Armin Wolf Mapping Homer's Odyssey - Research Notebooks

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1 A r m i n Wolf Mapping Homer's Odyssey Abstract Homer's Odyssey should be seen as one of the very oldest subjects for historical maps, since Ortelius included this topic -besides a map of the journeys of St Paul and Aeneas- in his Parergon, late in the 16 t h century. From then until now more than 30 attempts have been made to trace the journey of Ulysses on a map. Among the authors were translators of the Odyssey (Johann Heinrich Voss, Samuel Butler, Victor Brard), other classical scholars (Germain, Moulinier, Pocock), archaeologists (Drpfeld), historians of geography (Forbiger), geographers (Herrmann), cartographers (Spruner), historians (Wolf) and sailors (Bradford, Severin), as well as scientists (von Baer), jurists (Steuerwald), ethnologists (Pellech) and amateurs. Some of the maps can be discussed as serious attempts at reconstruction while others are merely odd, taking Ulysses to, for instance, Florida or China. Some of the maps used geographical maps of their own time, others drew more or less imaginary maps trying to reconstruct the world of Homer. The paper is based on a collection of such maps gathered over the last 40 years. Fundamental problems of tracing Homer's Odyssey are raised. In the two books, which I have published on Homeric geography (Die wirkliche Reise des Odysseus. Zur Rekonstruktion des Homerischen Weltbildes, 3 r d ed. 1990, Hatte Homer eine Karte?, 1997) I have developed a new method of reconstructing the Homeric world. This paper analyses the different types of other attempts to map Homer's Odyssey. Over the last forty years I have collected in all roughly 80 theories on the geography of Homer's Odyssey. About 30 of them were illustrated by maps. Only these are the basis of my present article, but within this small space I can do no more than classify various types of these maps and present the most important ones in detail. 1 In antiquity there existed various identifications of the places of the adventures of Ulysses, but no original map has been Institute for Neohellenic Research N.H.R.F. Eastern Mediterranean Cartographies Tetradia Ergasias 25/26 (2004) p. 309-334

2 ARMIN W O L F preserved. Nevertheless, the Geographia of Ptolemy m e n t i o n s some of these names Lotophagitis, Circaeum Promontorium, Sirenusae insulae, Scylaeum Promontorium) and, like other places, it gives their longitude and latitude. And w h e n , in the 15 t h a n d 16 th century, Ptolemaean maps w e r e drawn, these places w e r e s h o w n in Africa, near Terracina in Latium, off the coast of Campagna, and in the Straits of Messina. fig. 1: Abraham Ortelius, "The Wanderings of Ulysses" (Antwerp, 1597)- The oldest k n o w n map of the wanderings of Ulysses was the work of the cartographer and humanist Abraham Ortelius in 1597; it was included in his Parergon,2 a work that accompanied his atlas. It can be said that this map of the Odyssey was -along with the maps of the voyages of Aeneas and the voyages of St. Paul- one of the first maps, if not the very first, of a particular historical subject. Ortelius chose the places he showed as the sites of the adventures of Ulysses from the various identifications that he found in ancient authors. For instance, in identifying Scheria, the land of the Phaeacians, with Corcyra, the northernmost of the Ionian Islands, he followed a legend mentioned by Thucydides. 3 310

3 MAPPING H O M E R ' S ODYSSEY Ortelius's m a p also included Ogygia, Calypsonis habitaculum. According to Homer, the isle of Calypso was situated west of Scheria. 4 There is a difficulty, however: n o such island exists west of Corcyra. Hence Pseudo-Skylax (before 338 B.C.) and Pliny believed in a non-existent island of Calypso in the Ionian Sea off Cape Lakinion near Croton in Southern Italy. 5 Not doubting the ancient identification of the h o m e of the Phaeacians in Corcyra, Ortelius thus followed this ancient emergence of the island of Ogygia near Croton. This imaginary island of Calypso off the coast of Calabria had a long life. It still appears in serious atlases of the 19 th century like those of Kutscheit in 1844 and of Philips around I860. 6 Even in 1982, Lunetto Vercillo still tried to locate this non- existent island in a sand-bank 420 by 90 m e t r e s in size, 2 or 3 metres below sea level. 7 O n e might well w o n d e r , however, w h y Ulysses m o u r n e d for eight years on this shoal instead of crossing the 200 metres to the coast of m a i n l a n d Italy. The French geographer Pierre Duval, in 1677, has the credit for being the first to try to m a p not just the places of the various adventures of Ulysses, but his w h o l e itinerary. 8 This led, however, to various difficulties: in order to m a k e Ulysses reach the non-existent isle of Calypso off the coast of Calabria, Duval changed not only the facts of geography, but also the text of Homer. Duval left out the second passage of Ulysses through the Straits of Scylla and Charybdis (Messina), although H o m e r explicitly says that Ulysses, after his shipwreck, was driven back through the terrible Charybdis from south to north, 9 that is into the Tyrrhenian Sea and not into the Ionian Sea. A t h i r d stage in m a p p i n g the Odyssey was achieved by J o h a n n Heinrich Voss, the author of the most popular German translation of Homer. He added not only notes on the geography of the Odyssey, but also a map, published for the first t i m e in his second edition of the epic in 1793 and revised in the edition of 1806. 10 In contrast to Ortelius and Duval, Voss did not use a m a p of his o w n time, but d r e w the "Homeric World" in a circular form, distorting the actual coastlines, and even inventing non-existent n e w ones. While Greece and the eastern 311

4 ARMIN WOLF fig. 2: Pierre Duval, "The Map of the navigation of Ulysses" (Paris, 177X HOJIEMSCHE W 1 T I A F E I fig. 3: Johann Heinrich Voss, "Homeric World Table" (Altona, 1793, revised version: Tbingen 1806, Greek translation: Athen, 1813). 312

5 MAPPING H O M E R ' S ODYSSEY Mediterranean are d r a w n fairly realistically, further west w e can only say that H o m e r ' s Thrinakia m o r e or less resembles Sicily, and that all the rest is imaginary geography. The itinerary itself is a chaotic w a n d e r i n g around, backwards and forwards. The island of Aeolus even occurs twice o n the map, as Voss believed it had m o v e d from o n e place to another after Ulysses had left it for Ithaca before being driven back there by a storm. Voss's circular m a p had great influence and was copied several times, as in Greek (1813). It u n d e r w e n t several variations throughout the 19 th century, but also in the 20 t h . 1 1 Among these maps the one produced by the historical geographer Albert Forbiger, in 1842, was the closest to the Homeric text, 12 although h e did not try to draw the path of the route b e t w e e n the various places of the itinerary. O n e strange variant of Voss's m e t h o d of mapping the Odyssey included a hypothetical seaway from the w e s t e r n Mediterranean through Italy and the Balkans (with Ogygia, the isle of Calypso) into the Black Sea (with Circe and the Cimmerians). The first author to d r a w a m a p of this k i n d was William E. Gladstone, the later British Prime Minister, w h o published it in 1858. 1 3 Others d r e w maps on this model, among t h e m the Baltic scientist Karl Ernst von Baer in 1873 Von Baer, however, omitted the Ocean surrounding the w h o l e w o r l d and while Gladstone left southern Italy (Apulia and Calabria) undisturbed, for v o n Baer the w h o l e of Italy and Sicily became a p h a n t o m , represented only by dotted coastlines. On the other hand, mindful that h e was a subject of the Russian Empire h e entered the real coastlines of the Black Sea and the Crimea. All the same, he still supposed that the ship of Ulysses crossed, without any problem, the w h o l e of the Balkans in b o t h directions. 1 4 Von Baer was an outstanding embryologist, but was clearly not so good at cartography. The English translator of the Odyssey Samuel Butler in 1897 had the precociously m o d e r n idea that H o m e r was a w o m a n . In Homeric cartography h e reverted to a realistic map. 1 5 In contrast to those w h o believed that H o m e r had little or n o knowledge of Sicily, Butler claimed that this was w h e r e almost 313

6 ARMIN W O L F fig. 4: William E. Gladstone, "Map of the Outer Geography of the Odyssey" (Oxford, 1858). 314

7 MAPPING H O M E R ' S ODYSSEY all the adventures of Ulysses took place. Butler r e m o v e d even Ithaca from the Ionian Islands, and placed the h o m e of Ulysses at Trapani at the w e s t e r n point of Sicily. Butler's theory was restated, though altered in some details, in 1957 by the New Zealand classicist Lewis G. Pocock. 1 6 O n e year after Butler's work, in 1898, an anonymous author - w i t h the so far unsolved p s e u d o n y m Eumaeus- maintained that Ulysses had circumnavigated the w h o l e of Africa and had even discovered America. 1 7 The author was the first to use the ocean currents to trace the route of Ulysses. This little b o o k is extremely rare and the only k n o w n copy is in the British Library. Although w r i t t e n as though it was to be taken seriously, it seems to b e a satire o n the successive w e i r d attempts to map the Odyssey. fig. 5: Eumaios, "Ulysses as circumnavigator of Africa and discoverer of America" (Leipzig, 1898). 315

8 ARMIN W O L F Nevertheless, in 1925, even the distinguished archaeologist Wilhelm Drpfeld, d r e w a map of Homer's world in w h i c h Ulysses reached not only Tunisia (Lotos-Eaters, Cyclops) and Italy (Thrinakia), but also the southernmost point of Africa w h e r e he located the port Telepylus in the land of the Laestrygonians and -like Eumaios- "Aiaia," the island of Circe. 1 8 In I926 Albert H e r r m a n n , a professor of geography at Berlin, published two different maps, distinguishing b e t w e e n the original w a n d e r i n g s of Ulysses and the H o m e r i c world of some centuries later. For the first he d r e w a realistic m a p of the Mediterranean b e t w e e n Tunisia (with the Lotos-Eaters, the Cyclops and the Phaeacians), Lampedusa (Thrinakia) and Greece. His second map, of the H o m e r i c world, followed Voss in its circular form and Gladstone and v o n Baer in the hypothetical seaway from the west through the Balkans n o r t h of Greece to the isle of Circe a n d the Sirens in the Black Sea, and Scylla a n d C h a r y b d i s in t h e B o s p h o r u s . The Cyclops, Laestrygonians, and Cimmerians lived at the fringe of a land on the i n n e r side of the surrounding circular Ocean. 1 9 On the other hand, in 1927-29 the distinguished French classicist, editor and translator of the Odyssey, Victor Brard, published several serious books on the voyages of Ulysses 20 w h i c h h e located in the seas around Tunisia and Italy. His m a i n innovation was an island near Gibraltar, in w h i c h h e saw Ogygia, the island of Calypso. Brard's map, based on real geography, was widely disseminated, not only in French school- books, but also abroad. Brard was the first of these scholars to have travelled himself to all these places and in 1933 h e even published an album of photographs. 2 1 However, despite all his erudition, there are several weaknesses in his theory. We need m e n t i o n only two. Maintaining the identification of the isle of Aeolos w i t h the volcano Stromboli, Brard had to omit the fact that, according to Homer, Ulysses reached Ithaca directly from Aeolus w i t h a westerly w i n d , and was driven back from Ithaca straight to Aeolus - w h i c h could not have b e e n Stromboli, since Italy lies between Ithaca and the Lipari Islands. Again, Brard placed the isle of the Sirens near Naples and asked himself h o w 316

9 MAPPING H O M E R ' S ODYSSEY fig 6: Victor Brard, "Itinerary of Ulysses in the two seas, the Western and the Eastern Mediterranean" (Paris, 1933)- far it would be from there to Messina w i t h the Straits of Scylla and Charybdis; he expressed surprise, k n o w i n g that H o m e r described this distance as a matter of few hours. But instead of doubting his o w n identification of the isle of the Sirens, h e blamed Homer for being "extremely inexact." 2 2 In contrast to Brard, but following in part the 19 th century model of Gladstone and v o n Baer, the French scholar Gabriel Germain in 1954 devised a "scheme of the navigations of Ulysses," d i s t i n g u i s h i n g sharply b e t w e e n the "monde gographique" (restricted to Greece, Turkey, and Egypt) and the surrounding entirely non-geographic w o r l d w h e r e most of the voyages and adventures of Ulysses took place. 2 3 A sort of a c o m p r o m i s e b e t w e e n Brard and Germain was offered by the French scholar Louis Moulinier in 1958. He extended the real coastlines from Greece to eastern Sicily (Thrinakia, Charybdis, Cyclops), southern Italy (Sirens, Scylla), Corsica (Laestrygonians), and Cyrenaica (Phaeacians). The other coastlines, represented by dotted lines, belonged to an imagined world, w h i c h allowed, for instance, a seaway from the region of Marseilles across the Alps and the Balkans to the Black Sea. Like H e r r m a n n , Moulinier saw in the Odyssey a "double gographie," m a k i n g a distinction b e t w e e n the pre-Homeric geography of the old legends of Ulysses, and the H o m e r i c geography of the poet's 317

10 ARMIN W O L F o w n time. However, Moulinier maintained that "Homer really w a n t e d to localize the episodes of the Odyssey." 2 4 After World War II several maps placed the Odyssey in the Atlantic and North Sea all the way up the British Isles to Iceland and Norway. The Swiss Wil, in 1950, opted for the North Sea and b e y o n d to the Faeroe Islands and Iceland, 2 5 the German editor Otto Zeller, in 1959, for the Straits of Gibraltar, the Azores, Norway and Heligoland. 2 6 Zeller avoided drawing the actual route because this would show that the e n o r m o u s distances he proposed cannot correspond to the relatively short distances in Homer. Gilbert Pillot, a Frenchman, in 1969, claimed to have discovered "a secret message in the Odyssey" seeing in it an itinerary over the Atlantic Ocean to Madeira, the Canary Islands, Iceland a n d the British Isles. 2 7 Karl Bartholomus, professor of archaeogeodesy, in 1977, tried to prove by astronomical calculations that the track from Calypso to the Phaeacians must lead from the Azores to Heligoland. 2 8 The German high judge Hans Steuerwald, in 1978, sent Ulysses to Cornwall and Scotland. He explained that the w i n e produced on the isle of Circe - w h i c h according to h i m corresponds to one of the H e b r i d e s - was Scotch whisky. 2 9 The nuclear engineer Felice Vinci from Rome, in 1998, located the places of the Odyssey o n the coasts b e t w e e n Denmark, Iceland and the White Sea. He argued that m a n y Greek towns like Athens, Thebes and others w e r e originally situated in Scandinavia and that the Greeks had brought these place-names -as well as the legends of Ulysses- from the North to the Mediterranean w h e n they w a n d e r e d to Greece in the 2 n d m i l l e n n i u m B.C. 30 Others confined themselves to the Mediterranean traditions. Ernie Bradford, in 1963, followed various traditional identifications of names in the Odyssey with places in the Mediterranean but enlivened them with his nautical experiences as a former officer of the British navy. 31 Mauricio Obrgon, rector of the University of the Andes in Bogota, Colombia, (1971) used an aeroplane to follow the routes in the Mediterranean, including Cyprus as the supposed Island of the Phaeacians. 32 A fascinating adventure was u n d e r t a k e n by Tim Severin, the 318

11 MAPPING HOMER'S ODYSSEY experienced Irish sailor, w h o had already followed the tracks of St. Brendan i n a leather boat o n t h e North Atlantic a n d t h e voyage of the Argonauts i n a copy of a Bronze Age boat through the Black Sea. With t h e same galley for 20 oarsmen h e started, in 1985, from Troy to find t h e track w h i c h a p r u d e n t sailor of the time of Ulysses would have taken to Ithaca. 3 3 His "logical route" led from Cape Mala to Cyrenaica, then to Crete a n d u p the w e s t e r n coast of Greece. According to Severin, some h u n d r e d years after Ulysses, w h e n H o m e r "was assembling t h e amalgamated version of the story" t h e Greeks sailed westwards, founded their colonies i n Sicily a n d southern Italy, a n d located their folktales there. "Magna Grecia is precisely w h e r e they applied t h e tales to local features i n their n e w homes." 3 4 Map The Odyssey's World: Myth and Geography in the Wanderings of Ulysses Tr> raid Egypi and Levari and then back to Spana Area of 'Ionien Tales'- Ulysse with singte ship Route of Ulysses' Squadron fig 7: Tim Severin, Route of King Nestor _ . _ Route of King Menelsus "The Odyssey's World" (London, 1987). 319

12 ARMIN W O L F While Tim Severin's travel w i t h his boat around Greece resulted in the shortest reconstruction of the Odyssey, other authors developed fantastic routes across the world's oceans. According to Henriette Mertz from Chicago, (1964) the currents of the Atlantic led Ulysses to the Sirens in Haiti and Cuba, then far to the n o r t h to Homer's Island of the Sun b e t w e e n Nova Scotia and Newfoundland in eastern Canada, over the Atlantic to Calypso's cave on the Azores and back again to America to the country of the Phaeacians in Florida. 3 5 The German sinologist H u b e r t D a u n i c h t , in 1971, i d e n t i f i e d s o m e of Ulysses' adventures w i t h Chinese fairy tales and then supposed that the events of the Odyssey took place in China, Korea and Japan. 3 6 The climax of theories of this k i n d was reached in 1983, by the Viennese ethnologist Christine Pellech w h o argued that Ulysses had sailed right around the world. She saw n o difficulty in Ulysses taking only 7 days to r o w from the Mediterranean to Norway, and then in a single day the w h o l e way from Norway to Canada. She implied that Ulysses had discovered the Straits of Magellan and Australia! 37 Because of the considerable differences b e t w e e n all these theories and their often bizarre identifications of places m a n y scholars suppose that H o m e r did not refer to real geography at all, and that the places of the Odyssean adventures lie in the realm of poetry or the sea of fantasy. The famous H o m e r i c scholar Moses I. Finley m a i n t a i n e d that H o m e r had only incorrect and confused information on Italy or Sicily. 38 Thus, in 1982, the National Geographic Magazine published a map of the "World of H o m e r " w h i c h was exact for Greece and the eastern Mediterranean, but w h i c h to the west of Greece scattered the locales of Ulysses' adventures wholly at r a n d o m in a sea of the imagination w h i c h omitted Italy as well as Sicily. The m a p does not even show an itinerary of Ulysses. If it did, o n e would w o n d e r w h y h e after all had to pass through the dangers of Scylla and Charybdis. On this m a p Ulysses could have easily circumnavigate either one. This is inconsistent, even for the m a p of a fairyland. 32(1

13 M A P P I N G HOXMER'S O D Y S S E Y Hippomolgi L /, ., Bu-. ' ;s?'e*

14 ARMIN W O L F paper, based solely on the nautical information (winds, stars, currents, time of travel) given by Homer himself, forgetting all ancient authorities, local traditions or former theories. Information technology experts call a scheme of this kind a planar graph. The difficulty in identifying the places in the Odyssey, so far, was that Homer does not give both time and direction for all twelve of the distances. But in the geometrical construction of ,"io"- C1YM0 MOM T*of 1 Vf weit '

15 MAPPING H O M E R ' S ODYSSEY a triangle one does not need to k n o w all three sides and all three angles: 50 % of the information is sufficient to define the triangle. This makes it possible to reconstruct a theoretical voyage. Secondly I projected this geometrical reconstruction onto the nautical m a p west of Greece. Now w e could c o m p a r e H o m e r ' s descriptions of the various places w i t h reality. We did not look all over the w o r l d for the excellent harbour w i t h a steep quay and a high castle, m e n t i o n e d by Homer; w e had to look only w i t h i n a small area, defined by the planar graph. This way we can get the answer. If there is n o correspondence with geographic reality the fantasy-theory has been proved. If, however, there is significant correspondence with the real coastlines, currents, mountains, harbours, volcanoes, archaeological sites etc., Homer must have been referring to those places. In fact, the result of this procedure is a voyage from Troy and Cape Mala to Tunisia, Malta, right round Sicily and across Italy. 39 But I have to modify this conclusion. This can hardly have been the route of Ulysses, since Homer lived 400 years later. It is the route which Homer believed Ulysses had taken. Thus it was Homer in the 8 t h century B.C. w h o was the first w e k n o w w h o tried to locate the places in the Odyssey. Hence, w h e t h e r or not they had really been visited by Ulysses, Homer's text contains the very first verbal sources for the coasts and lands he describes, several centuries before the next records that are preserved from Tunisia, Malta, Sicily and Italy. In fact, H o m e r could well have k n o w n these coasts, as they are identical w i t h the coasts in the west visited and settled by the Greek traders and colonists of his time. H o m e r describes all three routes between the western and the eastern Mediterranean: through the Straits of Tunis, through the Straits of Messina, and overland across Italy. These three routes correspond to the routes of the three Greek tribes w h o traded and settled in the west: the Dorians w h o tried to control the route southwards around Sicily, but w h o came into conflict w i t h the Phoenicians w h o dominated b o t h sides of the Straits of

16 ARMIN WOLF fig. 10: Armin and Hans-Helmut Wolf, "Homer's geography according to the four accounts of Ulysses" (Tbingen I968; Karlsruhe, 1997)- Tunis, the Ionians who controlled the Straits of Messina, and the Achaeans who founded their colonies on both sides of the southern Italian peninsula and carried their wares overland. The right-hand side of the map includes the so-called lying tales describing fictitious voyages of Ulysses to real places in the eastern Mediterranean. Together with the "real" voyage attributed to Ulysses in the west they represent the whole geographic world of Homer. It stretched not only eastward, but to the same extent also to the west. It would take a longer work than this to explain all twelve staging-posts of the Odyssey, but I want to show briefly how the difficult problem of the Phaeacians has been solved. To find the country of the Phaeacians, authors have so far had to alter either Homer's text or the facts of geography. In fact it is not necessary to do either. The problem of Scheria (), the country of the Phaeacians, lies in its relation to Scylla and Charybdis which have been placed since antiquity in the Straits of Messina. 40 According to Homer, Ulysses had to cross the Straits twice, the first time from north to south, and then, after his shipwreck, from south to north: a "wind from the south" forced him "to run the gauntlet 324

17 MAPPING H O M E R ' S ODYSSEY of the dread Charybdis once more." 4 1 The land of the Phaeacians then was reached n o r t h of the Straits. The Phaeacians, however, conveyed Ulysses h o m e without passing through the Straits a fig. 11: Calabria, Magna Grecia, Scheria, the country of the Phaeacians, compared with a dipylon-shield (8th century B.C.), ' W.\lil!l\ Athens, Nat. Arch. Mus. third time. Hence the land of the Phaeacians, from the viewpoint of Greece, was first situated beyond the Straits, but then on the nearer (the Greek) side. This p r o b l e m seemed insoluble, because it was tacitly assumed that the shipwrecked Ulysses arrived in Scheria across the same sea as w h e n h e departed. This assumption is not necessary. There exists o n e country, w h i c h meets b o t h conditions: w h a t is n o w Calabria, situated between two seas, the Tyrrhenian and the Ionian. First argument. The shipwrecked Ulysses, w h o was beyond the Straits, could come ashore o n the western coast of Calabria and he could embark from its eastern coast directly for Ithaca on the ship of the Phaeacians. If this interpretation is right, Homer must have included a walk across the isthmus. And this is exactly what the text says. Ulysses, w h o had lost his boat, walked for 325

18 ARMIN W O L F three days from coast to coast. O n the first day he w e n t u p (- ), 4 2 and the third day he had to go d o w n from the city to the boat and t h e sea ().43 And the king of the Phaeacians k n e w that a shipwrecked sailor could have come either from the east or from the west ( ) of his country. 4 4 This m e a n s that Homer's Scheria lay b e t w e e n two seas, and that the land stretched from n o r t h to south. Second argument. The land of t h e Phaeacians lay in the sea like a shield (ptvv).45 The coast-line of the isthmus of Calabria b e t w e e n the Gulf of Sant'Eufemia and the Gulf of Squillace is to be compared w i t h t h e so-called dipylon-shield, a shield w i t h two r o u n d indentations typical of t h e H o m e r i c age. Obviously H o m e r was m a p - m i n d e d and in describing the country of the Phaeacians b e t w e e n the two gulfs compared it w i t h such a shield w i t h its two indentations. 4 6 Here w e u n d e r s t a n d w h y H o m e r said that Ulysses reached Scheria " w h e r e it was t h e narrowest () for h i m " . 4 ? This passage has generally b e e n translated to m e a n that Ulysses came to the land of t h e Phaeacians w h e r e it was " n e a r e s t " to h i m . 4 8 Because of this imprecise i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h e passage has b e e n considered a "superfluous, verse-filling s u p p l e m e n t " . 4 9 The Greek w o r d , however, (etymologically related to Latin angustus = n a r r o w ) m e a n s "narrowest", as well as "nearest". And this is the translation that m a k e s sense, referring to the shield-like shape of Calabria: The H o m e r i c h e r o r e a c h e d the land of t h e Phaeaciens at the p o i n t w h e r e it was n a r r o w e s t (i.e. the most convenient to cross it)! Third argument. Although the country of the Phaeacians is in some translations called an island, the original Greek text never calls it "island" (), but Scheria (). And Scheria etymologically m e a n s " c o n t i n e n t " 5 0 - perfectly fitting Calabria. Even today, w h e n people from Sicily go to Calabria they say they are going to the " c o n t i n e n t e . " Final argument. According to H o m e r , w h e n the s h i p w r e c k e d Ulysses m e t Nausicaa washing at the river, she told h i m that t h e r e is a good h a r b o u r or bay ( t h e Greek w o r d has b o t h significations) o n each side of the city, because the isthmus is 326

19 M A P P I N G H O M E R ' S ODYSSEY small ( , ' ' ).51 It was h o w e v e r a long way from t h e city to t h e washing-pools ( ), 52 so far i n d e e d that Nausicaa h a d to leave before sunrise and r e t u r n e d after sunset. 5 3 F r o m t h e washing-pools o n e could n o t yet see the second bay or gulf. However, after having left the river a n d c o m e to two springs, 5 4 i.e. to a watershed, Ulysses could see the two gulfs () at t h e same time; and h e w o n d e r e d at it ().55 Hence, t h e Phaeacians' city () in H o m e r is situated n o t o n the seashore, but at a watershed. There is only o n e place w h e r e Italy is so n a r r o w 5 6 that b o t h seas can be seen from the same place. In the n e i g h b o u r h o o d of Tiriolo a n d Marcellinara ( P r o v i n c e of Catanzaro), situated on the w a t e r s h e d b e t w e e n t h e t w o gulfs, o n e can a d m i r e a fascinating p a n o r a m a w i t h the T y r r h e n i a n Sea on the left, a n d the I o n i a n Sea o n the right. The two are only 30 k m apart. Here, t w o rivers, t h e Amato (once: Lamato) a n d the Corace, the first flowing i n t o t h e T y r r h e n i a n Sea, the second into the Ionian, a n d b o t h navigable in antiquity, c o m e w i t h i n about 7 k m of each o t h e r . 5 7 The situation is like a second t o w n and isthmus of Corinth. The ancient t o w n of Corinth was situated n o t o n the seashore, but in t h e h i n t e r l a n d b e t w e e n two gulfs. H o m e r k n e w that " C o r i n t h was r i c h because of its trade, since it is situated at the isthmus and d o m i n a t e s two gulfs, o n e of w h i c h is t u r n e d to Asia, the o t h e r to Italy." ( , , 58 , ' ). The similar position of t h e isthmus d o m i n a t e d by the Phaeacians in Calabria will have b e e n the basis of their trade and wealth. Even t h e Mount of Tiriolo resembles Acrocorinth. And the Greek settlers in Calabria came from the Gulf of Corinth. They k n e w h o w to m a k e m o n e y out of the d o m i n a t i o n of an isthmus a n d c o m m e r c i a l trade routes on two seas. Croton and Sybaris later b e c a m e the richest colonies in Magna Graecia. The eastern port of the Phaeacians must have been at the mouth of the river Corace, where Greek settlers later founded the colony of Skylletion (now Roccelletta). And according to Cassiodorus, who :sr

20 ARMIN W O L F was a native of Skylletion (Latin: Scyllaceum/ Scolacium), this city was said to have been founded by Ulysses. 5 9 Skylletion is the only Greek colony in Magna Graecia to have made this claim. The present Italian town of Squillace is situated 8 k m away from the coast because its inhabitants moved to the interior in the early Middle Ages. But the bay is still called the Gulf of Squillace. Even the thickly wooded mountains ( ) and the shadowy wood ( ), mentioned by Homer in the land of the Phaeacians, 6 0 still exists as the Sila in Calabria. Its name k n o w n already in Roman times (Silva Sila) etymologically corresponds to Greek . Being the largest forest in the whole Mediterranean region, it is "the wood wood" without a particular name. There is, however, an objection. Does H o m e r n o t say, that the Phaeacians r e t u r n e d Ulysses h o m e w i t h i n one night? This is too short a t i m e for a voyage of 200 nautical miles from Calabria to Ithaca. In fact, H o m e r says that the Phaeacians left at sunset and arrived in the m o r n i n g ; h e does n o t say, however, that t h e r e was only o n e night b e t w e e n . But in a veiled way h e h i n t s at a journey lasting for t w o nights a n d the day b e t w e e n : "a deep sleep fell o n the eyes of Ulysses, unwaking, delicious, the very counterfeit of d e a t h " ( , - , , ). 61 This unique p h r a s e seems to allude to " t h e voyage t h r o u g h the realm of d e a t h . " In mythology this lasts for two nights w i t h t h e day b e t w e e n . Alcestis, w h o w e n t t h r o u g h the death for h e r husband, could n o t r e t u r n to life 62 before " t h e t h i r d m o r n i n g " ( ... ). Christ, too, w e n t t h r o u g h the realm of death from Good Friday evening to Easter Sunday m o r n i n g . This corresponds to the p r o p h e c y of Hosea, a c o n t e m p o r a r y of H o m e r : "After two days will h e revive us: in 63 the t h i r d day h e will raise us u p . " While the ancients counted Sunday t h e t h i r d day after Friday, w e count it the second. 6 4 Hence, the death-like sleep of Ulysses seems to h i n t at a voyage lasting from evening to the second m o r n i n g . Within this t i m e of about 36 h o u r s a boat really could reach Ithaca from Calabria. Apart from this real mythology, n o t intelligible to everybody, H o m e r gives further i n f o r m a t i o n o n the voyage of t h e 328

21 M A P P I N G H O M E R ' S ODYSSEY Phaeacians' ship: "With unfaltering speed she forged ahead, and not even the w h e e l i n g falcon, the fastest thing that flies, could have kept h e r c o m p a n y . " 6 5 In a certain sense, H o m e r ' s information is exact; because w i t h t h e speed of a falcon t h e Phaeacians could have covered t h e distance to Ithaca even w i t h i n the single night as ordinarily u n d e r s t o o d ! O n the other h a n d the unrealistic speed m a d e this last journey of Ulysses appear entirely imaginary. What might have b e e n the reason for H o m e r to conceal the exact distance? Probably the fact that the knowledge of commercial trade routes was to be kept as a valuable secret. Our identification of H o m e r ' s Odyssey has b e e n adopted by several G e r m a n school b o o k s , 6 6 and was the basis of two 45- m i n u t e films o n G e r m a n Television. 6 7 Scheria, the country of the Phaeacians, this ideal land described by Homer, was n o fantasy, but n o t h i n g else but Greater Greece, Magna Graecia, . Armin Wolf Max Planck Institut fr Europische Rechtsgeschichte Frankfurt am Main 329

22 ARMIN WOLF NOTES 1. F o r a full s u r v e y of t h e 8 0 - o d d t h e o r i e s s e e ARMIN W O L F , i n : ARMIN UND HANS-HELMUT W O L F , Die wirkliche Reise des Odysseus, Zur Rekonstruktion des Homerischen Weltbildes ( M n c h e n : L a n g e n Mller, I99O), 143-206. T h i s is t h e r e v i s e d a n d e n l a r g e d t h i r d e d i t i o n of: HANS- HELMUT UND ARMIN W O L F , Der Weg des Odysseus: Tunis - Malta - Italien in den Augen Homers ( T b i n g e n : W a s m u t h , I 9 6 8 ) . A F r e n c h S u m m a r y : ARMIN W O L F , " L ' O d y s s e est-elle le p r e m i e r d o c u m e n t c r i t c o n c e r n a n t Malte, la Sicile e t l'Italie? H o m r e e t l e s e s c a l e s s u r l e s r o u t e s r e l i a n t la M d i t e r r a n e o r i e n t a l e la M d i t e r r a n e o c c i d e n t a l e , " i n 2 0 e Colloque d'Histoire maritime: Les grandes escales I ( B r u x e l l e s : R e c u e i l s d e la Socit J e a n B o d i n 3 2 , 1974), 7 3 - 8 8 . 2. ABRAHAM ORTELIUS, Parergon ( A n t v e r p , l 6 0 2 ) . T h e m a p itself is i n c l u d e d i n a m a p of t h e R e d Sea a n d t h e I n d i a n O c e a n , d a t e d 1597. 3 . THUCYDIDES I 2 5 . 4. O n h i s w a y f r o m C a l y p s o t o S c h e r i a , Ulysses h a d t o k e e p t h e " t h e G r e a t Bear, k n o w n also a s t h e W a i n , ... o n h i s left h a n d , a s h e m a d e a c r o s s t h e s e a " {Odyssey 5, 2 7 3 , 277). 5. PSEUDO-SKYLAX, Peripl. 1 3 {Geographi Graeci Minores, ed. Carolus M l l e r u s , P a r i s i i s I 8 6 I , v o l . I p . 2 2 ) . PLINIUS, Nat. Hist. I l l 9 6 . S o m e y e a r s b e f o r e O r t e l i u s t h i s n o n - e x i s t a n t i s l a n d Calipsus vel Ogygia n e a r C r o t o n a p p e a r e d o n P i r r o L i g o r i o ' s m a p Regni Neapolitani verissima secundum antiqvorum et recentiorum traditionem descriptio 1574 ( r e p r o d u c e d i n : Immagini del Sud, a c u r a d i ANTONIO VENTURA (Lecce: C a p o n e , 1997), fig. 29, h e r e w i t h t h e d a t e of 1558) a n d of t h e M a p of Apulia, C a l a b r i a a n d Basilicata, p u b l i s h e d i n 1 5 8 9 b y GERHARD MERCATOR. 6. Historisch-geographischer Atlas zu den allgemeinen Geschichts- werken von C. v. Rotteck, Plitz und Becker in 50 colorirten Karten von Dr. JOHANN VALENTIN KUTSCHEIT (Freiburg i.Br.: Herder, 1844). PHILIPS' Classical Atlas, ca. I 8 6 0 . 7. LUNETTO VERCILLO, Omero, Gli itinerari marittimi dal Circeo a Troia nell'Odissea e nell'Iliade e il manuale omerico della navigazione a vela attraverso i Tirreno, lo Jonio e l'Egeo ( R e n d e : L. V e r c i l l o , 1982), 3 2 4 - 5 . 8. PIERRE D U VAL, Diverses cartes et tables pour la gographie ancienne ( P a r i s : P i e r r e d u Val, 1677). 9. ODYSSEY 12, 427f. 10. JOHANN HEINRICH Voss, Homers Odyssee (Altona, 1 7 9 3 ; 3 r d e d i t i o n C o l i n : S c h m i t z , I8O6). 1 1 . " , " i n Hermes Logios ( A t h e n s 1813). " F a h r t d e s O d y s s e u s " b y RUDOLF HEINRICH KLAUSEN, Die Abenteuer des Odysseus aus 330

23 MAPPING HOMER'S ODYSSEY Hesiodos erklrt ( B o n n : M a r i u s , 1834). " G e o g r a f i a p r i m i t i v a d e i Greci s e c o n d o E s i o d o e d O m e r o " b y F. C. MARMOCCHI, Atlante di geografia universale ( F i r e n z e : p e r V. Batelli, 1838), fol. XXIV . " O r b i s H o m e r i ( 9 0 0 ? ante Chr)" by KAROLUS SPRUNER, Atlas Antiquus (Gotha: Justus Perthes, 1850), w i t h o u t d r a w i n g a r o u t e . PHILIPS Classical Atlas, ca. I 8 6 0 . "Le m o n d e d ' a p r s H o m r e " b y J. BAQUOL & M. J. H. SCHNITZLER, Atlas historique (Paris, 1889), T o m e 1, n r . 1. " O r b i s t e r r a r u m e x s e n t e n t i a H o m e r i " b y A. GHISLERI, Testa-Atlante del Mondo Antico, Parte / ( B e r g a m o : 1st. ital. d' a r t i g r a f i c h e , ^ W T ) , title a n d t a b . 6c. 12. " H o m e r i s c h e E r d k a r t e " b y ALBERT FORBIGER, Handbuch der alten Geographie nach den Quellen bearbeitet (Leipzig, 1842), w i t h o u t d r a w i n g a r o u t e b u t w i t h o n l y o n e I s l a n d of A e o l o s i n t h e r i g h t p l a c e . M a p see W O L F 1990, 160. 13 WILLIAM E. GLADSTONE, Studies on Homer and the Homeric Age, 3 vols. ( O x f o r d : U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1858). 14. "Fahrten des Odysseus" by KARL ERNST VON BAER, WO ist der Schauplatz der Fahrten des Odysseus zu finden? Historische Fragen mit Hlfe der Naturwissenschaft beantwortet = Reden 3- Teil (St. P e t e r s b u r g , 1 8 7 3 ) . M a p see W O L F 1990, 164. 15. "The V o y a g e s of Ulysses" b y SAMUEL BUTLER, The Authoress of the Odyssey, where and when she wrote, who she was, the use she made of the Iliad, and how the poem grew under her hands ( L o n d o n : L o n g m a n s & Co., 1 8 9 7 ) . M a p see W O L F 1990, 166. 16. " T h e Landfalls of Ulysses" b y LEWIS G. POCOCK, The Sicilian Origin of the Odyssey. A Study of the topographical evidence (Wellington: New Z e a l a n d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1957), M a p s e e W O L F 1990, 178. 17. EUMAIOS, Odysseus als Afrikaumsegier und Amerikaentdecker (Leipzig 1898). 18. " D a s h o m e r i s c h e W e l t b i l d " b y WILHELM DRPFELD ( M n c h e n , 1925). Map see W O L F 1990, 170. 19. "Die I r r f a h r t d e s O d y s s e u s n a c h d e r U r o d y s s e e " a n d "Die E r d k a r t e H o m e r s " b y ALBERT HERRMANN ( B e r l i n , 1 9 2 6 ) . M a p s see W O L F 1990, 172-3. 20. VICTOR BRARD, Les navigations d'Ulysse, 4 v o l s ( P a r i s , 1927-9) 2 1 . VICTOR BRARD, Dans le sillage d'Ulysse. Album Odysseen, Photographies de Frdric Boissonas ( P a r i s , 1933) 22. BRARD, Navigations, 4: 4 0 1 . 23. " S c h m a d e s N a v i g a t i o n s d ' U l y s s e " in GABRIEL GERMAIN, Gense de l'Odysse ( P a r i s , 1954). M a p see W O L F 1990, 177. 24. LOUIS MOULINIER, Quelques hypothses relatives la gographie d'Homre dans L'Odysse (Aix-en-Provence: Centre d'tudes et de 33-1

24 ARMIN WOLF r e c h e r c h e s h e l l n i q u e s d e la facult d e s l e t t r e s e t s c i e n c e s h u m a i n e s d'Aix 2, 1958), 122. H i s m a p "Trajet d'Ulysse" s e e W O L F 1990, 180. 25. " O r t e , d i e O d y s s e u s b e s u c h t h a t " b y F. J. W I L , Auf 'Odysseus' Spuren ( A f f o l t e r n / S w i t z e r l a n d , 1950). M a p s e e W O L F 1990, 176. 26. "Auf d e s O d y s s e u s u n d d e r A r g o S p u r e n " b y O T T O ZELLER (Aalen, 1959). M a p s e e W O L F 1 9 9 0 , 1 8 1 . 27. GILBERT PILLOT, Le code secret de L'Odysse, Les Grecs dans l'Atlantique ( P a r i s , 1969), a n d Secret Code of the Odyssey ( L o n d o n , 1972). M a p s e e W O L F 1 9 9 0 , 188-9. 28. KARL BARTHOLOMUS, " O d y s s e u s k a m b i s H e l g o l a n d , " Bild der Wissenschaft (Stuttgart, J a n u a r 1977). M a p s e e W O L F 1990, 192. 29. " R e k o n s t r u k t i o n d e r Route m i t d e n 12 S t a t i o n e n d e r I r r f a h r t d e s O d y s s e u s , " HANS STEUERWALD, Weit war sein Weg nach Ithaka, Neue Forschungsergebnisse beweisen: Odysseus kam bis Schottland (Hamburg: H o f f m a n n u n d C a m p e , 1978). M a p s e e W O L F 1990, 194-5. 30. FELICE VINCI, Omero nel Baltico. Saggio sulla geografia omerica ( R o m a : Fratelli P a l o m b i , 2 1 9 9 8 ) . 3 1 . ERNLE BRADFORD, Ulysses Found (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1963). M a p s e e Wolf 1990, 1 8 3 . 32. " T h e W a n d e r i n g s of Ulysses" b y MAURICIO OBREGN, Ulysses Airborne ( N e w Y o r k : H a r p e r & R o w , 1971). M a p s e e Wolf 1990, 1 9 1 . 33 TIM SEVERIN, The Ulysses Voyage, Sea Search for the Odyssey ( L o n d o n : H u t c h i n s o n , 1987). 3 4 . IBIDEM, 2 4 3 - 35. " O c e a n u s t h e C i r c l i n g R i v e r " b y HENRIETTE MERTZ, The Wine Dark Sea. Homer's Epic of the North Atlantic ( C h i c a g o : M e r t z , 1964). M a p see W O L F 1 9 9 0 , 184. 36. " D i e O d y s s e e i n O s t a s i e n " b y HUBERT DAUNICHT, Frankfurter Neue Presse, F e b r u a r y 14 t h , 1 9 7 1 . M a p s e e W O L F 1990, 190. 37. CHRISTINE PELLECH, Die Odyssee - eine antike Weltumsegelung ( B e r l i n : D . R e i m e r , 1983). M a p s e e Wolf 1990, 2 0 1 . 38. MOSES I. FINLEY, Das antike Sizilien ( M n c h e n : Beck, 1979), 3 7 . 39 T h i s p r o c e d u r e is fully d e s c r i b e d i n W O L F 1990 ( s e e n o t e 1). 40. Cfr. ARMIN W O L F , " H o m e r u n d d i e Strasse v o n Messina: P l a n k t e n , Skylla, C h a r y b d i s u n d d i e R e i h e n f o l g e d e r Verse d e r O d y s s e e 12, 5 5 - 1 1 0 , " in ECKART OLSHAUSEN u n d HOLGER SONNABEND ( H r s g . ) , Zu Wasser und zu Lande. Verkehrswege in der antiken Welt, S t u t t g a r t e r K o l l o q u i u m z u r H i s t o r i s c h e n G e o g r a p h i e d e s A l t e r t u m s 7, 1999, Geographica Historica 17 ( 2 0 0 2 ) : 301-22.

25 MAPPING HOMER'S ODYSSEY 41. ODYSSEY 12, 427 f. 42. ODYSSEY 5, 470. 43. ODYSSEY 13, 70. 44. ODYSSEY 8, 29. 45. ODYSSEY, 5, 281. 46. F o r a m o r e d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s q u e s t i o n see ARMIN W O L F , Hatte Homer eine Karte? Beobachtungen ber die Anfnge der europischen Kartographie ( K a r l s r u h e : F a c h h e c h s c h u l e K a r l s r u h e , 1997), esp. p p . 27-44. 47. ODYSSEY, 5, 280. 48. I n G e r m a n : Voss 1806, MINCKWITZ 1864, MULDER 1 9 3 5 , SCHADEWALDT 1958, i n I t a l i a n : TONNA 1 9 6 8 , i n F r e n c h : BRARD 1924, DUFOUR/RAISON 1 9 6 5 . In E n g l i s h : E. V. RIEU 1946 w i t h o u t u s i n g t h e w o r d n e a r e s t : " w h i c h j u t t e d out to m e e t h i m there." 49. EDUARD BORNEMANN, Auswahl aus Homers Odyssee, (Frankfurt/Main, 161966), 56. 50. A c c o r d i n g t o H. FRISK, Griechisches Etymologisches Wrterbuch ( H e i d e l b e r g : W i n t e r , I 9 6 0 ) , Art. , S c h e r i a m e a n s " u n i n t e r r u p t e d coast, c o n t i n e n t . " T h i s s i g n i f i c a t i o n is also a s t r o n g a r g u m e n t a g a i n s t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h e l a n d of t h e P h a e a c i a n s w i t h t h e isle of C e r c y r a (cfr. a b o v e n o t e 3) 5 1 . ODYSSEY 6, 263-264. T h e h a p a x l e g o m e n o n o f t e n is t r a n s l a t e d as " e n t r a n c e " ; b u t for t h e s m a l l e n t r a n c e of a h a r b o u r H o m e r says: S' ( O d . 10, 90). T h e w o r d , also ( H a r l e i a n u s 5 6 7 4 ) is e t y m o l o g i c a l l y r e l a t e d w i t h /, lat. i s t h m u s . Cfr. W O L F 1997 ( a b o v e n o t e 4 6 ) , 36-7. 52. ODYSSEY 6, 40. 53 ODYSSEY 6, 36 a n d 3 2 1 . T h e w a s h i n g d i d n o t t a k e t o o m u c h t i m e . T h e y w a n t e d t o f i n i s h q u i c k l y (), a n d w a s h e d s p e e d i l y (). Odyssey 6, 32 a n d 92. 54. ODYSSEY 7, 129. 55. ODYSSEY 7, 43- 56. At t h e t i m e of A r i s t o t l e (Polit. 1 3 2 9 b ) t h e j o u r n e y f r o m c o a s t t o coast t o o k half a day. T o d a y t h e d i s t a n c e a s t h e c r o w flies is 30 k m . 57. PLINIUS, JVaf. hist. 3, 10: Amnes ibi navigabiles, Carcinus ... Cfr. HLSEN, Carcinus, Realencyclopdie III 2 ( 1 8 9 9 ) col. 1586. T h i s r e f e r s t o t h e a c t u a l C o r a c e . T h e L a m a t o ( A m a t o ) is a b o u t t h e s a m e size. 58. STRABON VIII, 3 7 8 . yy,

26 ARMIN W O L F 59. CASSIODORUS, Variae XII 15: Scyllaceum prima urbium Bruttiorum, quam Troiae destructor Ulixes legitur condidisse. 60. ODYSSEY 5, 470 = 7, 268. 5, 279- 61. ODYSSEY 13, 79-80. Cfr. WOLF 1990, 113-4 (see note 1). 62. EURIPIDES, Alcestis 1146. 63. HOSEA 6, 2. 64. In the same way, the tides change for Homer three times within 24 hours, not twice. Odyssey 12, 105. Cfr. WOLF 1990, 6l-2 (see note 1). 65. Odyssey 13, 86-87. Translation of E. V. RIEU, 1946. 66. Wort und Sinn. Lesebuch fr den Deutschunterricht 7'. Schuljahr, (Paderborn: Schningh, 1976), 59 Lesen, Darstellen, Begreifen. Ausgabe A, 6. Schuljahr (Berlin: Cornelsen, 1996), 108. Also in Atlas zur Universalgeschichte, ed. J. HERRNKIND (Mnchen: List, 1980), 17. 67. Broadcast by the Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen under the title "Auf Kreuzfahrt mit Odysseus", within the series "terra-X" for the first time in December 1990. There exists a video translation in Spanish. Of other possible translations I do not know. 334

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