth or just its classic dive style, GS: Anything else you would to the rest of your dive gear. inand out of thewater. theHammerhead is always on tell our readers about your dive GS: What makes your company top of our best seller list. watches and your company? different from others on the Cold water diver market? technical diver, wreck diver, GS: Are there differences in CL: We are working on a new diving in the temperate zones: preferences of features and womensspecific dive watch due CL: The Freestyle difference is ThePrecision.Why? Its a proven styling in dive watches between out Holiday 2010. Stay Tuned! 63 X-RAY MAG : 37 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

64 It sucks! User Nhobgood on Wikimedia Bommons. Image reproduced according to the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license. Cephalopods Jet-powered Masters of Disguise Text based on Dr James Wood and Kelsie Jacksons Cephalopod Lesson Plan. Adaption edited by Peter Symes Most cephalopodsthe group in which scientists classify octopuses, squid, cuttlefish and nautilusescan change color faster than a chameleon. They can also change texture and body shape, and if those camouflage techniques dont work, they can still disappear in a cloud of ink, which they use as a smoke-screen or decoy. Cephalopods are also fascinat- less something large enough to to the dark, cold abyss. All spe- ing because they have three be called a brain! Yet, cepha- cies are marine, and with a few Cephalopods hearts that pump blue blood; lopods have well-developed exceptions, they do not tolerate theyre jet powered; and theyre senses and large brains. Most even brackish water. use color found in all the oceans of the mollusks are protected by a hard change to worldfrom the tropics to the external shell and many of them Ancient poles, from the intertidal to the are not very mobile. Although Cephalopods are an ancient interact with abyss. the nautilus has an external group that appeared some time Cephalopods have inspired shell, the trend in cephalopods in the late Cambrian period sev- their own legends and stories throughout is to internalize and reduce the eral million years before the first history and are thought to be shell. The shell in cuttlefish, when primitive fish began swimming in species, with the most intelligent of the inver- present, is internal and is called the ocean. Scientists believe that other species, tebrates. Some can squeeze through the tiniest of cracks. the cuttlebone, which is sold in many pet shops to supply and with They have eyes and other senses calcium to birds. Squid that rival those of humans. also have a reduced their envi- internal shell called a ronments. Brainy pen. Octopuses lack a The class Cephalopoda, which shell altogether. means head foot, are mol- Cephalopods are lusks and therefore related found in all of the to bivalves (scallops, oysters, worlds oceans, from clams), gastropods (snails and the warm water of the Cut slugs), scaphopoda (tusk shells), tropics to the near freez- away and polyplacophorans (chitons). ing water at the poles. show- Some mollusks, such as bivalves, They are found from the ing the dont even have a head, much wave swept intertidal region chambers in a nautilus shell 64 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

65 ecology James Wood Background resemblance is when the ani- mal changes its color and texture to match Squids as closely as possible that of its background. the ancestors of modern cepha- reproduce over a short period color is a trait that has evolved appear like a spe- lopods (Subclass Coleoidea: of time, and then die. With over- over time due to a greater need cific object in their octopus, squid, and cuttlefish) fishing and climate change, to avoid predators and become environments. This is diverged from the primitive there may be more biomass of competitive in an environment termed deceptive externally-shelled Nautiloidea cephalopods now than anytime shared with vertebrates. resemblance. (Nautilus) very earlyperhaps in in recent history. These abilities, and the behav- The Caribbean reef the Ordovician, some 438 million iors associated with them, have squid, Sepioteuthis years ago. Color change become a major contributing sepioidea, is often How long ago was this? To Cephalopods use their awe- factor to the success of the seen floating verti- put this into perspective, this some abilities to change their cephalopod family and are cally at the surface is before the first mammals color and appearance primarily great examples of adaptation of the water with its appeared, before vertebrates for two things: camouflage and physically, through natural selec- arms pointing down- invaded land and even before communication. The ability of tion, and behaviorally. ward to resemble there were fish in the ocean and the cephalopods to change floating sargassum upright plants on land! Thus, nau- weed. Some octopus tilus is very different from modern may curl all their arms cephalopods in terms of mor- up into a ball, and phology and life history. add texture to their Cephalopods were once one skin to appear like a of the dominant life forms in the rock. worlds oceans. Today, there are more than one strat- Octopus cyanea has also only about 800 living species of egy for camouflage, been seen swimming in a man- cephalopods. By comparison, and these will be dis- ner that makes it appear there is 30,000 living species of cussed here. like a reef fish by swim- bony fish. However, in terms ming with all its arms of productivity, some scientists Resembling together and believe that cephalopods are the background creating still giving fish a run for their Background resem- Deceptive false eye money. blance is the most resemblance spots. Many species of cephalopods well known form of As well as simply try- to grow very fast, camouflage. This ing to blend into a back- is when the animal ground, some cephalopods will changes its color and attempt to make themselves Jon Gross Jan Derk texture to match as closely as possible that of its background. The nautilus is similar in gener- Camouflage Cephalopods use their chro- al form to other cephalopods, Camouflage is usually a cepha- matophores to change color to with a prominent head and lopods primary defense against match the brightness of the envi- tentacles. Nautiluses typi- predators. As cephalopods dont ronment they are attempting to cally have more tentacles have the protection of hard blend into, and some can also than other cephalo- shells like many of their mollusk change texture using muscles in pods, up to ninety. These tentacles relatives, they make an easy to their skin. Many also use differ- are arranged digest meal for a hungry preda- ent body postures to help with into two circles tor. Therefore, most cephalopods this. They may hold their arms in and, unlike the try to avoid being seen to avoid certain ways or flatten them on tentacles of other being eaten. As well as preda- the substrate to become what cephalopods, they tor avoidance, camouflage can appears to be simply part of the James Wood have no suckers, also be used when lying in wait scenery. are undifferentiat- for unsuspecting prey to pass. ed and retractable. Interestingly, cephalopods have Deceptive resemblance 65 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

66 ecology Disruptive patterning being displayed by the cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis. The large white band helps to break up the outline of the cuttle- It is hard to know for sure the first benefit that the adapta- tion of changing appearance had for cephalopods. The fos- fish, making it harder to dis- sil record is spotty and does tinguish it from a complex environment when viewed not provide many clues as to from above by predators behavioral adaptations. However, most scientists One side of the body produces believe the initial benefit of a pattern to attract a female the adaptation of changing James Wood while producing another pat- tern on the other side, which appearance was crypsis, the James Wood is directed at other males ability to blend in with the envi- A California two-spot octopus, Octopus bimaculatus, displays its abili- ties to camouflage in different environments. This type of camouflage is Disruptive patterning color it was using to blend into its known as background resemblance, as both octopuses have adopted Disruptive patterning is seen in many environment, to bold contrasting colors, textures and postures to attempt to blend into the background creatures as well as cephalopods colors such as white and black. and serves to break up the outline Some species of octopus will of the animal to confuse preda- change instantly from their mottled tors. It involves the chromatophores, appearance to bright white with which are used to create sharply black around their eyes. Deimatic contrasting patterns on the body, behavior usually also involves often wide stripes or spots. This is best body postures that make the ani- seen in cuttlefish, which employ this mal appear bigger than it is. If this technique more readily than other doesnt work and the animal is still cephalopods. threatened, cephalopods will then usually ink and jet away. Countershading Countershading is used to help a Communication cephalopod blend in when there is Cephalopods use color change as James Wood James Wood no substrate against which to match well as body postures to commu- itself. For instance, squid that spend nicate, both with members of their much of their time in midwater own species as well as with mem- rather than on or near the bottom bers of other species. Many cepha- Octopuses are, of course, not the only cephalopods to dis- can be seen easily by predators lopods have courtship displays in Fighting between males also ronment. This allowed cepha- play background resemblance. A cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis, is from below. Photophores and reflec- which males attempt to attract exhibits a lot of communication. With lopods to be camouflaged so attempting to match the color and texture of the sand in its labo- tor cells on their underside match females by using chromatic displays squid, time spent in acts of aggres- they could more easily catch ratory tank. Notice the white tipped papillae closest to the sand the light coming in through the (displays using color changes) to sion involve mostly displays and very their prey. Perhaps even more that give the appearance of small pebbles that can be seen in other areas of the tank. This ability not only protects the animal water column, to make the squid show that they are suitable mates. little physical contact. Squid will importantly, camouflage was from predators, it also assists with hunting as prey can come quite almost invisible to animals below it. This is well developed in squid and often show chromatic displays and the first line of defense against close without realizing there is a hungry cephalopod nearby Countershading also makes rounded cuttlefish but is less common in octo- body postures with increasing inten- predators. surfaces appear flat. So, a squid with pus in which complex courtship ritu- sity until one backs down. Much of cephalopod evo- a darker top surface and shades als have not yet been seen. Often In midwater, light organs and pho- lution is thought to be driven by predator two groups relied on their external shell to gradually decreasing to a pale during courtship, males will not only tophores are thought to be used for avoidance. The earliest of cephalopods are protect them from predators. The ammo- under-surface will be harder to spot have to attempt to attract females, communication. In the same way as thought to have used the ability to leave nites are extinct, and there are now only six when viewed laterally. but also to fend off other males. As color is used in shallow water, bio- the bottom and swim up into the water col- species of nautilus in existence. All the rest chromatophores are neurally con- luminescence can be used where umn as a way to escape predators. of the modern cephalopods, the coleoid Deimatic behavior trolled, the animal may be able to there is less light to attract a mate, As both predators and their prey evolved, cephalopods, have reduced and internal- Deimatic behavior is often used produce a pattern on one side of its lure prey and dissuade predators. two major groups of cephalopodsthe ized shells and have the ability to change when camouflage fails, and the body to attract a female while pro- Predator avoidance may also ammonites and nautilusbecame some of color, texture and shape to camouflage cephalopod is still threatened. It ducing another pattern on the other involve some forms of communica- the most common marine animals. These and avoid detection from predators. involves changing rapidly from the side, which it directs at other males. tion to the predator. As with deimat- 66 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

67 ecology Andy Murch Skin pattern created by cromatophores in this Atlantic Bobtail squid Sepiola atlantica shrinks and hides the pig- ment. Unlike in other animals, the chro- matophores in cephalopods are neurally controlled, with each chro- matophore being attached to a nerve ending. In some squid, each chromatophore muscle is responsible for innervated by two to six nerves producing the User Hans Hillewaert on Wikimedia Bommons. Image reproduced according that directly link to the animals blue and green colors seen in brain. some species. Interestingly, many to the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license. In this way, the animal can deep water forms possess fewer increase the size of one sac- chromatophores as they are less cule while decreasing the size of useful in an environment in little another one right next to it. This or no light. allows the cephalopods to pro- duce complex patterns, such as Iridophores the zebra stripes seen in aggres- Iridophores are found in the sive displays by male cuttlefish. next layer under the chromat- The speed at which this can opphores. Iridophores are lay- be controlled allows the animal ered stacks of platelets that are to manipulate these patterns in chitinous in some species and a way that makes them appear protein based in others. They are to move across the body. In responsible for producing the some species of cuttlefish, it has metallic looking greens, blues been noted that while hunt- and golds seen in some species, ing, the cuttlefish may produce as well as the silver color around a series of stripes the eyes and ink sac of others. ic behaviors, showing a predator many of the cephalopods color Chromatophores are that move down Iridophores work by reflect- that it has been spotted and producing cells are controlled groups of cells that their bodies and ing light and can be used to attempting to make itself larger neurally, which allows them to include an elastic sac- arms. Some sci- conceal organs, as is often the and more frightful than it is will at change colors very rapidly. cule that holds a pig- entists have sug- case with the silver coloration least often make a predator stop The patterns and colors ment, as well as 15-25 gested that this around the eyes and ink sacs. and think, giving vital seconds seen in cephalopods are pro- muscles attached to could be used to Additonally, they assist in con- for escape. On the other hand, if duced by different layers of this saccule. These mesmerize prey cealment and communication. the bluff is successful, the preda- cells stacked together, and it is cells are located before striking, but Previously, it was thought that tor may back away, thinking the combination of certain cells directly under the the purpose of this these colors were permanent that it is not as easy a target as operating at once that allows skin of cephalopods. behavior has yet and unchanging unlike the anticipated. cephalopods to possess such When the muscles to be proven. colors produced by chromato- Cephalopods have often a large array of patterns and contract, they stretch The pigments phores. New studies on some been referred to as the chame- colors. the saccule allowing in chromato- species of squid suggest that the leons of the sea. However, their the pigment inside to phores can be colors may change in response ability to change color is more Chromatophores cover a larger surface black, brown, red, to changing levels of certain hor- impressive than that of the cha- The most well known of these area. When the mus- orange or yel- mones. However, these changes meleon. Unlike the chameleon, cells is the chromatophore. cles relax, the saccule low. They are not are obviously slower than neural- Closeup of cromatophores 67 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

68 ecology Chromatophores are located directly under the skin of cephalopods. When the muscles contract, they stretch Squids the saccule allowing the pigment inside to cover a larger surface area. When the muscles relax, the sac- cule shrinks and hides the pigment. ly controlled chromatophore changes. chemical light stick. Photophores may Iridophores can be found in cuttlefish, produce light constantly or flash light some squid and some species of octo- intermittently. The mechanism for this is pus. not yet known, but one theory is that the photophores can be covered up by Leucophores pigments in the chromatophores when Leucophores are the last layer of cells. the animal does not wish for them to These cells are responsible for the white show. spots occurring on some species of cut- Some species also have sacs con- tlefish, squid and octopus. Leucophores taining resident bacteria that produce are flattened, branched cells that are bioluminescence such as the tiny squid thought to scatter and reflect incoming Euprymna. Midwater squid use photo- light. In this way, the color of the leu- phores to match downwelling light or to cophores will reflect the predominant attract prey. wavelength of light in the environment. It is the use of these cells in combina- In white light, they will be white, while in tion that allow cephalopods to produce blue light, they will be blue. It is thought amazing colors and patterns not seen that this adds to the animals ability to in any other family of animal. However, blend into its environment. not all species of cephalopod pos- sess all the cells described above. For Photophores instance, photophores may be neces- Cephalopods have one final ability to sary for animals in deep water environ- change color and pattern, the photo- ments but are often absent in shallow phores. These produce light by biolu- water forms. Deep sea species may minescence. Photophores are found in possess few or even no chromatophores most midwater and deep sea cepha- as their color changes would not be vis- lopods and are often absent in shallow ible in an environment with no light. water species. Recent research has suggested Jon Gross Bioluminescence is produced by a that there may be some correlation chemical reaction similar to that of a between the amount of chromato- phores (and hence the complexity of pods can perceive focused images, just objects, light grey objects over dark grey patterns available) and the type and like we can. objects and vice versa, but we can not complexity of a cephalopods environ- Cephalopods are invertebrates and train them to differentiate between color- ment. For instance, midwater species other than being multicellular animals, ful objects that look the same in gray- may possess fewer chromatophores. they are not even closely related to ver- scale. Also, most cephalopods only have While species living in reef type envi- tebrates such as whales, humans and fish. one visual pigment. We have three. ronments may possess more. However, Cephalopods, and their eyes, evolved Although many species have not yet further research still needs to be con- independently. Why would animals so dis- been tested, the only cephalopod known ducted in this area. tantly related as a fish and a cephalopod so far to have color vision is the firefly have developed an eye that is so similar? squid, Watasenia scintillans. This species Cephalopod vision of midwater squid is bioluminescent and Cephalopods are known to have excel- Colorblind has three visual pigments. All other spe- lent senses, and of these senses, their Given the amazing ability of cephalo- cies tested so far only have one visual vision is perhaps the best studied. At first pods to change color perhaps the most pigment. glance, cephalopod eyes look very simi- surprising difference between vertebrate lar to those of humans, whales and fishes. eyes and those of cephalopods is that Polarized light With the exception of the externally most cephalopods are completely color Although most cephalopods can not see shelled and primitive nautilus, all cephalo- blind. How do we know? We can train in color, it has been demonstrated that James Wood octopuses to pick black objects over octopuses and cuttlefish can detect dif- Octopus burryi showing white white objects, white objects over black ferences in polarized lightwithout wear- spots due to leucophores 68 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

69 ecology Peter Symes Squids Given the amazing ability of cephalopods to change Evolution of cephalopod vision color perhaps the most surprising difference be- It is known that nearly all living tween vertebrate eyes and those of cepha- things including plants show the water. They also some form of photosen- lopods given is that most cephalo- have a tapetum lu- sitivity. How did this pods are completely color cidum for night vision. come to be? Dolphins have rods and Firstly, most life, blind. cones like humans; however, it is with the excep- still unknown whether they see in tion of some deep sea vent crea- color. It is thought that their com- tures, is affected by light emitted bination of rods and cones allows from the sun, whether they require Glossary: ever, them to see a large range of light it for survival or are sensitive to The tapetum underwa- intensities rather than colors. Sea it and must hide from it. All such lucidum (Latin ter, there is lions do not have color vision, organisms need to possess some for bright no such inter- although it is possible that they sort of organ that allows an organ- tapestry; face, so the lens can detect light in the blue and ism to know whether it is in high or plural tapeta must be much more green spectrum. They also have a low light, and possibly from which lucida) is a powerful than that of tapetum lucidum for night vision. direction the light is coming. layer of tissue terrestrial animals. The Sperm whales are known to feed in the eye of eye of the fish has a on the infamous Architeuthis, or 500 million years many verte- wide angle of view to giant squid. The ability to detect light with brate animals, make up for the fact These squid, however, live in the and eye has been developing for that lies imme- that fish do not have deep oceans where there is not more than 500 million years and diately behind or necks and cannot enough light for vision to be effec- includes a variety of possible forms sometimes within the turn their heads. Fish tive. Researchers believe that the ranging from simple photorecep- retina. It reflects visible possess both rods and sperm whale does not have good tors in single celled organisms like light back through the cones. Rods operate in eyesight, as its eyes are so dispro- Euglena to the highly complex retina, increasing the light low light intensity whereas portionately small to its head. It vertebrate eye. available to the photorecep- cones allow for color and is thought that sperm whales use The first eye seen in single- tors. This improves vision in high light intensity conditions. echolocation to find their prey. celled organisms and flatworms low-light conditions, but can Some fish also possess cones were simple photoreceptors that cause the perceived for vision in the ultraviolet part of image to be blurry the spectrum. Some fish have the from the interference James Wood ability to detect polarized light as of the reflected light. Vision in do some cephalopods. There is The tapetum lucidum cephalopod predators large variation in eye morphology contributes to the The predators of cephalopods within fish as they inhabit a large superior night vision of ing polarized sunglasses. Shashar include fishsuch as sharksbirds, number of habitats with varying some animals. Many and Hanlon showed that squids marine mammals and other ce- light regimes, from complex coral of these animals are (Loligo pealei) and Sepiolids phalopods. All of these predators reefs to the pitch black of the nocturnal, especially (Euprymna scolopes) can exhibit have single lens eyes, although deep sea. carnivores that hunt polarized light patterns on their often there is some variation be- their prey at night, skin. Therefore, cephalopods can tween them to make their eyes Marine mammals that feed on ce- while others are deep not only see differences in polar- more suitable to their environment phalopods include dolphins, sea sea animals. Although ized light, they can also create and behavior. lions, and whales. Dolphins have strepsirrhine primates patterns using these differences a few adaptations to their eyes have a tapetum luci- on their bodies. (See fact file on Fish On land, it is the air-cornea to assist them. For instance, they dum, humans and next page.) interface of vertebrates that gives have muscles that can bend their other haplorhine James Wood most of the ability to focus. How- lenses, so they can focus above primates do not. 69 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

70 Peter Symes Seeing and in many directions at once while still traveling in the same How does it happen? Polarization can happen in a have photoreceptor cells that contain microvilli. The microvilli of polarized light in a way that they Polarized Light general direction. Looking head number of ways. Firstly, when each receptor cell are lined up can intensify or shut on at a light wave, the assump- light hits an object, it can parallel to each other. Microvilli off. This could be a tion is that the wave is a straight become polarized if it is reflect- contain the visual pigment rho- form of communica- It has been shown through sci- vertical line as it moves toward ed, refracted or scattered of dopsin, which is also orientated tion between members entific experiments that squid, the viewer. But, in actual fact, off certain surfaces. Light may parallel in the microvilli. Receptor of a species not visible octopus and cuttlefish are the wave moves vertically, hori- reflect off a non-metallic object cells are aligned at right angles to some other ani- able to detect polarized light zontally, and diagonally all at the or substance (like water) and to each other, and hence the mals, especially as well as create signals using same time. This is how unpolar- become polarized. Polarized light microvilli of one receptor cell will predators such polarized light on their skin. ized light from the sun behaves, that has experienced reflection be at right angles to that of the as sharks, seals it is disorganized. Polarized light, will travel parallel to the surface next receptor cell. The rhodopsin and cetaceans. What the difference? on the other hand, only vibrates of the object, which in the case assist in seeing the polarized What is polarized light and how on one plane. The wave of of bodies of water, creates glare. light. Because the microvilli are Invisible communications is it different from unpolarized polarized light, traveling toward arranged at right angles to one It is thought that these creatures The light? Light is a form of electro- the viewer appears as only another, the animal is able to dis- do not possess the ability to see reflec- The amount of polarization will magnetic radiation that travels one vertical or horizontal line tinguish between different planes polarized light, and thus cepha- tion depend on the angle of the created as a wave. The wave incoming light. When light under- that the light is traveling on. lopods may have an advantage by silvery doesnt just vibrate goes refraction (i.e. when it over them in being able to com- fish scales is on one plane; passes from air to water and Reflections municate with one another with- often polarized instead, it vibrates gets bent), it may become Cephalopods can use their out attracting the attention of on many polarized, although this time ability to see polarized light in predators. It is also thought that planes the polarized wave will usually many ways. Firstly, it is thought cephalopods and other marine travel perpendicular to the that they can see though the animals that can detect differ- surface of the substance reflection created by sil- ences in polar- Unpolarized light is disor- it has passed through. very fish scales to better Cuttlefish ized light may use ganized. Polarized light, Light may also identify prey and predators their abilities to Often this reflection is polar- reflect polar- detect polariza- on the other hand, only become par- tially polar- ized. Just as humans put on ized light in a tion to assist them vibrates on one plane. ized by polarized sunglasses to see in navigation. scat- through the glare created way that they ter- by polarized reflection off can intensify the surface of the ocean, the cephalopod can cut out or shut off the glare of polarized light produced by reflection off fish James Wood scales to better ing, distinguish prey. as Translucent prey light may also be more waves visible for the same rea- bounce son, as light reflecting off the off particles while pass- tissues of the prey may be ing through a substance. polarized, and while it may not produce glare, it would Stress in a pair Author Spigget via Wikimedia Commons. This file is licensed under of plastic glasses They can but we cannot make the prey animal more vis- can be seen the Creative Commons Attribution- Share Alike 3.0 Unported license. So why can cephalopods, and ible to animals that can see this by placing it the majority of mobile marine reflection such as cephalopods. between two animals, see polarized light and polarizing filters humans cannot? Cephalopods Manipulating polarisations have different photoreceptor It has been shown that the iri- cells from humans. Cephalopods dophores on cuttlefish reflect 70 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

71 ecology James Wood Andy Murch The ability to detect light with could ascertain only the amount of light in the environment. The more ad- and eye has been vanced form of this was cup-shaped, which allowed the animal to discern developing for from which direction the light was more than 500 coming. However, this sort of eye did not allow the organisms to see as we million years and think of it. Thus, the pinhole eye devel- oped. includes a variety of possible forms Pinhole eye The pinhole eye is found in the Nautilus ranging from sim- and consists of a small opening into ple photoreceptors a chamber, which allows a very small amount of light through. Light will pass in single celled through the pinhole after bouncing off different points of an object, and in this organisms to the way basic shapes can be interpreted, highly complex not in any detail however. The hole is so tiny only a small amount of light can vertebrate eye. get in which makes the image faint. If The pinhole eye of a Nautilus is incapable of focusing on objects at different distances. the hole were larger, the image would Instead, the size of the image produced will change in relation to the distance away be distorted. This type of eye is incapa- from the object. ble of focusing on objects at different distances. Instead, the size of the im- worms, contained a substance that and vertebrates have single lens eyes. age produced will change in relation protected them from seawater. If this They work by allowing light to enter to the distance away from the object. substance were to bulge, it would form through the pupil and be focused by The compound eye was the first a pseudo lens that would help to make the lens onto the photoreceptor cells of true image-forming eye, which was an image form more precisely, and the retina. However, between the two thought to have formed some time this may be favored by the process of groups of animals, there are differences during the Cambrian period, about 500 natural selection. Although the com- in the shape of the pupil, the way the million years ago. The compound eye pound eye is full of lenses, the only way lens changes focus for distance, the is common in insects and arthropods to make the image sharper with this type of receptor cells that receive the and consists of many ommatidia. Each design was to add more ommatidia. light as well as some more subtle differ- ommatidia consists of a lens, crystal- Of course, this means the eye would ences. line cells, pigment cells and visual cells. have to increase in size James Wood The number of ommatidia will vary and can only do this to a between species but may be up to point before it is too large 1000 per eye. Each ommatidia passes for the animal. Thus, more information on to the brain. This forms complex lens eyes formed an image that is made of up dots, as in both vertebrates and in if looking very close at a digital photo. cephalopods. Although A higher number of ommatidia mean both of these designs have more dots which make the image many differences, there clearer. This type of eye is only useful are also many similarities. over short distances. However, it is ex- cellent for movement detection. Cephalopod vs. For an animal to be able to focus on Vertebrate Vision objects at different distances or even As already stated, both to produce a clear image of its sur- cephalopods and verte- roundings at all, its eyes needed to brates have very complex develop lenses. It is thought that early image-forming eyes with cup-shaped eyes, like those of flat- lenses. Both cephalopods 71 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

72 ecology Squid fossil hun- dreds of millions years old Squids In vertebrates the pupil is round, contain microvilli, which allow pods are active predators. Instead of and it changes in diameter de- the animal to see polarized and heavy armor, they rely on speed and pending on the amount of light in unpolarized light (see page on visual tricks to avoid being eaten. the environment. This is important polarization vision). Some scientists have suggested that because too much light will dis- Lastly, the way in which light these adaptations were in response tort the image, and too little light is directed at the retina differs to pressure from predators. Indeed, will be interpreted as a very faint between the two groups. Cepha- many of the tricks such as the ability image. The cephalopod pupil is lopod retinas receive incoming to change color, shape and texture square and adjusts for the level of light directly, while vertebrate reti- as well as the ability to produce a light by changing from a square nas receive light that is bounced visual ink decoy seem to be aimed to a narrow rectangle. back from the back of the eye. directly at their predators. The way in which the two groups use the lens to focus dif- Evolution fers. Vertebrates use muscles The evolution of cephalopods around the eye to change the is thought to be due to an evo- shape of the lens, while cephalo- lutionary arms race. Over the When a predator came along, all pods are able to manipulate their course of cephalopod history, they the cephalopod had to do was lens in or out to focus at different have moved from the sea floor, let go of the bottom and float distances. lost their shells, developed abilities away like a hot air balloon. One The receptor cells of vertebrate to change color, shape and tex- of the first advances may have eyes are rods and cones. The ture as well as the ability to com- been the creation of multiple cones are used for vision in high municate in complex ways. It was chambers connected by a sip- light environments, while the rods their capacity to adapt to chang- huncle; this allowed these early are used in low light. The time of ing pressures that ensured their cephalopods to slowly change day the animal needs its vision to survival as a family. Those that did their buoyancy. be most effective will dictate the not adapt mostly became extinct. Other early advances were ratio of rods to cones. Cephalo- The first cephalopods appeared likely to have been the ability to James Wood pods, however, have receptor 500 mya, before bony fish existed. swim slowly to control direction. cells called rhabdomeres similar These first cephalopods had a Two groups of cephalopods, the to those of other mollusks. These hard external shell like many other Nautiloids and Ammonids (570 mollusks but mya), depended on their external were able shell and ability to swim to pro- lens-based eye, or the ability to the major forces driving cephalo- Glossary: to leave the tect them from predators. Both of swim fast. pod evolution. Perhaps as species The siphuncle is a strand of ocean bot- these sub-class- It is hard to say why the Am- of bony fish, many of which swim tissue passing longitudinally tom and swim es of monites and all but six species much faster than an externally through the shell of a ce- to escape of Nautilus have become shelled cephalopod, appeared phalopod mollusk. Only ce- predators. extinct. These cephalo- in the early oceans, armor just phalopods with chambered pods had a wide variety wasnt enough, and of those spe- shells have siphuncles, such of external shells, some cies that depended on armor, as the extinct ammonites coiled, some long and almost all have become extinct. and belemnites, and the straight, some with living nautiluses, cuttlefish, spines. These shells pro- Differently strategy and Spirula. In the case of vided good protection Modern cephalopods have the cuttlefish, the siphuncle from predators evolved a different strategy. In- is indistinct and connects all but inhibited stead of a heavy protective exter- the small chambers of that Ammonoids ce- the animals nal shell, they have reduced and animals highly modified on Wikimedia Bommons. Attribution-Share Alike first appeared phalopods do mobility. internalized this armor. The loss of shell; in the other cepha- 3.0 Unported license. User Hans Hillewaert Creative Commons Image reproduced in the Late according to the Silurian to Early not have many of the traits of Predation pres- the heavy armor frees them from lopods it is thread-like and Devonian their modern relatives, such as sure has long the weight of carrying it around passes through small open- (circa 400 mil- the ability to change color, to been thought and the energy needed to pro- ings in the walls dividing the lion years ago) produce sharp images with a to be one of duce it. Most modern cephalo- chambers. 72 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

73 whale tales Giant sperm whale fossil has Whale Friendly Lawns the biggest bite ever Is your lawn looking greener than ever? If you answered yes, chances are you are using a chemical fertilizer Scientists uncovered an the average length of these to keep it that way. Unfortunately, ancient sperm whale fossil whales to be 13-18m long. every time it rains or you water your dated at 12-13 million years The sperm whales existent lawn, run-off gets into our local storm Edited by Kelly LaClaire old in a Peruvian desert. This today do not have func- drains and brings some of those toxic new, but extinct, species tional teeth in their upper jaw chemicals into the local rivers and has been dubbed Leviathan and feed by suction, usually streams. This in turn harms fish and melvillei and has teeth much on squid and the like. The wildlife and promotes algae growth, larger than the sperm whales Leviathan melvillei fossil, on which limits Blue Whales Visit of today. The name derives the other hand, had giant the amount of from a combination of the teeth in both its upper and salmon that California Hebrew word livyatan, which lower jaws, and a skull that can live and refers to a giant sea mon- seems to have supported reproduce. Groups of Earths largest creatures ster, and American novelist powerful jaw muscles that The chain the blue whalehave given ama- Herman Melville, who wrote scientists believe to enable effect contin- teur whale watchers and charter Moby-Dick. the whale to hunt like mod- ues by lower- boat operators in California reason Researchers recovered 75 ern killer whales, or orcas, ing salmon to celebrate, by showing up in percent of the animals skull, and probably fed on baleen numbers, thus abnormally large numbers in the San which contained a massive whales. making it hard- Pedro Channel off the California set of teeth, some as long as The giant snout of the fossil er for Earths cetacean populations coast where upwards of 2,000 of 36cmclose to 10cm longer suggests that it had a large (whales, dolphins, porpoises) to thrive. the giant cetaceans come to feed than any other sperm whale spermaceti organ, a series But you can make a difference by each summer. Hunted almost to tooth ever recorded. This of oil and wax reservoirs rein- committing yourself to being a respon- extinction in the 1960s, the enormous also led scientists to figure forced by connective tissue sible homeowner and limiting your whalesaveraging that could have served such Apokryltaros / creative commons chemical fertilizer use or switching to about 80 feet long functions as echolocation or all-natural fertilizers. You can also join and weighing ramming capabilities while Artists rendition and comparison of the prehistoric whales Livyatan the Whale Friendly Lawns Campaign between 150,000 fighting or hunting. Source: melvillei and Cetotherium from Middle Miocene Peru by signing up at www.acspugetsound. and 300,000 Nature.com org, the web site of the American poundshave Cetacean Society. been making a slight comeback in recent years Tracking whales like birds in the Gulf reaching num- Some environmental reports have suggested whales and dolphins by song and call, just animals within their pods and groups as well bers of around that upwards of three-quarters of the as they would flocks of birds above the sea. as insights into hunting activities, which will 10,000 worldwide. nearly five million barrels spilled in the Gulf What we do is deploy instrumentation along be vital in discerning whether or not the Gulf Scientists suggest of Mexico have been cleaned up. But the bottom of the ocean, or suspended in ecosystems are struggling. To Postverk Froya - Philatelic Office / public domain that vast krill clouds Professor Christopher Clark, head of the bio- the water, that records sound for many, learn more about Clark and his may be the reason acoustics research program at Cornell Lab many months at a time. We deploy work, visit www.birds.cornell.edu. so many whales of Ornithology (the study of birds) and one these strategically in areas we think are being spot- of the scientists monitoring the long-term the animals are most likely to be, ted. Whatever it is, affects of the disaster, said the remaining oil and where the oil spill will most likely researchers and could prove harmful to whale and dolphin have an impact, he said. whale enthusiasts populations and cause very long term By listening, instead of just alike are extremely consequences on the health of the Gulf. looking, Clark and his researchers happy about it. To find out just how much ongoing damage are more likely to gain important is being inflicted, Clarks team is tracking data on the social interaction of the 73 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

74 whale tales Whats in your tuna? Just because that can of tuna in and this should be Essington, a your pantry at home says Dolphin applauded, but scientist at safe on the label doesnt mean its all too often when the University of marlin-safe or turtle-safe. Before hundreds of tons of Washington. you pick up your next can of Chunky tuna are caught, so are Troll-caught refers to Albacore at your local grocery store, thousands of other species a method of fishing near heres something to keep in mind: of bycatchthe industry term for the oceans surface using short lines the Monterey Bay Aquariums well- unwanted species caught up in the attached to barbless hooks.These regarded Seafood Watch Consumer netsincluding sharks, rays, turtles hooks are hidden inside rubber Guide has recently begun telling and marlins, which are then killed hoola skirts that dance in the water shoppers to avoid all canned tuna and discarded. and attract young albacore. Ten except for the those few labeled troll The real problem is giving our- to 20 of these simple jigs are towed caught or pole-and-line caught. selves high fives for solving the tuna- behind a slow-moving boat. Most of the worlds tuna catch- dolphin problem when weve just cre- Pole-and-line fishing refers to catch- ers use dolphin safe procedures, ated other problems, said Timothy ing tuna one at a time the old fashion waywith a fishing pole! This, by far, is the safest and most environmentally friendly way of sustainable fishing and keep- ing bycatch out of the huge commercial nets of massive fishing fleets. If you now find yourself ask- ing where you can find these kinds of friendly caught tuna, well, be prepared to look a little harder than usual. Fortunately, pole-and-line and troll caught tuna are becom- ing more and more popular with smaller retail food chains, and if you ask your local gro- Three dive computers - Unlimited possibilities cer to bring it in, you may be pleasantly surprised to find that they can usually accom- modate your request. Just be sure to thoroughly check the labels and remember: the www.OceanicWorldwide.com dolphin-safe label can be misleading. Buyer beware. Source: Forbes.com, Pacific fleet noaa Tuna Artists rendition of trolling for tuna 74 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

75 media Wreck Valley has a new look Even if you already have Dan Bergs Wreck Valley first and second editions, check out Wreck Valley III. A disclaimer is in order: Sterner Editorial helped copy edit this edition. What follows is a general description of the book, which joined the other editions on the office library shelves, where theyve been since 1986 and 1990 respec- point & click tively. The 188-page soft cover from CreateSpace is a total revi- on bold links sion of Bergs earlier books that examine nearly 150 wrecks off Long Island, New York and New Jersey, USA. Although theyre mostly the same wrecks as in the earlier editions, the text is updated throughout with some serious fact-checking. Where the new edition shines is in the layouts. Some 400 of the 550 This Media page is brought to you by illustrations are in full color. Many are wreck divers dream Book Log compiled by Robert Sterner scenes: local divers beaming over braces of trophy lobsters of Sterner Editorial Services. Read earlier and newly recovered or beautifully restored artifacts that Book Log reviews by genre or call atten- are testaments to the value of retrieving items before they tion to books and videos to review at rot into the seabed. There also are site maps hand-drawn www.sternereditorial.com by locals who visit the wrecks and side-scan sonar images sprinkled amid lively layouts that make the edition more fun to read. Private boat operators will like the GPS numbers for the wrecks and reefs, instead of the Loran coordinates listed in the second edition. Wrecks are in alphabetical order so the lack of a table of contents up front isnt a prob- lem. For quick reference, wrecks and page numbers are presented in the index that closes the book. Also in the appendixes are leads to more info in the bibliography and suggested reading entries with Web addresses. Its available as a traditionally printed book or in digital form that can be downloaded into your reader or com- puter. ISBN: 978-1452867717. www.AquaExplorers.com Picture facing cozy icy dives Meet Pacific NW denizens Anyone diving in Pacific Northwest waters of North With a thick enough under suit even the coldest America should consider packing Coastal Fishes of waters can seem toasty except for the exposed the Pacific Northwest in the dive bag. The Harbour flesh around your mouth. The way to overcome Press soft cover by Andy Lamb and Phil Edgell is having a numb face is to switch to a full-face mask. 336 pages of photos and facts about the denizens American team, Steve and Kristine Barsky have from Central California to the Gulf of Alaska. The just released a DVD, Choosing and Using Full-Face contents page has silhouettes of fish beside the name and Masks, to help divers select and use the mask chapter pages of the various species. This helps readers to quickly find information about thats considered essential gear by ice divers, the curious critters they saw on a dive. Various species are presented in photographs, many commercial and public safety divers. The Barskys by Edgell, and line drawings that provide details to distinguish one subspecies from others. teamed up with Ocean Futures diver and TV per- Data is presented in outline form covering the scientific name, maximum size, distribution, sonality, Blair Mott, as well as public safety diving habitat and comments with factoids about the fish. The book closes with an appendix of instructor, Jeff Morgan, to cover full-face masks resources including Web addresses, phone numbers and mailing addresses, and a bibli- in the 48-minute video. Topics include how to ography that points readers to more information about the fish. There is a comprehensive select a mask, how to rig it, how to use it with index to quickly refer to specific creatures. Its printed on quality slick paper that lets pho- scuba and with surface-supplied air, emergency procedures and mask maintenance. In addi- tos shine and feels like itd resist water drips on a dive boat. The authors are well versed. tion to the mask video, the DVD has two bonus features. Operation Safe Water is a 13-minute Lamb is a marine naturalist with the Vancouver Aquarium, and Edgell has worked as clip featuring San Bernardino, California, Sheriffs Department and FBI teams tips on diving a fish culturist at Fisheries and Oceans Canada at the Robertson Creek Hatchery on contaminated water. The other bonus is a presentation of masks through history as well as Vancouver Island. ISBN: 978-1-55017-471-7 www.harbourpublishing.com manuals and catalogs. ISBN: 978-0-9740923-4644. www.hammerheadpress.com 75 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

76 shark tales Edited by Peter Symes Text and photos by Andy Murch For centuries, the Diamond Shoals off North Carolina have been collecting shipwrecks. Hundreds of crumpled merchant vessels swamped by Mother Natures fury and scores of bat- tle scarred war machines torn apart by enemy shells loom above the otherwise featureless substrate. Subjected to racing currents and pounded by relent- less surge, each wreck eventu- ally erodes into an unidentifiable debris field. But in the interim, while the doomed ships still hold Seize the Day their structure, they are magi- cally transformed into vibrant marine oases. Initially, planktonic life forms looking for a permanent home attach themselves to every available inch of real estate. Larger invertebrates like snails and small crabs soon follow and begin grazing on the newly seeded decks. Within a sea- a lesson from Mother Nature son or two, blennies, angelfish and other small tropicals have arrived from who knows where, and the ghostly corridors down from the heavens to scoop up the masts like living sign posts pointing to The Sandtiger shark is rarely encountered except at great are filled with swarms of silvery baitfish weak and injured. other distant oases. Sandtigers belong to the mackerel shark depth around Malpelo Island; the big- that morph from one shadowy corner to Suspended in the water column, Lording over the entire food web, order, but they share few characteristics eye sandtiger, which is extremely rare the next. schools of shimmering Atlantic Spade fish enormous sandtiger sharks hover in the with their fast moving mako and white and inhabits even deeper water than Bermuda chub peck away omnivo- practice their synchronized swimming choicest locations, or patrol slowly back shark cousins. its smalltooth cousin; and the common rously at anything slow enough to con- techniques, while motionless barracudas and forth with their unblinking eyes and There are three species of sandti- sandtiger that many divers around the stitute lunch, and amber jacks sweep hang in groups around the remaining implacable, snaggletooth grins. gers: the smalltooth sandtiger, which world have come to know and love. 76 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

77 shark tales CLOCKWISE FROM LEFT: Sandtiger shark with diver; Barracudas above the Even beyond the diving com- wreck of the Spar; Lionfish; School of Atlantic spade fish. PREVIOUS PAGE: munity, sandtigers are well known Sandtiger shark inside wreck celebrities. Their ability to gulp air in order to counteract their nega- sharks, rays, squids, crabs and ums. However they got there, tive buoyancy means that they lobsters. Interestingly, the North they appear to be flourishing. As do not have to swim continuously Atlantic population has not yet they have no natural enemies, it to avoid sinking. This developed a taste for red lionfish. looks as though the ecosystems makes them popu- that they have invaded may be lar sharks in public Lionfish changed forever by their pres- aquariums because A decade ago, lionfish from the ence. they are less likely to tropical Pacific somehow man- One of the best known wrecks swim into the walls aged to establish themselves off the North Carolina coastline and inflict damage feed as often as on the wrecks of the Diamond is called the Spar. It is a thriving on themselves. faster swimming Shoals. Its possible that the invad- 300-foot long artificial reef that However, long- species. That is a ers were flushed from the bilges of was sunk about a two-hour run term incarceration great advantage passing ships, or they could have from Morehead City. Because in small aquarium for large predators been released from home aquari- of its elevation and intact super- tanks does have an that have adverse effect on to rely on a the sharks. After a limited food few years in captiv- supply like ity, sandtigers often the sandti- show signs of abnor- gers on mal growth patterns the wrecks including stunted of North fins and hunched Carolina. backs. But, sandti- Even in the wild, gers are also sandtigers have ram ventila- their problems. tors, and Many populations their casual struggle with para- approach sitic growths in their more ways than one. They are neled into the oviductsa feed- to swimming may in some mouths, and I have seen sandti- livebearers that produce two off- ing strategy known as oophagy. ways limit their oxygen gers with spine deformations and spring (one in each uterus) per The sandtigers ability to mooch uptake, making them more even one albino that had some- season. The developing embryos slowly along with a stomach full sluggish and possibly even how managed to survive till adult- indulge in inter-uterine cannibal- of air is a fascinating adaptation, slower witted than other hood. ism. Once they have devoured all but in some ways, it may be a mackerel sharks. Sandtigers (called ragged-tooth of their smaller siblings, they begin double-edged sword. It allows the Sandtigers are not picky sharks in Africa and grey nurse consuming a constant supply of sharks to conserve energy, which eaters. They are known to sharks in Australia) are unique in unfertilized eggs that are chan- means that they do not have to consume bony fishes, small 77 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

78 THIS PAGE: Sandtiger sharks ability to gulp air to counteract their negative buoyancy means they dont have to swim continuously to avoid sinking environments are in a constant state of change. Change can seem scary, especially when humanity is involved in manipulating the natural order of things, but the wrecks of the Diamond Shoals are a manipulation as well. Five hundred years ago the biggest topograph- ic anomalies on the sea floor were probably a few small Viking ships. A thousand years ago there would have been nothing on the Diamond Shoals except an occasional whale carcass. Now that large vessels are equipped with 21st century navigational aids and better marine safe- ty protocols, North Carolinas crumbling under- water habitats are unlikely to be replenished. Itll take a while, but in a century or two there will be very few manmade structures left on the seafloor. That means, no more colonies of invertebrates, no more levitating sandtiger sharks and no more lionfish. Mother Nature rolls with the punches. When con- ditions permit, she presents us with jewels like the marine oases we have right now. The lesson to be learned from her is never to waste an opportunity. So, dust off your dive gear and enjoy the wondrous diversity of marine life on the shipwrecks of North Carolina while you can. Find out how you can help to protect sharks by visiting elasmodiver.com: elasmodiver.com/pro- tectingsharks.htm structure, it is often packed with sandtigers. In recent years, it has been plagued by red lionfish, but dur- ing a productive weekend shoot- ing sandtigers on the Spar this summer, I was unable to locate a single invader. Could it be that the sharks have developed a taste for spicy Asian cuisine? Its a nice thought, but it is more likely that the lionfish have either migrated into cooler water for ins Dryin g Shark F arine Photobank the summer, or they are hiding in King / M Jessica the bowels of the wreck where sandtiger photographers seldom venture. It may seem like a catastrophic problem, but before you lose too much sleep over the lionfish invasion, consider this: marine 10_GiveSharksA Chance.indd 1 15/06/10 9:40 AM 78 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

79 news Welcome to Shark and ray watching could bring significant Papua economic benefits to UK coastal communities New Guinea Andy Murch A joint study with La Universidad de la Laguna (Tenerife) shows that shark and ray watch- ing by divers is bringing millions of pounds into the Canary Islands economy every year. Leadingindependentthink-tank NEF (New Economics Foundation) said similar stories could be told in the United Kingdom if better conservation measures are put in place. This study reminds us that the exciting starting point to explore viewed stated a higher frequency marine environment is a key eco- the benefits for UK marine wildlife of shark and ray sightings would be nomic asset to countries such as tourism. Better conservation of the very beneficial for their businesses. the UK. Wildlife tourism in the UK marine environment will undoubt- Shark and ray watching by divers already brings millions to our local edly bring opportunities for UK brings in 17.7 million (14.5 million) economies but much of the marine coastal communities helping them to the Canary Islands each year. environment remains an untapped secure longer term income flows The United Kingdom has 21 types resource that needs to be looked and employment, he added. of sharks and 16 types of skates into in more detail, stated Aniol The study revealed diving com- and rays in its waters, including the Esteban, head of environmental panies on the Spanish mainland basking shark, which is the worlds economics at NEF. were missing out on the attraction second largest fish. Sharks and rays could be a very of sharks for divers, but those inter- White sharks making a Algae blooms damage sharks brains comeback off California Toxins produced by red inated water and food, such as A longstanding statewide ban tide events can alter shark shellfish, co-author Niladri Basu on fishing for white sharks, an explained to Discovery News, increased survival rate among brains, resulting in hyper- mentioning that the toxins can young white sharks because of excitability and even easily cross the sharks blood-brain fishing gear restrictions, and an Papua New Guinea death, according to a new barrier that otherwise protects the expanding sea lion population as is located in the study. brain. a prey source are chief reasons for Once inside the brain, bre- the comeback. coral triangle of Brevetoxins, which are brain- vetoxins bind very strongly to a Christopher Lowe, a professor marine biodiversity changing compounds synthesized protein that controls sodium flow, at Cal State Long Beach, who has by some harmful algal blooms, added Basu, an assistant professor performed extensive tagging of with the highest have now been shown to affect of environmental health sciences juvenile white sharks off Southern di diversity of tropical a free-ranging marine species. at the University of Michigan California in the United States and sh and coral in In this case, researchers focused School of Public Health. By dis- has pored over data dating back on lemon sharks, but they believe rupting sodium flow in the brain, generations, said personal obser- the world. many other types of sharks could nerve cells will over-fire and cause vations and increased incidental fall victim to the toxins. hyperexcitability and ultimately catch rates of small white sharks by Sharks are exposed via con- result in death. commercial fishermen help support sumption of brevetoxin-contam- Source: Aquatic Toxicology. his contention. www.pngdive.com 79 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

80 technical When combined with a poor choice of equipment placement matters or a lack of storage space, the diver can end up looking like a Even if you never plan to explore the far end of a cave or dive to 100m, there are still some aspects of techni- Christmas tree with pieces of equipment randomly clipped on cal diving kit configuration that would and dangling from every conceivable spot. benefit a recreational diver: Streamline your kit and elimi- Technical Diving Equipment nate any danglies. Ensure you have redundancy for any critical kit. Make sure you carry enough gas to deal with the worst case. Consider a long hose on either your octopus or your primary. The equipment used by techni- Over the years, recreational diving has source of air to the buddy, or in the case Redundancy Ensure your backup regulator is cal divers differs considerably developed a standard set of equipment of a problem with the main regulator. The key requirement for any technical always accessible. configuration. Despite different makes Additional equipment is often carried in diving configuration is that it provides If you have a single delayed sur- from that used by recreational and models there is a consistent set of the pockets of the BCD or clipped onto an adequate level of redundancy. face marker bouy, then make scuba divers. Even when it gear shared by the majority of recrea- it. Technical diving usually involves manda- sure it is orange or red. appears similar, the technical tional divers. Buoyancy control is usually tory decompression stops, and it may be diver will usually either carry provided by a jacket style buoyancy Technical divers have quite a different anything from a few minutes to a few compensator (BCD). The divers main set up designed to deal with a different hours before the diver is able to ascend Dont be a Christmas tree more equipment or configure cylinder contains the majority of their set of conditions to those experienced to the surface without risking decompres- By adding backups, the technical diver it slightly differently. In this arti- breathing supply, by the recreational diver. sion illness. In this case, the loss or failure ends up carrying significantly more cle, we will look at the different which is deliv- There are a wider range of any piece of vital equipment would equipment than the recreational diver. ered via a pri- of styles of equipment be a major problem. As a result, the If this is added in a haphazard way, or equipment configurations used mary regula- configuration, although technical diver looks to provide redun- without consideration of how the con- by technical divers, the rea- tor. A spare all of these dancy of equipment so that he can figuration will work as a whole, it is very son for those differ- regulator or styles have resolve equipment problems whilst still easy for the technical diver to become ences and also octopus is been completing the required decompres- overwhelmed with equipment. usually car- developed sion. Equipment that is required Many divers carry equipment just in whether there ried to to address for the safe completion of the case it is needed without ever thinking are any lessons provide the same dive should always have about what is really required. When com- recreational divers a key a backup. bined with a poor choice of equipment can learn from require- placement or a lack of storage space, ments. the diver can end up looking like a these configu- Tech gurus Christmas tree with pieces of equipment John rations. Chatterton randomly clipped on and dangling from and Richie every conceivable spot. Kohler This dangling equipment can intro- trying to duce a number of additional risks. Firstly disentagle the diver may have so much clutter that themselves when they need to get a specific item after a techni- of emergency equipment, they cannot cal dive find it amongst all the other equipment. Secondly, dangling kit may become lost, Ro caught in a piece of wreckage or entan- se mary gled in a line. E. Text by Mark Powell unL n 80 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

81 Be streamlined tech talk applied by the recreational diver Twins to ensure their kit is streamlines The use of a pony cylinder may and the Christmas tree effect is provide enough gas to allow an reduced. ascent from recreational depths, We all know that human beings but the volume of these cylinders are not designed to breathe is simply not enough to allow an underwater. For this reason, divers ascent plus decompression stops need to take their own breathing from greater depth. This means gas with them when they dive. that a pony cylinder is not suf- It is essential that enough gas is ficient redundancy for technical taken to complete the dive. For a diving. The use of twin cylinders recreational diver to run out of air or twinset is a way of providing is bad enough, but for a techni- this redundancy. cal diver, it is not an option. If a A twinset is usually made up recreational diver runs out of air of two identically sized cylinders on a no stop dive to 20m, they with a regulator connected to simply have to get to the surface. each cylinder. These can vary However, on a decompression in size. Twinsets comprising two dive where the diver may still 7l cylinders are popular with have 20 minutes of decompres- recreational divers who want to sion to complete, they are faced have additional redundancy, with the decision of staying down, but for technical diving, cylinders completing the decompression smaller than 10l do not provide a and drowning, or going to the sufficient volume of gas. Twinsets surface and risking decompres- made up of 12l, 15l, 18l or even sion sickness. This is a choice that 20l cylinders are available but, should be avoided by ensuring for the majority of that there is always a techni- cal divers, sufficient supply of twin 12l cylin- breathing gas. Vikki Batten ders provide a good balance of weight The other option is to manifold the and gas volumes. two cylinders together. This involves Twinsets can be configured as inde- connecting the two cylinders at the pendent or manifolded. Independent valves by means of a manifold. This cylinders provide complete redun- has the benefit that the gas from both dancy, as there is no link between the cylinders can be accessed from the two cylinders. Thus, if one cylinder has primary regulator. The disadvantage a problem, the other is completely is that, in the case of a problem, the A pony cylinder is not sufficient redundancy independent. However, as the two cyl- diver must shut down the problem for technical diving inders are independent, the diver has regulator, or isolate the two cylinders by to switch from one to the other in order means of a valve in the middle of the Streamline to balance the gas usage in the two manifold, otherwise the gas from both In order to avoid this Christmas tree cylinders. Whilst switching regulators cylinders will be lost. For this reason, it is effect, technical divers try to streamline should be easily within the skill set of a essential that a diver with a manifolded their equipment and the placement technical diver and should be a rou- twinset can carry out a shutdown to of it. Contents gauges are clipped on tine action, it can sometimes be for- prevent the complete loss of their gas. rather than allowed to hang down. Reels, gotten when the diver is in the middle Delayed Surface Marker Bouys (DSMBs) of a problem. and emergency equipment are stored in pockets rather than dangling on a In twinsets, the two cylinders are lanyard. The same principles can be often connected at the valves by means of a manifold 81 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

82 The first rea- Long hose hose is still useful, even in a long hose configura- in their mouth is the quickest way One of the most distinctive an open water environ- son for donat- tion even on a recrea- to calm them down. Another rea- aspects of a technical diving ment. ing the regu- tional single cylinder set son is that many people believe setup is the use of a long hose. If you try to ascend A typical recreational diver will while breathing off your lator in your up. that an OOA diver is more likely to take the regulator from your have their main regulator and buddys short hose, you mouth is that Which regulator? mouth rather than hunting around then an octopus regulator, will need to be very which can be donated to their close together. Sending you know this The long hose could go on the octopus, but for an octopus. The last reason is that technical buddy in case of emergency. up a DSMB, controlling regulator is most technical divers divers frequently carry multiple This octopus reg is often, but not the ascent and holding working. put the long hose on cylinders. These cylinders carry always, on a slightly longer hose a safety stop are much their primary regulator. gasses that are only breathable than the main regulator. more difficult when you This is because, in the at certain points of the dive. If Technical divers tend to use a are very close together and in case of an OOA, they would plan you breathe the gas at the wrong much longer hose, from 1.5m to each others faces. Combined to donate the regulator in their depth, then oxygen toxicity could 2m in length. There are a number with the stress of the initial OOA, mouth. This is not what the major- be a very real risk. We know that of reasons for this. When diving in this can be enough to turn a dif- ity of divers were taught in their the regulator in our mouth always an overhead environment, such ficult situation into a full blown entry level courses, so why should contains breathable gas, and so as a cave or inside a wreck, then incident. this method be adopted? by donating this regulator, we if one diver were to go out of air The long hose gives you the The first reason for donating the are ensuring that the OOA diver is (OOA), it may be difficult to swim space to perform all of these regulator in your mouth is that getting a safe source of gas. out whilst in the side by side posi- tasks with enough room to remain you know this regulator is working. ReSoRt SWS tion that a normal length octopus com- fortable and composed. The OOA diver will be under stress Bungee The winning combination would require. With a long hose, It is possible to use and putting a working regulator Of course, if we donate our regu- of maximum functionality and simplicity. the divers can be one in front of lator, then that leaves us with no the other and so can easily swim regulator. This is not a situation NewSWSweightpocketsystem through restrictions. Rich Walker (left) demonstrating the reach of the long that we want to be in for very toguaranteemaximumreliability andeasyuse. Of course, most recreational hose. In what is known as the Hogarthian configura long. If we now need to start ComfortableemergencyOctopus divers will never tion, it is the primary regular that is fitted with this long hunting around for our backup, slotdesignedtominimizevolume hose, which is routed around the head. The second- whilediving. go any- ensuring that we dont take a Collarwithsoftdrainingpadding where ary regulator is fitted with a normal length hose and deco gas regulator toensuremaximumcomfort. is suspended just below the chin on a bungy cord as near a by mistake, seen on author Mark Powell below. cave or See main text for then we any full explana- are just level tion mov- of ing the wreck prob- pene- lem tration along but a from long Seac. Discover a Wonderful World. 82 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILESSeac_TECNICO_2010_ENG_Resortsws_60x260.indd PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED 1 2-03-2010 11:09:1

83 tech talk Rosemary E. Lunn There is a GLOSSARY convention that says Back Gas The gas carried in your the OOA diver to ourselves. For this rea- wing provides the abil- that a red, main (back mounted) cylinders. son, the technical diver does not store ity to have increased or orange, delayed sur- his backup in his pocket, or clipped on buoyancy to offset Stage Cylinder a) In the United face marker somewhere on his chest, but instead, the twinset and also bouy (DSMB) Kingdom, a generic name for any he stores it on a bungee around his puts the buoyancy is used as the cylinder carrying additional gas to neck. This means that once they have in the same place as main one that in the main cylinder. donated their primary, it is just a ques- the twinset. This usually tion of ducking the head and putting makes the setup more Stage Cylinder b) In cave div- the bungied backup into their mouth. comfortable then a ing, a cylinder that is dropped or It is possible to use a twinset and BCD style configura- staged at a specific point in the long hose setup in conjunction with a tion. The harness also dive. As such, it could contain deco standard BCD style jacket, provid- reduces the amount of gas, travel gas or bottom gas. ing that the jacket is sturdy enough. equipment and clut- However, it is more ter that the diver Side Slung Another name for a common to use has on their front. stage cylinder, so called because it a twinset with a This is important is usually connected or slung on the wing style if we are trying divers side. BCD, to maintain a back- streamlined configu- Deco Gas The gas to be plate ration. When this type breathed during some of the and har- of setup is correctly con- pression, and there may even sion if a recreational diver has decompression stops and used to ness. figured it can be much be an additional gas that is a yellow DSMB, and so all the speed up the rate of decompres- The more comfortable than breathed during the descent. recreational diving agencies sion. The stage cylinder used to a single cylinder and These additional gases are through the British Diving Safety carry this may also be refered to as pony mounted on a BCD carried in what are typically Group have agreed that if rec- a deco cylinder. style jacket. known as stage cylinders. reational divers carry a single Technical divers will These are usually clipped into DSMB then this should be red or Travel Gas Gas that is used dur- often carry multiple gases, the divers chest and their waist orange rather than yellow. ing the descent if the back gas is for use on different parts and hang at their sides. The use of rebreathers has not breathable on the surface. The of the dive. One or more become very common in tech- stage cylinder used to carry this rich nitrox mixes are used Marker buoy nical diving but that is a sub- may also be referred to as a travel to speed up the decom- Amongst technical divers, ject for another article... cylinder. there is a convention that a red or orange DSMB is used as Mark Powell is one of the lead- Bottom Gas Sometimes the back Stage cylinders the main DSMB. They would ing technical diving instructors. gas in the twinset is not enough and also typically carry a spare Mark has been diving since an additional stage cylinder of the DSMB complete with spare reel 1987 and instructing since 1994. same gas is carried to breathe dur- or spool. In addition, most tech- He is a full time technical diving ing the bottom time portion of the nical divers also carry a yel- instructor for a number of the dive. The stage cylinder used to low DSMB. This is used to signal leading agencies and teaches carry this may also be referred to as that the diver has a problem all levels up to and including a bottom gas cylinder. and requires additional gas or Advanced Trimix. Mark has other help. Typically, this is sent led a number of expeditions Bailout Gas The gas carried by a up the same line as the main to various parts of the world rebreather diver in the event that DSMB and will often have a including the Middle East, they experience a problem with slate attached, which allows Costa Rica, Malta and the Red their rebreather. They would switch the diver to indicate what help Sea but is usually found diving onto this bailout gas and then con- they need. Of course, there is the wrecks around the coast of tinue the ascent breathing from the always the potential for confu- the UK. bailout cylinder(s). 83 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

84 turtle tales SHOOTOUT Sept 2 11 Australasia-wide RNA Showgrounds SHOWCASE Brisbane Brisbane Australia Australia (ODEX) Sept 30 Oct 2 Sept 30 Oct 2 Edited by Bonnie McKenna International Dive and Travel Resort Zone Australasia-wide underwater photo and video shootout in 25 countries... any dive site Marine Science and Conservation Hub ? Blue Edge - International Spearfishing Over US$100,000 in prizes and US$10,000 cash Sea turtles from the Gulf oil & Freediving Symposium Judges and Festival Celebrities include spill have been released in noaa fisheries / Marco Giuliano/ Fondazione Cetacea Various events and product trials at Neville Coleman, Mathieu Meur, Stephen Wong, Takako Uno, William Tan, Tim Rock, Florida 50m Try Dive Pool Bob Halstead, Tony Wu and many more Loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) Ocean Kids Foundation Charity Prize Raffle 10s of official Festival Fringe events all Two boats of wildlife rescuers released Seminars, workshops and presentations over Australasia 42 Kemps Ridley sea turtles, plucked Guana Research Reserve volunteers and staff track 5th Underwater Festival showcase of from the waters near the Deepwater Showcase of top 100 winning shots and Horizon oil spill, got a second chance. and protect sea turtles selected entries and short films videos at ODEX 2011 The releases, Floridas The Guana Research Reserve on Ponte Vedra Beach in Underwater Festival Awards & ODEX Party Awards Ceremony and Underwater Festival wildlife officials said, was Florida has been busy tracking and protecting loggerhead FREE entry for registered visitors Party at ODEX 2011 the largest number of res- sea turtle nests this nesting season. cued sea turtles returned Loggerhead turtles are the most common sea turtles in the Submerge your senses Where will YOU dive? to the Gulf of Mexico; area. Approximately 72 nests are recorded each year, but thus capping a remark- this year the number of nests has more than tripled. able journey of rescue Don Eastman, Guana Reserve biologist said, We may be and recovery. experiencing a baby-boom on our beaches. The juvenile turtles were Nesting season runs to the end of October. This season, rescued between June to date, records indicate more than 250 nests have been and August. Of the 42 counted along the seven-mile beach. turtles, 37 were victims of noaa The biologists believe that public education and making the oil spill, and the other Kemps Ridley sea turtle shrimpers use turtle excluder devices on their nets could be five were found stranded contributing to the increase in the number of nests. in Mississippi, but without oil on them. A cadre of 18 trained volunteers has been the key to the success More than 150 oil spill tur- of the research program. Volunteers not only adopt nests but also tles are still waiting to educate people on the beach and through a lecture series on www.oceaniadiveexpo.com www.underwaterfestival.org be released. how to protect sea turtles. Once at the SHOW ORGANISERS MAJOR SPONSORS MEDIA SUPPORTERS release site, the turtles were The forgotten flatback sea turtle each taken out of their crates, expedition and their tags recorded The Sea Turtle Restoration Project is working with activists before being in Australia to protect the little known flatback sea turtles dive in. explore. discover released. that live in the area of Western Australia known as the Kimberley. If you would like to receive some information, to volunteer or to discuss this exciting sea turtle and out- back adventure, contact Teri Shore at [email protected] file illustration 84 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

85 Choosing the almost black back- ground (in the image below) photo & allowed me to select the fish and isolate it from the background in post production on the computer video Edited by Peter Symes & Scott Bennett Field Work Text and photos by Lawson Wood www.lawsonwood.com Now, we have our camera and all of its ancillary added on bits. is a fair chance that you may get We have checked that every- caught up in one of the periodic thing works. We have our cho- hurricanes, which can sweep sen format decided. We have through the entire area. Typically, our laptop and portable hard hurricane season is from 1 June to 30 November. drive all packed up and ready There are similar seasonal activities to go on location, but where are destined to spoil your photography in we going and why go there in virtually every location on the planet. Plan any trip well in advance and the first place? you will not be disappointed. More often than not, it is pot luck Research at the end of the day and your own Getting to know your subject is perhaps conviction that you can get good easier than you think, however, we photographs from every dive. If the really do not have a whole lot of spare viz is bad, take close-ups. If daytime time underwater collecting knowledge conditions are terrible, dive at night. on our subject matter. Rather, we read One time, in the Red Sea, up everything that we can about any there were a simply staggering behavioural oddities; we talk to other amount of jellyfish. They covered photographers who have been to the the entire surface of the sea and location we have chosen; and we filled the water column for two research as much as possible, quite a lot days. Many people complained, of which can be found readily available but I concentrated on jellyfish on the Web. photographs! Timing isnt everything, so they say, but Pelagic fish and mammals also in underwater photography, timing is have seasonal migration routes. everything, whether it is the time of day, One can photograph humpback month, season or year. There are climatic whales in Rurutu in French Polynesia changes annually as well as water in October, or whalesharks in the temperature fluctuations. Some of the Seychelles in November, or leafy best diving to be done in the Caribbean, sea dragons in southeast Australia in for instance, is in August and September, February, or basking sharks in June in but it is blistering hot on shore, and there the Irish Sea and the Sardine Run off Juvenile Queen Angelfish (Holacanthus ciliaris), Cayman Brac, Cayman Islands 105mm lens, ISO 100, Sea & Sea YS180 flash, 1/125th second at F16 85 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

86 Christmas Tree Worm (Spirobranchus gigan- photo & teus), Cayman Brac, Cayman Islands video 60mm lens, ISO 200, Sea & Sea YS180 flash, 1/125th second at F16 silver BELOW: Divers at sand- bar off Grand Cayman South Africa in Februarythe list goes on. tail outfitted with outlandish, The point is that whatever your desire, incredibly vivid colours. someone will more than likely have been As you can imagine, such there before you, taken photographs a small colourful fish was also there, or even written a book. very timid. But after watching I once spent over 50 minutes in seven the fish and creeping closer, metres of water inside the crumbling armed with my trusty Nikon remains of a small shipwreck on the and 105mm lens, I was able northwest shore of Cayman Brac, in the to ascertain its swim pattern Cayman Islands. The wreck was a former where it would perform a inter-island landing craft by the name of figure eight and hide behind the Barbara Ann. Inside the stern section part of the old ships interior about three metres square, I found a mid journey. juvenile queen angelfish (Holacanthus I took a photograph, it ciliaris). It was around 3cm from head to darted for cover, but then started its normal route, so I took another photograph. It swam thought, sometimes getting too close to usually take two or three photographs for cover. But after a few more subjects and at other times not seeing at different angles before the creature photographs, it got used to me. I the big picture. You can only start to eventually withdraws, if at all. could soon anticipate its route and become more familiar with your subject Christmas tree worms are both light managed to take three or four matter if you can have some empathy and pressure sensitive and so must be absolutely great photographs of and understanding of the intrusion into approached slowly and with empathy, this shy and elusive fish. their personal space. as there may be only the one chance cinema of dreams Having such a nice and Humans are just the same in this of taking the photograph before they cooperative subject allowed respect. If a stranger gets uncomfortably retreat. me the time to choose my close, then we automatically back off Lawson was raised in the Scottish east backgrounds as I took the or turn and be prepared to fight. Our coast fishing town of Eyemouth and photographs. Choosing the almost adrenalin peaks, and it is the primeval spent his youth exploring the rock pools black background allowed me to fight or flight reflex. Well, apply this and shallow seas before learning to select the fish and isolate it from sentiment to the underwater world when scuba dive at the tender age of 11. Now the background in post production approaching a new subject for the first over 44 years later, Lawson has been on the computer. This clean image time. fortunate to make his passion his career could now be superimposed on The creature may be light or pressure and has authored and co-authored another photograph for instance or sensitive, such as Christmas tree worms over 45 books mainly on our underwater used as a graphic representation in (Spirobranchus giganteus), and you may world. Lawson is a founding member of a feature article. only get one chance at the photograph. the Marine Conservation Society; founder If you encounter this subject in calm of the first Marine Reserve at St. Abbs Empathy water with perhaps overcast skies, then in Scotland and made photographic No matter how we try to be when your flash fires, the worm instantly history by becoming the first person to invisible to our photographic disappears into its tube home in the be a Fellow of the Royal Photographic www. seacam.com subject, inevitably we are just those coral. Similarly, if you find these normally Society and Fellow of the British Institute big ugly, ungainly creatures that shy animals in well lit turbulent waters of Professional Photographers solely for blunder around without too much with perhaps some surge, you can underwater photography. 86 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

87 photo & Why Digital? video Fantasea FP7000 Housing for New Nikon Coolpix P7000! Fantasea Line has announced its new housing for the Nikons new Coolpix P7000 digital camera. Rated to a depth of 60m/200 feet, the FP7000 housing is manufactured to the highest profession- 10 Bar releases al standards of function, style and durability and is ideal for snorkellers and divers alike. Designed housing for to be compatible with a complete Accessory System, all controls are easily accessable and Sony NEX-5 labelled for comfortable operation. Also included is a special mount for lighting accessories, double O-ring seal, removable dou- 10 Barhas released a hous- ble fiber optic cable connection and removable ing for the Sony NEX-5 camera. flash diffuser. The robust construction is shock resis- Supplied with a standard dome tant and protects the camera from water, sand, port and lens ring, the housing dust, frost and other damaging elements. sports an aluminum front, acrylic The expected release date is set for early 2011. back, and is rated to a depth of Pricing has not yet been made available but 60m. Suitable for the Sony NEX other housings are in the US$100-$130 price range. 18-55mm lens, it features mechan- ical controls for all functions and will allow for TTL strobe exposure via fiber optic cables. www.10bar.com Sanyo Announces Full HD Dual Xacti Underwater Camcorder The newDual Camera Xacti is a full HD (1,920 x 1,080) camcorder that records MPEG4 video at depths of up to ten feet underwater. Weighing in at a mere five and a half ounces with dimensions of 3.37 by 1.47 by 4.34 inches, its compact size is a definite travel plus. It can record over 480 minutes of video in addition to 14-megapixel still photos.Other features include a CMOS sensor (14.4 megapixels), wide angle lens and a 5X optical zoom. The Xacti also offers a couple of pro- prietary features: a double-range zoom, which enables the use of a 12X zoom for wide angle to telephoto recording, as well as High-Speed Sequential Shooting, for up to 22 photos at seven frames per second. It is compatible with SD, SDHC and SDXC cards. List price: US$349.99 www.us.sanyo.com 87 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

88 photo & Light & Motion Releases video the Fathom Wetmate 65 Degree Wet Lens Light & Motion has announced the shipping release of the new Fathom Wetmate 65 degree wide angle lens. Utilizing a robust press-fit system with the flat- port, the Fathom Wetmate 65 is designed to fit all Inon X-2 Housing 2010 Sony Light & Motion underwater video housings. Engineereed with the highest quality glass on the for Panasonic market and boasting a low distortion rate of only 1.40 percent and a 50 percent Lumix GF1 zoom through rate, it can be instantly mounted and removed underwater for optimum one dive shooting Inon has released its X-2 housing for the versatility. Price: US$579.00 www. Panasonic Lumix GF1. The corrosion- uwimaging.com resistant body design is constructed from lightweight aluminum alloy. Featuring multi-coated lens port compatability, the housing features controls for almost every feature on the GF1, plus fiber optic bulkheads for external strobe sync. INON plans to support INON 45mm macro, 14-45mm, 7-14mm and 8mm fisheye lens- es. An optional leak sensor is also avail- able. www.inon.jp Nikon 24-70mm Coffee Mug Arrives Full High-Definition Underwater Camera For those Nikon users who just cant get enough of their lenses, Canon Mug has added a Nikon version to their popular line of mugs and thermoses. The Nikon AF-S 24-70mm 2.8 features a stainless steel Ocean Presence Technologies has interior and features a fully zoomable lens barrel. The black thermos announced the latest addition to its line-up coffee cup comes complete with a gold box and a drawstring bag of high-definition underwater cameras: the to carry it around in. A one-piece lens mug/barrel AquariCam OPT-12HD. This new Full HD combination retails for US$49.99. fixed lens camera comes with a120x opti- Sets of two, four and ten pieces cal/digital zoom and provides the highest are also avail- able. Just keep resolution available with a wide fixed lens. them away from your Designed for public aquariums, especially real lenses to avoid for use in small tanks, it enables visitors to unpleasant acci- simultaneously view the full high-definition dents. www.canon- live video stream. The AquariCam-HD can mugs.com cover a wide 50 degrees of monitoring area with great efficiency and features a 10x optical with an additional 12x digi- tal zoom. High-definition image sensors now make digital zooming practical without significant image quality loss. Cameras are connected using a single hPoE (High-Power-over-Ethernet, IEEE802.3at compliant) marine-rated cable. Underwater lighting, floating battery packs and wave generator power systems are also available. For more informa- tion on this and other HD-IP cameras, visit: www.oceanpresence.com 88 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

89 Dry shooting in wet places The newest underwater photo kit from Sea & Sea is almost like two products. First, theres the DC-GE5 12.5 megapixel digi-camera that is waterproof to 16 feet without the housing. Yet, the company is marketing it with a polycarbon- ate housing that allows full access to the cam- eras controls to a depth of 180 feet. Since it is waterproof, there is little worry about condensa- tion or minor flooding killing the camera in the housing. Outside of the housing, it withstands rain or sea spray while pursuing out- Focus on sharpness door activi- ties. The camera fea- Autofocus does fairly well for shooting on the fly, but to tures a 2.7- really get things just right there is nothing like manually inch liquid focusing the single-lens-reflex-style cameras in a hous- crystal diode display screen, four-power opti- ing. Sea & Sea has a new accessory to help discriminat- cal zoom and a lens that zooms from 38 to ing photogs fine-tune their images. The VF45 prismatic 152 millimeters. In macro mode, it focuses to viewfinder replaces the original housing viewfinder. It a mere 2.3 inches. Sensitivity can be set from eases focusing by providing 1.2 power magnification of ISO 64-3,200, and the shutter speeds range the entire viewfinder area. The angled eyepiece rotates from 1/2000th of a second to 30 seconds. It 360 degrees in 90-degree increments to it can be posi- can be used to shoot 30-frame-per-second tioned in the most comfortable position whether being movies and has built-in effects including used to shoot portrait or landscape images. The VF45 panoramas. Automatic face detection is made of an alu- minum alloy that has and image stabilization ease snapping been anodized for corrosion resistance. shots on the go. It has 16 megabytes of At 2.3 by 3.9 by 3.8 inches and internal memory and accepts SD/SDHC weighing less than 14 ounces, memory cards of up to 16 gigabytes. A it slips easily into lithium-ion battery and charger is packed the gadget bag. with the camera along with a USB cable The VF45 is cur- and Arcsoft editing software. The housing rently compatible weighs less than 14 ounces on land, but with the MDX series only 1.05 ounces underwater. An optional housings including accessory lens can be affixed while the MDX-7D, 5DMKII, underwater to shoot wide-angle images. D300s, D700, D300*, Grips were positioned on the housing 40D*, PRO D3*. *Requires to ease holding the unit and gaining LCD window be access to the controls. replaced, please con- www.seaandsea.com tact your retailer for parts information and availabili- The Photo & Video News is brought to you in part by ty. A release date is set for the Gear Check, compiled by Robert Sterner of Sterner Editorial Services. Suggest products to review and end of September with an MSRP read earlier Gear Check items by product catego- of $1,075.00. www.seaandsea.com ries at www.sternereditorial.com 89 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

90 Unique Dive Site The Rio Negros Amazons The Inia geoffrensis, more The pink dolphins flexibility is unique; appears to be black, but with a closer commonly known as the its spine allows it to perform impos- look, it is actually dark brown. This dark sible contortions compared to other color is due to the humic acid that pink dolphin, is nicknamed dolphins. Thanks to its flexible neck, forms due to the incomplete decom- locally as Boto and resides it can turn its head 180 degrees. The position of the phenol contained in in the waters of the Rio Negro. dolphins sight is quite keen, despite the vegetation of the sandy clearings. Although still poorly known, its small eyes. Its very sharp high-fre- Both rivers, the Rio Negro and the quency communication system allows Solimes, meet south of Manaus, the this species is considered the it to move in the Rio Negros dark capital of the Amazon. The Solimes most intelligent of the five waters and detect its prey. As with all source begins in Peru. Its waters are species of freshwater dol- dolphins, sound waves are emitted clearer (beige in color), and it is filled through air bags under the respira- with sediment. The meeting point of phins. The pink dolphin has a tory openings, albeit the pink dolphins the two rivers is a most impressive sight, melon-shaped head, a thick sound waves are amplified by the as they do not blend together. They and elongated back, a crest mass of fatty tissue found in its volumi- continue to run alongside one another instead of a dorsal fin, and nous melon-shaped head. While some for approximately forty kilometers (25 of the sounds it makes can be heard miles) before finally mixing. disproportionately large ven- by humans, most are inaudible due to This can be compared to a glass tral fins and tailall of which their high frequency. filled partially with water and partially making it less refined than the with oil. They simply do not blend. common dolphin. Yet, when The Rio Negro More surprisingly, the fish species liv- The source of the Rio Negro (Black ing in the respective rivers do not cross you see its agility and wild River) in Colombia, continuing its over onto the other side; they stop at grace underwater, it makes journey to Brazil, through the rich the border. Text and photos you think of the legendary Amazonian forest. Here, it converges This phenomenon, whereby the by Michel Braunstein with the Rio Solimes to form the waters do not mix, is due to several Amazons. Amazon. From afar, the Rio Negro factors: a difference in pH (potential Pink dolphin coming out of the dark (above); Sailing on the Rio Negro (top left) 90 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

91 feature Unique Dive Hunting dolphins (top right) Get this image on a new T-shirt at www.sharktees.com hydrogen) levels; the Rio Solimoes its behavior. often see it in areas where there is basic, whereas the Rio Negro The pink dolphin lives peaceful- is a great concentration of fish or is acidic in nature; and large ly alongside another species, the where the rivers converge. temperature differences, rang- Sotalia fluviatilis, or gray dolphin I was fortunate to see the dol- ing from 28C to 35C (82-95F) (gray dolphin enters the Amazon phins in the Rio Negro, near the in the Rio Negro River and a River from the sea). Ariau lodge, 60km from Manaus. much cooler Rio Solimoes with The pink dolphin has no natural There is a place where they fre- temperatures ranging from 20 to predators, except man, and is a quently visit and from which they 22C (68-72F). The last significant dreaded hunter. Piranhas fear it can be observed. If you are lucky difference is in the speed with because it feeds on them, as do enough, you can even get near which the rivers run. The Amazon the Pirarucuthe famous giant them and swim with them. This is flows at a speed of 8km per hour fishand the Cayman. It feeds a unique experience. It is impres- (5 miles per hour) and the Rio on catfish, various crustaceans sive to see these huge of 2.5- to Negro at 3km per hour (1.9 miles and other fish. 3-meter long animals come out per hour). The pink dolphin lives in the of the dark and move with amaz- Amazon basin. It can be found all ing agility, especially when hunt- Pink dolphin behavior the way up to Ecuador and Peru, ing. They are so fast in the water, During an expedition to the where it is called Bufeo colora- making it difficult for photogra- Amazon in 1992, the Cousteau do (colored dolphin). It can also phers to immortalize them on film. Society studied the pink dolphin. be found in the Orinoco basin, The origin of its color is not Thanks to the pink dolphins flexible neck, it Unable to isolate the animal in a where the Rio Negro source starts clear; it could be caused by the can turn its head 180 (top left) pool, they had difficulty analyzing (Colombia, Venezuela). You may capillaries under its skin. Some of Feeding the dolphins (above and bottom left) 91 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

92 feature Unique Dive the botos can also be pale blue but the dolphins of the Amazon hes never stopped taking or even albino. are definitely important for the underwater pictures, first with The pink dolphin is very active regional ecosystem. It is man- the Nikonos V, and today, with a in the local mythology; some datory that we look after them DSLR. Recently, Braunstein start- native tribes of the Amazon wor- because of their vital position at ed an exceptional scuba t-shirts ship it, while others think of it as the heart of the planets lung. website at www.sharktees.com. the devil and hunt it. The gray Michel Braunsteins passion To see more photography by dolphin is usually considered for the sea was born when he Braunstein, visit: www.braunstein. as sacred. A traditional myth was a child watching Jacques co.ila website which won the of the Amazon tells us that the Cousteaus movies. At 20, he prize for best promotional web- pink dolphins emerge out of the started diving and doing under- site at Antibes World Festival of water come nightfall, transform water photography. Since then, Underwater Pictures in 2007. into handsome young men and seduce the young women. They then resume their original shape and return to the river early in the morning. Threatened status A mere 20 years ago, the spe- cies was not threatened by extinction. However, its popula- tion is decreasing significantly due to intensive fishing, defores- tation, forest fires, destruction of the habitat (dams, agriculture, construction), extermination by fishermenwho are angry TOP TO BOTTOM: Swimming with pink dolphins because dolphins destroy fishing in the Rio Negro; Piranha fish fear pink dol- netsriver pollution due to raised phins because they feed on themtherefore mercury levels, fishing methods there is no danger to humans from piranha using explosives and overpopu- fish when swimming where the dolphins are lation. TOP TO BOTTOM: The pink dolphin sports a crest instead of a dorsal fin; circling; Dolphins circle around the fishermens The pink dolphins flexibility is uniqueits spine allows it to perform impos- To date, no one knows exactly nets; At night in the Rio Negro, a speeding sible contortions compared to other dolphins; Splendid botos are very cayman alligator also fears the pink dolphin how many specimens still exist, important in keeping the balance of the regional ecosystem 92 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

93 Caelum Mero P O R T F O L IO 93 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

94 portfolio Text edited by Gunild Symes All images by Caelum Mero Underwater fash- ion photogra- pher, Caelum Mero of Australia, has developed a unique personal style that is fun, fabulous and poet- ic. He invites us into an underwater realm of mystery, magic and grace. X-RAY MAG s Gunild Symes caught up with him to find out the story behind his inspira- tion. PREVIOUS PAGE: Clowning Around. This image took ages to pro- duce, said Mero. Its ac- tually one clown. I created a seperate layer, horizon- tally reversed the original image and pasted it down to make it appear like two clowns. GS: Tell us about yourself, why you marine biology and a friend of mine (who happened started creative work with the started to really get to be a Swedish model) to pose subject matter and medium into diving. Once I was for me underwater. This was done you have choosen, and what accepted into post graduate purely to satisfy my cravings for inspired you to become an artist research for university, I was no underwater photography. But and fashion photographer. longer able to dive as much as soon enough I was hooked on the I was used to, and it started to creative aspect of this new style CM: My foray into underwa- drive me crazy! Luckily, the apart- of photography, and I soon real- ter photography began during ment I was living in had a pool, ized that it wasnt necessarily the university where I was studying and so I managed to convince diving I was missing but rather it This image entitled, Wildlocks, was produced for a hair salon. Fake dreadlocks are pinned to the models with hundreds of bobby pins. It was a nightmare to work with, said Mero. ABOVE: Mero used two off camera flashes synced via fibre optics to wash out the bottom half of the image in white 94 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

95 portfolio All images produced with a Nikon Mero D90, Ikelite Housing, Ds 51 strobes, Ds 125 Strobes, Tokina 10-17mm, Nikon 12-24mm, Nikon 60mm This poor model had Mero used a some heavy duty scuba tank on makeup applied to the bottom of the produce the colours pool with some scene here, said pantyhose over Mero. The makeup the nossle to pro- artist left before giv- duce these fine ing him the product to microbubbles remove it. Apparently, he was coloured like Food dye in a that for a few days. bath tub (below) was the photography. as a fashion photographer Before long, I was shooting two to came purely from trial, error three times a week in the pool and and a healthy dose of obses- constantly practicing and learning new sion. I would constantly read techniques. Getting into fashion pho- and review prominent fashion tography was just a natural extension photographers works and of what I was already doing. Fashion techniques. photography is brilliant, as it allows you My own personal style is to combine the technical aspects of still developing and definitely photography with no hindrance on your not cemented yet. Im con- own personal creativity. stantly evolving the way I shoot, and Im currently work- From an artistic point of view, I would GS: What was your training and educa- ing on a new major body of work at the have to say that I draw a great deal of tion as an artist and fashion photogra- moment. inspiration from Salvador Dali. I believe pher and how did you develope your My photography role model has to that the underwater world can be used personal style? Do you have any role be the technically flawless Howard to generate some stunning surrealist models, artistic, cultural or political influ- Schatz. His work is always an inspiration photography. ences? to view, and I often find myself check- ing out his work before a big shoot to GS: Tell us about your artistic method... CM: My own training and education help me focus. what is your process, how do you 95 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

96 portfolio Mero FAR LEFT: A complicated shot actually taken at a horizontal plane and flipped into a vertical shot. The fake eye lashes were a night- mare to work with, said Mero. LEFT: This shot was great fun to produce, said Mero. We used a vari- ety of costumes to get the right look for the umbrella. The lights above the pool gave the water the lovely orange tones you can see. ABOVE: Two off camera strobes were used to illuminate this model from below. The hardest part was finding a good dress that would suit the image, said Mero. spots and what Island in the Great Barrier Reef, where I most inspires you spent two months researching my hon- about the under- ours thesis. choose a subject and compose a water world and the oceans? The most inspirating aspect of the shot? underwater world is its dynamic nature. CM: The underwater world has been Everything is constantly in motion and CM: Thats a complicated question! such a major part of my life for the changing. To capture this on film is such Well first and foremost, I always look for last six years. I studied marine biol- a brilliant challenge. and examine the natural light at my ogy, worked as a marine biologist, location. I believe firmly in using natural researched marine biology and then GS: What are your thoughts on art and light for underwater fashion photog- became a full time underwater pho- marine conservation? How do you see raphy. For the artistic side of things, tographer. Every day, Im either in the them influencing one another, you and I tend to find my subjects and ideas water, editing photos from the water or your audience? in very odd and peculiar locations. I planning a shoot in the water. spend so much time underwater, that I My favourite spots are the cold, CM: If you can produce an art piece often find myself wondering how peo- remote, hard to get to and almost that conveys a messagewhether it be ple and objects would look floating untouched dive sites that you can find about the beauty, rarity or plight of our around in a pool! along the ruggard coastline of Victoria, oceansthen youre directly impacting Australia. Some of these sites are only marine conservation. GS: Tell us about your experience under dived a few times a year. A place that I originally started underwater pho- the waves. Where are your favorite is also particularly special to me is Lizard tography to raise awareness about my 96 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

97 BELOW: This image was portfolio OUR NEXT ISSUE hard to produce, said Mero. Mero I had to get the model to pretend she was holding a ball of light underwater, and then I added it in later in Photoshop. NOVEMBER 2010 Happy Diving! andy murch andrea ferrari eric hanauer andrea ferrari This image has been flipped upside down, said Mero. The model jumped in and slowly floated to the surface, which is when I captured this image. RIGHT: Bath tub and food dye local marine ecosystems, which none of communicate and convey a sense of era and lighting the local public seemed even remotely feeling and emotion... or sometimes just effects. I leave aware about. I was determined to bring a random idea. Its the communication the creative com- back meaningful and beautiful images behind art that makes it so important. position up to the from these unknown ecosystems. The concept behind an image doesnt students. I try to need to be obvious or uniform, it can be give them the tools GS: Why art? Why is art important? totally ambiguous, but as long as each necessary for them viewer draws their own conclusion about to go out and CM: I produce art because if I dont, it the image, than its a successful art build upon their eric hanauer slowly drives me mad! I have all these piece in my opinion. own ideas. The last ideas running around in my head, and thing I want to do from the staff at X-RAY MAG if I dont try and photograph them, they GS: When you teach workshops, what is is dictate to a stu- never seem to go away. I tried drawing, your focus or mission or point of view you dent what good painting and a few other mediums, and like to share with students? composition is Subscribe now FREE! photography is the only artistic medium without taking into www.xray-mag.com that really allowed me to produce the CM: I mostly focus on the practical account their own creativity and opinion For more information and to order ideas that I have, effectively. side of photography and try to teach on good photography. prints directly from the artist, visit: Arts importance lies in its ability to students how to achieve various cam- www.calmerophotography.com 97 X-RAY MAG : 38 : 2010 EDITORIAL FEATURES TRAVEL NEWS EQUIPMENT BOOKS SCIENCE & ECOLOGY EDUCATION PROFILES PORTFOLIO CLASSIFIED

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