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1 Preprint EDUCATING AND TRAINING ACCELERATOR SCIENTISTS AND TECHNOLOGISTS FOR TOMORROW William Barletta* United States Particle Accelerator School and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge MA 02139 [email protected] Swapan Chattopadhyay Cockcroft Institute, Universities of Liverpool, Manchester and Lancaster and Daresbury Science & Innovation Campus Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD, United Kingdom [email protected] Andrei Seryi John Adams Institute, University of Oxford, Royal Holloway University of London and Imperial College London Oxford OX1 3RH, United Kingdom [email protected] Accelerator science and technology is inherently an integrative discipline that combines aspects of physics, computational science, electrical and mechanical engineering. As few universities offer full academic programs, the education of accelerator physicists and engineers for the future has primarily relied on a combination of on-the-job training supplemented with intense courses at regional accelerator schools. This paper describes the approaches being used to satisfy the educational interests of a growing number of interested physicists and engineers. Keywords: accelerators, education, USPAS, CERN School, 1. Introduction atomic and molecular physics, chemistry and biology. At an even smaller scale and used for Particle accelerators are essential instruments of fundamental and applied research are ~180 discovery in fundamental physics, biology, and machines for accelerator mass spectrometry. chemistry. Perhaps the best-known accelerator for fundamental research is now the 28-km Large Particle-beam-based instruments used in medicine, Hadron Collider at CERN, Geneva that eclipsed the industry and national security form a multi-billion 6 km Tevatron as the worlds highest energy dollar per year industry. [1] For example, low particle collider. More numerous than machines for energy electron beams are widely used for radiation elementary particle and nuclear physics, and now cross linking and polymerization of materials to more prolific scientifically, are the several tens of improve mechanical properties, such as tensile synchrotron light sources in nearly twenty countries strength and scratch resistance, to increase the around the world. These machines support a wide melting temperature of the material, or to increase range of scientists studying condensed matter, its resistance to chemicals. Ion beam implantation * Corresponding author and Director, United State Particle Accelerator School 1

2 2 Barletta, Chattopadhyay, Seryi of dopants is an essential process to the semi- a handful of dedicated full-time formal training conductor industry. The economic value of goods programmes in accelerator science. Still the treated with accelerator-generated beams is number of persons in Europe receiving some estimated to be more than 50 B$ per year. With training in accelerator science is large (nearly respect to medical uses, accelerators account for 1400), significantly larger than in the US. roughly 100,000 radiotherapy treatments annually. As is true of many other modern technologies, the Sales of accelerators account for more than 3.5 B$ present generation of existing accelerators is per year of economic activity. continually pushing the limits of performance with In short, accelerators have become a hallmark of respect beam characteristics (average current, highly technological societies. More than 70,000 particle energy, beam brightness), beam stability peer-reviewed papers with accelerator as a keyword and reproducibility, machine reliability and time are available on the Web. In spite of such a large between servicing. Such requirements translate into economic and intellectual impact, only a tiny increased size, complexity, cost and time to design fraction of universities in the US offer any formal and build (or upgrade) large research accelerators. graduate education in accelerator science and its Consequently both commercial customers and core technologies despite efforts by some national research agencies are displaying greatly diminished accelerator laboratories to expand that presence in tolerance for machine malfunction or failure to major research universities. achieve full performance goals. Accelerators of the future will be even more demanding with respect to Several reasons for this situation can be cited: 1) performance and cost-effectiveness. Thus modern the science and technology of particle beams and economic and technological environments are other non-neutral plasmas cut across traditional placing increased demands on the inventiveness academic disciplines. 2) Electrical engineering and technical competence of the scientists and departments have evolved toward micro- and nano- engineers who design, build and operate technology and computing science. 3) Nuclear accelerators. In turn, those demands are increasing engineering departments have atrophied at many the pressure on interested stakeholders to develop major universities although many now are and support stronger and more widespread rebuilding with a broadened emphasis on nuclear educational and training programs. security and technology for next generation reactors. 4) With few exceptions, student interest at This paper describes the primary formal and some individual universities is not extensive enough to informal approaches being used worldwide to train support a strong faculty line. 5) Funding agency physicists and engineers in the science and support of university-based accelerator research technologies of modern accelerators. Although the infrastructure is insufficient to support the material herein is far comprehensive on a country- development of new faculty lines. to-country basis, it is representative of formal academic programs. With some notable exceptions a similar observation also applies to universities worldwide. In 2009 a One can break down historical and present practice European consortium, Test Infrastructure and into a few categories: Accelerator Research Area (TIARA) conducted a Self-instruction as part of ones experimental web-based survey to quantify the level and activities in an accelerator-based science, modalities of accelerator training and education in Apprenticeship training after formal education Europe. TIARA reported [2] that although seventy- in physics or an engineering discipline, five organizations (universities and scientific laboratories) provide some level of training in For example, the Large Hadron Collider at CERN took more than accelerator science and technology, there are only fourteen years to complete.

3 Paper Title 3 Formal academic training in accelerator science transforms, special functions) at least the senior and technology in a university program. undergraduate level. For a Ph.D. level professional Study at regional or international accelerator these topics should be at the graduate level and schools. include a solid familiarity with special relativity Frequently, accelerator professionals receive their and Hamiltonian formulation of mechanics. education and training through a combination of Electrical engineers are well served by having a these approaches. For example, those enrolled in course in waveguides, transmission lines and formal university programs are frequently attendees antennas although many electrical engineering at regional accelerator schools (as described in departments in the U.S. no longer offer such a Section 3) taking one or more courses. At the post- course. Mechanical engineers should have a undergraduate level (M.S., Ph.D. or equivalent) thorough familiarity with structural analysis, all of these approaches presuppose an educational thermodynamics, heat and mass transfer. For both foundation in physics or engineering. physicists and engineers, facility with statistics, numerical analysis and computational techniques is 2. University programs highly desirable. For undergraduate and graduate students, a well- For those universities that do offer graduate or structured university program including hands-on undergraduate courses, the most common are an experimental experience would seem to be the most undergraduate Introduction to Accelerators and a direct entry to a career in accelerator science. The graduate Accelerator Physics. Undergraduate characteristic that best determines the health of a courses at the senior or upper-division level university accelerator program is the presence of typically introduce the history and variety of types viable faculty lines with a minimum of two tenure- of particle accelerators, the physics of particle track faculty who specialize in accelerator science beams in linear and circular accelerators, transverse and who can staff regular core course offerings. beam dynamics, acceleration of charged particles, The field becomes slightly broader if one includes longitudinal beam dynamics, synchrotron radiation, those physics and engineering faculties that have free electron lasers, collective instabilities and individual members with specialized interests in the nonlinear effects. Sometimes selected laboratory field such as free electron lasers or plasma-based measurements augment the lecture material. Such accelerators. In addition, some departments have an undergraduate course is valuable in attracting nuclear and particle physics faculty who students to future study and a career in accelerator successfully place their students in national science and technology. laboratories to do thesis research in accelerator The graduate course in accelerator physics would physics and technology. generally cover an introduction to the physics, technology, design, and operation of particle 2.1. Description of core university courses accelerators. Topics may include magnets for The most common foundational courses that are accelerators, the Hamiltonian formulation of single directly relevant to accelerator physics for both particle transverse and longitudinal motion, beam physicists and engineers are electromagnetism, emittance, effects of linear magnet errors, classical mechanics, and applied mathematics chromatic effects and their correction, effects of (complex analysis, differential equations, Fourier nonlinearities, basic beam manipulations, RF systems, diagnostic systems, and an introduction to accelerator lattice design. Other topics are The paper adopts the standard U.S. nomenclature. Graduate synchrotron radiation excitation and damping, education (called post-graduate in the UK) refers to education towards beam-beam interactions, collective effects and an M.S. of PhD degree.

4 4 Barletta, Chattopadhyay, Seryi instabilities. Computer-based calculations are years are recognized success factors in attracting frequently included in the syllabus. and increasing the retention of students from underrepresented groups. An essential aspect of a graduate-level educational program involves research carried out under the 2.2. Examples of national university-based supervision of university faculty and senior programs research staff. In universities in which accelerator Although university-based programs in accelerator studies are multi-departmental, graduate students science are relatively few in number, they have are usually admitted through a home department played a vital role not only in educating accelerator but may be required to pass a special examination scientists but also in producing major advances in overseen by a multi-departmental committee. In accelerator technology. It must be emphasized that addition the student is typically required to write a many breakthroughs in accelerator science and thesis that is reviewed by an interdepartmental technologies have been pioneered at the small thesis committee. number of universities with on-campus machines. The major research universities that are Examples of inventions include the betatron, side- exceptionally well positioned to develop and coupled linear accelerators, superconducting rf- educate the next generation of scientists and accelerators, superconducting cyclotrons, pretzel engineers are those which maintain a broad beam orbits for high-luminosity collider operation, network of established educational and research plasma-wakefield acceleration. Of course, such partnerships with other universities and national innovations require top-notch faculty lines as well laboratories, which have a world-class faculty, as highly talented students. highly qualified students, and strong ties to local industry. 2.2.1. University programs in the U.S. As relatively few universities have operating The major research universities in the United States accelerator research facilities, a students on- with structured programs that include graduate and campus coursework can be greatly enriched undergraduate courses and that are producing PhD through summer internships at collaborating level physicists are the following (in alphabetical institutions (such as national laboratories) and order): Cornell University, Indiana University, industrial affiliates. Internship programs provide Michigan State University, Stanford University, students with hands-on training and mentoring University of California at Los Angeles, University from world-class accelerator scientists at active of Maryland (College Park). Also initiating research centers. Participation in these distance- structured Ph.D. programs in accelerator science learning activities enhances the career development are Colorado State University, Massachusetts of students by 1) familiarizing them with evolving Institute of Technology, Old Dominion University programs and career opportunities in accelerator- (in affiliation with Jefferson Lab), and Stony Brook based science and technology, 2) establishing University (in affiliation with Brookhaven Lab). personal contacts with professionals in industry, the To this list one may add a second group, namely, national laboratories and other universities, 3) those universities with a single faculty member emphasizing the integration of accelerator technology with the needs of accelerator-based When a university commits to a tenured faculty line, it makes a physics, chemistry and biology, 4) strengthening sizeable, continuing commitment of funds (several million dollars in career opportunities after obtaining their graduate the U.S. That means that universities must expect faculty in the hard science and engineering to be able to secure sizeable research grants degree. Moreover, long-term mentoring/monitoring annually (~$300 per year in the U.S). Without sufficient opportunities relationships from experienced scientists in cutting from funding agency program offices, one cannot expect a sufficient edge research, often continuing during multiple cadre of world-class accelerator faculty in universities.

5 Paper Title 5 (either tenured or research faculty) whose primary graduate course in accelerator physics plus a research activity is accelerator science or multiple regularly offered seminar style course in special faculty with narrowly focused research activities: topics. Cornell and MSU are the exceptions listing Duke University, Illinois Institute of Technology, seven and five courses respectively. One MSU Texas A&M, Northern Illinois University, the course at grants its students MSU-credit for any University of California at Berkeley, the University course taken at the U.S. Particle Accelerator School of Chicago, the University of Hawaii, the (USPAS). As the number of interested students University of Southern California, the University of may not exceed the respective universitys Texas at Austin and Vanderbilt University. minimum enrollment requirements, listed courses may not be offered every year. Consequently, all In the past some universities such as the University U.S. universities cited rely heavily on the USPAS of Michigan and Columbia University had also to provide specialized academic coursework for produced accelerator Ph.D.s, but they have none their students. For this reason and as illustrated in remaining in the pipeline as the single faculty Figure 2, the USPAS rubric of rigorous, for-credit advisor has left or is no longer accepting students. courses hosted by major research universities is an The lesson is that a single, interested faculty essential aspect of formal accelerator education in member has, at best, great difficulty in sustaining a America. university program. Figure 1** offers an historical look at those universities that have been the principal producers of Ph.D.-level accelerator scientists. Rather surprisingly the number of students (M.S. and Ph.D.) is a large fraction of (but in most cases is consistent with) the total historical production. Figure 2: Student attendance at USPAS from the primary U.S. universities that produce PhDs in accelerator science In addition to its highly successful Ph.D. program in accelerator physics, Indiana University in collaboration with the U.S. Particle Accelerator Figure 1: PhDs in accelerator science (blue) and present School offers the opportunity to earn a Master of graduate students (red) Science Degree in Beam Physics and Technology. Students earn credit toward the Indiana University Even those universities with structured programs diploma at USPAS university-sponsored courses by offer only two or three regular course listings in selecting their USPAS course for Indiana accelerator physics and engineering. The listed University credit instead of credit from the host courses are generally an undergraduate and a university. For each academic session, USPAS ** Both sets of data were provided to the author by the universities instructors are given appointments as visiting cited. Note that the expected number of PhDs produced annually is professors and the USPAS courses are added to the roughly 20% of the present level of students. Indiana University curriculum. Award of a Master

6 6 Barletta, Chattopadhyay, Seryi of Science Degree requires 30 hours of credit with At the University of Maryland, the novel electron- a grade point average of B or above; a maximum of model storage ring (UMER) has played a vital role 8 credit hours may be transferred; some credits in advancing the understanding of the transport of earned at previous USPAS courses may be eligible space charge-dominated beams and has produced a for transfer. There is a strict five-year limit to substantial fraction of the PhDs in accelerator obtain the Master of Science degree. Generally, physics and engineering from U.S. universities. students may complete the Masters degree U.S. government investment in a few more small- program within 3 years. At this time, international scale research accelerators at universities would students are not eligible to enroll in the IU/USPAS pay large dividends to Americas large, accelerator- Master's Degree Program. To date, Indiana has based science programs. awarded IU/USPAS Master's Degrees to seven Laboratory-affiliated programs in the U.S. and students. Presently there are seven active students Canada in the Masters program. The Department of Energy national laboratories A crucial part of any students training is the with accelerator user-facilities have a powerful opportunity to participate in cutting edge interest in assuring an adequate supply of highly accelerator research programs. Given top-quality trained accelerator scientists and technologists. faculty supervision, students can do accelerator They must and do play an essential active role in research in areas that are central to an institutions the education and training of accelerator scientists accelerator development program. An outstanding and engineers. Summer Undergraduate Laboratory example of such work is the optimization of Internships Student (SULI programs) are one way; superconducting rf-cavity structures as part of providing instructors and financial support for Cornells ERL research program. At MSU a large USPAS sessions is another; providing research number of students play a strong, active role at the opportunities to graduate students for thesis National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory projects is a third. In addition, several national (NSCL). NSCL graduate research topics include laboratories have entered into educational superconducting rf-cavity design, modeling, and agreements with one or more major research measurement techniques, SRF-related material universities. science, cryogenics research, high-intensity ion- source development, large-dynamic-range beam To encourage and expand Ph.D.-level education in instrumentation in short, a broad reach of accelerator science, in 1985 Fermilab established opportunity for both physicists and engineers. At its Joint University-Fermilab Doctoral Program UCLA, the extensive, world-class experimental in agreement with major research universities. program in plasma accelerators (in both the Physics This program offers thesis research topics using and Electrical Engineering Departments) and in Fermilab research facilities and expertise available free electron lasers has produce a new generation of at Fermilab. Fermilab funds student salaries, and intellectual leaders in advanced acceleration provides day-to-day supervision of the student techniques, computational accelerator physics, and while the university thesis supervisor oversees the X-ray source design for photon science. Unlike students academic progress toward the Ph.D. The MSU, UCLA does not have a major accelerator program currently has 10 students enrolled and has on campus; therefore, university faculty members trained 41 Ph.D. students since its inception. have forged a strong, continuing partnership with the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Fermilab is also in the process of building the Illinois Accelerator Research Center (IARC) on UCLA does have a small machine, PEGASUS, which is very useful in the UCLA training program. http://apc.fnal.gov/programs2/joint_university.shtml

7 Paper Title 7 the Fermilab campus. IRAC will include for the program. Lee Teng Interns should have educational space for collaboration with local just completed their junior year (or for universities to train scientists, engineers and exceptionally talented students, their sophomore technical staff in accelerator technology. year) prior to the summer of the internship. All More recently the Brookhaven National Laboratory interns receive a scholarship to take the USPAS (BNL) has established CASE the Center for course, Fundamentals of Accelerator Physics. Accelerator Science and Education (CASE) in They then complete an eight-week research project collaboration with Stony Brook University. CASE at ANL or FNAL under the supervision of a aims at training graduate and post-doctoral students mentor. The project should have sufficient as accelerator scientists through a combination of complexity that it can serve as the basis for an academic courses and hands-on experience with undergraduate thesis if that is required by the accelerators. To attract students to graduate students home university. The mentors remain programs, CASE offers undergraduates an available to guide the student through graduate introductory accelerator course, accelerator school application and/or to advise the student in laboratory work and summer research opportunities preparing the senior thesis. Moreover, participating at Brookhaven. CASE is composed of faculty from in a summer research internship substantially raises the BNL Collider-Accelerator Department and the chances of a students being selected to receive Accelerator Test Facility and the Stony Brook a government-sponsored fellowship. University Department of Physics and the School In Canada the University of British Columbia, in of Engineering. collaboration with the TRIUMF laboratory and the In 2008 Old Dominion University (ODU) and the University of Victoria, has initiated a multi- Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility pronged approach in which graduate students (JLab) joined forces to establish the Center for conduct their Ph.D. thesis research at TRIUMF Accelerator Science in ODUs Department of under the mentorship of TRIUMF scientists. Physics. Two years earlier ODU had launched an Presently two accelerator courses are offered in instructional program in accelerator physics with alternate years: 1) Physics and Engineering of the help of JLab. The Center is now in the process Particle Accelerators: Electrons, and 2) Physics and of establishing the formal requirements for a Ph.D. Engineering of Particle Accelerators: Protons and degree in accelerator physics. In addition to courses Ions. Here again students must rely on on-the-job offered on the ODU campus, students will be able training and specialized at regional accelerator to take all USPAS courses and receive direct ODU schools. credit. 2.2.2. Accelerator training in Europe Expanding opportunities for PhD-level education will not bear fruit if talented undergraduates in The TIARA report [7] offers an extensive analysis physics and engineering are uniformed of and not integrated on a country-by-country basis. The data attracted to them. As a first step to attract high in this section is based solely on that report. In quality students, the Argonne National Laboratory, addition TIARA identifies 11 universities that offer Fermilab and the USPAS instituted the Lee Teng 100 contact hours or more of instruction in Undergraduate Internships *** in FY 2008. Each accelerator science. These institutions are the year between ten and twelve students are selected following: Ten Lee Teng Interns are selected each year. The selection committee not only chooses the awardees but also matches them with http://www-case.physics.sunysb.edu/wiki/index.php/Main_Page the mentors at each laboratory. The author has been pleased to teach *** http://www.illinoisacceleratorinstitute.org/ the Lee Teng interns each summer at the USPAS session.

8 8 Barletta, Chattopadhyay, Seryi 1. University of Manchester accelerator scientists and technologists. At both 2. Universitat Autnoma de Barcelona institutes the faculty, research staff and students 3. IKP, TU Darmstadt collaborate on research programs at the forefront of 4. Institut fr Kernphysik der Johannes Gutenberg- accelerator science, spanning national and Universitt Mainz international facilities and projects. They also 5. University Paris-Sud promote accelerator applications in science, 6. IKP, FZ Jlich medicine and industry. 7. DELTA, TU Dortmund Both institutes have well developed connections 8. INFN-Milano & Universit degli Studi di Milano with industry and local communities through active 9. EPFL: Swiss Institute of Technology Lausanne outreach programs. These programs bring scientific 10. Universit di Roma "La Sapienza" ideas closer to practical applications and inspire 11. Hamburg University younger generations toward careers in science and In 2011 these eleven universities accounted for 181 engineering. students who received 100 contact hours of The Scottish Universities Physics Alliance (SUPA) training. Of nearly 1200 students who received at pools physics research and post-graduate education least 10 contact hours of formal training in for doctoral students registered in eight Scottish accelerators, ~35% were undergraduates. Integrated universities: Aberdeen, Dundee, Edinburgh, over all institutions, 198 PhD students receive at Glasgow, Hariot Watt, St. Andrews, Strathclyde least some training in accelerator science. Of all and West of Scotland. Approximately 120 students institutions which offer accelerator training of join the program each year. Ph.D. students 45% offer formal examinations on accelerator science course work. Cockcroft Institute Education and Training 2.2.3. University programs in the U.K. The primary goal of the CI education policy is to provide graduate students with a comprehensive In the England and Scotland, university consortia education in both fundamental accelerator science have acted together to overcome the limitations of and practical engineering. Cross training is resources and enrollment that hamper education in encouraged; hands-on RF engineers benefit from accelerator science and technology. The result is a understanding the elements of lattice design; set of exemplary university-based programs. theoreticians learn about of the challenges of an The Cockcroft Institute of Accelerator Science ultra-high-vacuum system. and Technology (CI) and the John Adams Institute Much of the training to date utilizes the extensive for Accelerator Science (JAI) are centers of expertise available in-house as well as invited excellence for innovative accelerator technology. lecturers from elsewhere in the UK, Europe and the They also provide research opportunities, and U.S., providing valuable cross fertilisation between academic training in accelerator science and the CI and external organisations. Likewise, CI technology for students. staff members deliver lecture courses at the John Established in 2004, the two institutes have become Adams Institute, the U.S. Particle Accelerator internationally recognized centers of accelerator School and the CERN Accelerator School. science. Their role in educating the next generation Over the last three years, 243 contact-hours of of scientists has boosted the UKs impact in this lectures have been offered, of which 145 were area, helping to address a worldwide shortage of devoted to accelerator science or associated mathematics and 98 to accelerator engineering and The Cockcroft Institute website is http://www.cockcroft.ac.uk The JAI website is http://www.adams-institute.ac.uk/ technology. From early 2007, the CI lectures courses have been web-cast in real-time, and many

9 Paper Title 9 organisations including the Diamond Light Source, As indicated, the lecture courses are divided into RAL, e2v in Chelmsford, Essex, use the web-cast three categories: lectures to provide staff training. Fundamental Accelerator Physics, Engineering This pattern has established a template for the and Technology covers core topics that are education program for the future. Most of the central to understanding the design and topics originally envisaged for inclusion in the operation of particle accelerators. They are education program have been covered many times. regarded as essential material for all registered Growth in the number of students requiring lectures for post-graduate courses. CI intends to provide will be driven by the ongoing enrolment of CI instruction in these subjects to all students academic staff. New acceleration methods and during their first year of activity in the Institute. technologies with novel problems and priorities Intermediate and Advanced Accelerator have emerged in response to diverse demands from Physics, Engineering and Technology covers all areas of science. The CI education program topics which are central to the full continues to respond and rise to these challenges. understanding of accelerator behaviour but The CI lecture program has been established which, because of their nature, can best be primarily, but not exclusively, for the Institute's assimilated after exposure to the basic courses graduate students. Depending on the topic, certain and some experience in working on accelerator lectures or courses have attracted a wider interest topics. They will be covered on an approximate amongst associated faculty members and three-year cycle. The majority of CI students are Daresbury accelerator staff, as well as from other expected to attend these courses, so that upon universities. graduation they will have a comprehensive understanding of major topics. Currently there are 46 students enrolled in Ph.D. studies at the Cockcroft Institute. The institute has Advanced and Specialist Topics may be students based at the Cockcroft Institute, their individual lectures or courses focusing on niche respective University, at CERN and at the DESY areas which, depending on the research being laboratory. carried out in the Institute, will be of great significance to some but less relevant to others. Course structure The CIs education and training committee has The core courses are repeated annually, but are not considered the level of mathematics and physics necessarily presented by the same lecturers. The experience and education that entering graduate aim is provide an introduction to accelerator students could reasonably be expected to possess. physics, together with a detailed set of courses on The basic course has been expanded to provide essential topics, in the autumn term. The CI is able tutorials in a number of areas of maths and physics to rely on well-established experts in these areas, that are fundamental to accelerator science. based at the Accelerator Science and Technology Centre (ASTeC) and at the three universities of the The development of complementary skills is CI, to provide students with high quality lectures. regarded as a mandatory component of the training In the spring term introductory lectures continue, of graduate research students. Key requirements, together with a series of lectures aimed at an which include the development of communication, intermediate level of education such as beam networking and research management skills, have diagnostics for example. The summer term focuses the aim of improving the participants career skills. on specialized topics and allows students to be Sessions focus on project management, exposed to international experts in the field. presentation skills and scientific writing. The course concept has been extremely successful and

10 10 Barletta, Chattopadhyay, Seryi has become established as standard for all graduate One example is the CI participation in the UK research students in the School of Physical Particle Physics Master Class (PPMC) in which Sciences at the University of Liverpool. about 100 school children from the local area Coordinated programs participate in interactive activities and lectures about particle physics. The Daresbury master class The Cockcroft Institute coordinates the European traditionally has had an accelerator physics slant As Union funded Initial Training Networks of 2012, plans are being made to run a separate DITANET, oPAC and LA3 NET. Training within accelerator physics master class to target students these networks is composed of research, interested in particle accelerators. The activities complemented by local training by the individual will include beam dynamics computer simulations, institutions, often in close collaboration with the design of a synchrotron light source and partners, and network-wide events, such as schools, topical workshops, or conferences. Projects join measurement of the beam energy from the ALICE universities, research centres and industry to photo-injector from the bend caused by a dipole provide training to 60 early-career and experienced magnet. researchers. The aim is to give participants an In 2008 and 2010, CI organized and participated in excellent base for their future careers and to a daylong symposium of SciTech events in London maximize their employability. with participation by government and industrial Over the past four years this activity has included sectors, showcasing accelerator science and organizing two international schools on beam technology. In 2010, CI also participated, together instrumentation and diagnostics with around 70 with JAI, in the annual Royal Society Summer international participants each, eight topical Science Exhibition in London broadcast by BBC. workshops in focused areas of beam diagnostics, such as longitudinal beam profile measurements or The JAI runs a similar outreach program, including beam position monitoring with 30-50 participants master classes, the APPEAL program for school A- each, an international conference on beam level teachers, the ACCELERATE program, instrumentation and a major symposium in this participation in Science Festivals, etc. research area. These events were open to the worldwide accelerator community with many John Adams Institute programs participants coming from overseas. The JAI educational mission at both the graduate Outreach activities and undergraduate levels involves students in cutting-edge research programs at state-of-the-art The CIs engagement with the public and schools facilities. JAIs combined expertise at Oxford, involves organizing open days and schools master Royal Holloway University London (RHUL) and classes in the Institute, making visits to local Imperial College London (ICL) provide strong schools, offering work experience, attending career fairs and hosting stands at national science fairs. academic and technical support to students in areas Through its outreach program CI aims to as diverse as accelerator physics, beam diagnostics, lasers, plasma physics, laser-plasma interactions Encourage students to study physics and and computational techniques. The integrated engineering at university. training program in these areas addresses the UKs Widen knowledge of the widespread use of demand for a scientifically skilled workforce to accelerators in society beyond particle physics. sustain world-class research and to support the Inform the local community of what is done at the growth of a high-technology economy. Institute.

11 Paper Title 11 The JAI fully exploits the full range of accelerator- part of the design project evaluation, the students related expertise present across the three present their work in an open seminar at the JAI universities. This partnership allows students to and also at CERN. The CERN visit includes a tour follow a training program focused on their research of some of the accelerator facilities. In future, the whilst keeping abreast of the key concepts and visit to CERN may be lengthened to include further wider developments in accelerator and plasma training by working alongside expert accelerator science and technology. operation teams during machine runs. The design project has proven to be very successful in that it The graduate program exposes the students to real-life problems at an The graduate training program consists of a lecture early stage in their training and challenges them to course in Accelerator Physics taught by JAI faculty work on difficult topics collegially. Responses with support from guest lecturers, notably from from both students and scientists working on the CERN, the Cockcroft Institute and the Rutherford selected projects have been unanimously positive. Appleton Laboratory (RAL). Students from both The graduate lecture course is complemented by a Oxford and RHUL enrolled in the PhD program series of JAI seminars, which feature world-class attend these lectures. The current ICL graduate experts in accelerator science presenting their latest program in plasma physics, which covers both results on a wide range of topics in accelerator basic plasma physics and advanced topics, science and technology. The talks are advertised on including plasma-based accelerators, will be various accelerator networks and are broadcast via integrated into the JAI program through the use of Webex. The talks are also filmed and both slides web broadcasting technology. and films can be downloaded and viewed on the The core Accelerator Physics syllabus covers the JAI website where a full list can be found. The basics of accelerator science and technology in the lectures are accompanied by a half-day visit of the first two academic terms of the PhD program. In speaker where more in-depth discussions with JAI this way the students will have acquired a solid staff take place. These lectures and seminars help technical background before they start their the students make the transition from academic research work, typically during the third term. This studies to research. course is complemented by a number of supporting Each of the three universities offers courses on courses that deal with Electromagnetism for transferable skills such as Research Management Accelerators, Hamiltonian Dynamics and and Critical Thinking, Personal Effectiveness, Applications of Accelerators. The students can also Written and Oral Communication Skills, Team attend other courses provided within the PhD Working, Research Skills and Techniques, Career training at the three universities that cover Development, Entrepreneurship, Ethics, Teaching Computing, Statistics, Particle Physics and other and Advanced Information Technology. Every advanced topics. student may access all modules available across all An important feature of the Accelerator Physics three institutions. course, developed over the last five years, consists Undergraduate education of a design project that students must complete at the end of the second term of their first year. The JAI also maintains a concerted effort to ensure that team of students is assigned to design an highly qualified and motivated undergraduates are accelerator and its main subsystems with minimal ready to commence graduate training and research initial input. The project is usually related to actual in accelerator science. The undergraduate program projects under development at other institutions. As in accelerator science is attended by an average of

12 12 Barletta, Chattopadhyay, Seryi 15 students per year at RHUL and Oxford. These Doctoral Training Account. All of the recent courses will be complemented by the successful, graduates have continued in the field of laser- long-established undergraduate course at ICL on plasma accelerators or laser-plasma interactions at plasma physics that attracts more than 100 students. universities in the UK and U.S. Students recruited The Accelerator Physics course consists of a into the accelerator research activity of the HEP simplified introduction to accelerator science and Group at ICL have been funded through a number technology, suitable for students in the second or of sources including STFC quota awards, project third years of their undergraduate degree. The grants, CASE awards and the EPSRC industrial undergraduate course at RHUL also provides guest CASE studentship scheme. lecturers from accelerator laboratories at local Enrollment statistics facilities. The exposure of the students to real life problems in accelerator physics has been widely Since 2005 the JAI has enrolled an average of five appreciated by the students and has been extended students per year. Since 2008 eleven students have to the courses offered at Oxford. graduated, all of whom are now employed, mostly in accelerator physics (7 students), two in finance The JAI also hosts a number of internships for and two in industry. Five students are currently undergraduate summer students in their second or writing up and are expected to graduate this year. third years. A many potential PhD candidates have The Ph.D. topics reflect the structure of the core opted for accelerator projects in recent years, activities of the Institute and were initially focused thereby attracting new students to the field. The on the high-energy physics program (ILC, NF, JAI also provides a summer program for students MICE, etc.) and later extended to include light from foreign universities such as Paris VII, hosting sources (Diamond and 4th generation light a total of about ten self-funded students during the sources). In 2011 there was a significant increase in last two years. the student intake due to the inclusion of laser- Financial support plasma wakefield acceleration and the compact- light-source program into our core activities. The The main source for support of graduate students extension of the JAI to include ICL will strengthen has been the Science and Technology Facilities the new direction towards laser plasma research. Council (STFC) studentship program. Of more than 30 students presently enrolled in the JAI PhD Scottish University programs program, about 50% are funded by STFC. In recent years several Ph.D.s have been funded jointly with Two courses in accelerator physics are part of the CERNs Doctoral Student program. Another Nuclear and Plasma Physics theme of SUPA and significant source of recent funding is a Ph.D. are linked with the experimental research in laser- bursary scheme offered by the Thai government, to plasma acceleration and free electron lasers at the support their best students, selected by a national University of Strathclyde. The introductory course competition, to study accelerator physics. Other covers the history and applications of accelerators as well as core topics of beam characteristics and sources include CASE studentships (co-sponsored diagnostics, longitudinal and transverse dynamics, by industry) and various scholarships offered by non-linear dynamics such as resonant phenomena, the individual universities. Siemens Technology RF cavities and waveguides. The second, advanced has recently funded one Ph.D. student fellowship. course addresses the topical research in laser The ICL Plasma group has funded students through plasma interactions, laser-plasma acceleration and Engineering and Physical Sciences Research plasma based radiation sources. Council (EPSRC) project grants and the EPSRC

13 Paper Title 13 SUPA also seeks to increase its commercial industrial accelerators and sources of synchrotron engagement with industry. This mission aims to radiation. generate revenue for SUPA and to facilitate the The JINR program commercial exploitation of research to the benefit of the economy of Scotland and beyond. One of the express aims of JINR is to promote the development of intellectual and professional capabilities of scientific personnel. To this end its 2.2.4. University program in Russia educational program is coordinated and supported Two notable educational programs in Russia can be as a whole by a special subdivision called the cited: the university program at Novosibirsk State University Center, a formal collaboration of the University (NSU) and the program conducted by JINR laboratory, Moscow State University, the the Joint Institute for Nuclear Physics (JINR) at Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, and the Dubna. The latter is conducted through the JINR Moscow Institute of Physics and technology. University Center. Elements of training in accelerator science and The Novosibirsk university program technology are offered through the Physics Research Facilities Courses . With its very close ties to the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP), NSU has long had an 2.2.5. University programs in Turkey extensive program of formal educational conducted As part of an ambitious program of developing by a formidable Department of Accelerator accelerator-based science in Turkey, the Turkish Physics****, the graduates (and former faculty) of Accelerator Center (TAC) has organized the which work in almost all the largest world centers National Summer School Particle Accelerators and of high-energy physics and photon science. Detectors Summer Schools every year since 2005. Although the department was formed as an A primary purpose of the sessions is to introduce independent unit in 1992, before then training in students to the fundamentals of accelerator science accelerator physics was conducted in the in preparation for their research in TAC projects. Department of Nuclear Physics, which was TAC also sends students to regional accelerator transformed in 1985 into the Department of schools such as USPAS and the CERN Accelerator Elementary Particle Physics. The deaprtment is School for more advanced training. complemented by the Department of Radiophysics. The leaders of accelerator physics at NSU have 2.2.6. Accelerator science in Asia included two BINP directors: Acad. G. I. Budker Asia possesses a X-ray free electron laser user and Acad. A. N. Skrinsky. Not surprisingly the facility, six third-generation synchrotron light main areas of specialization of students in the sources, a high intensity proton source, two department are closely aligned with experimental electron-positron colliders and numerous small programs at BINP: conducting colliding beam accelerator facilities. The need for maintaining a experiments on VEPP-4, participating in the highly trained cadre of accelerator scientists and creation of the new electron-positron collider technologists is evident. This section offers a far (VEPP-2000), creating a new electron-positron from exhaustive view of accelerator training and injection complex (VEPP-5), developing a free education in this region. electron laser, and delivering turnkey medical and **** The departmental website is http://www.nsu.ru/exp/ff/kaffu (in Russian). http://newuc.jinr.ru/section.asp?id=268

14 14 Barletta, Chattopadhyay, Seryi Accelerator Education in Japan University of Wollongong, Centre for Medical Radiation Physics. In Japan the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) provides education in Accelerator training in China theoretical and experimental aspects of particle accelerators through its Department of Accelerator In China the Institute of High Energy Physics Science (Soken-dai). Soken-dai offers a two part (Beijing) supplies graduate courses***** in course, Introduction to Accelerators, as well as a 3- accelerator science as a department of the Graduate day summer program for young researchers and University organized by the Chinese Academy of college students that provides an experience with Sciences. The Department of Engineering Physics real accelerators. The School of High Energy of Tsinghua University maintains an active Accelerator Science has three departments program in accelerator research and education with Accelerator Science, Materials Structure Science graduate students at both the Masters and Ph.D. and Particle and Nuclear Physics that use the level. KEK research activities as a basis for graduate education. The Department of Accelerator Science 3 Regional Schools offers research opportunities for both theory and At most universities as the number of students at experimental students. Research topics for Ph.D. any one time is insufficient to populate courses in students include novel acceleration principles and specialized accelerator topics (for example, high- pioneering accelerator technologies, radiation power rf-technology, microwave source design, or physics, computational accelerator physics, and superconducting magnet technology), a useful superconducting magnet and RF technologies. approach is for a national or regional laboratory or Students carry out research using world-class collaboration thereof, to form an on-going regional accelerators and equipment. school. The archetypes of such regional schools are the U.S. Particle Accelerator School (USPAS) and Accelerator education in Australia the CERN Accelerator School (CAS). The Australian Collaboration for Accelerator Science (ACAS) supports universities to increase 3.2 The U.S. Particle Accelerator the number and variety of course offerings in School accelerator physics. ACAS also sponsors and USPAS is a national graduate program that dedicated accelerator schools held during non- provides graduate-level educational courses in the teaching periods at universities to supplement the science of particle beams and their associated material covered in existing courses. The goal is accelerator technologies that are not generally offering a Masters of Accelerator Science as en available to the scientific and engineering entry to a career at national accelerator facilities, communities. The USPAS is governed and funded hospitals or in industry. The main contributors to by an eleven-member consortium of nine national the teaching of accelerator science are the physics laboratories of the U.S. Department of Energy departments at the following universities: (DOE) and two NSF university laboratories. The The University of Melbourne, administrative office of USPAS, which performs The University of Sydney, and coordinates all functions and activities of the The Australian National University, School, is funded directly by the DOEs Office of Monash University, School of Physics, High Energy Physics. The office is located at ***** The website is http://soken.kek.jp/sokendai_en. See for example, http://english.ihep.cas.cn/et/se/. See http://accelerators.org.au/ The USPAS website is http://uspas.fnal.gov

15 Paper Title 15 Fermilab, which provides fiduciary oversight of the hence students can take one full course, or two School activities for the governing consortium. half-courses. If the hosting university grants half This governance structure assures that the USPAS credits, a student may opt to take a single half- programs are highly responsive to the needs of the course during either week of the program. The DOE national laboratories, the DOE and National percentage of students who take USPAS classes for Science Foundation, U.S. universities and the many credit remains high, averaging 63%. In recent students who attend USPAS courses. years the USPAS has had more than 150 students (of all levels) per session. The guiding vision of the USPAS is to be an essential partner of U.S. universities and the The highly varied curriculum of USPAS courses is national laboratories in educating and training the developed with the advice of a Curriculum next generation of accelerator scientists and Advisory Committee. The Committee is in the engineers for the challenging accelerators of the process of standardizing the syllabus for all courses future and to advance accelerator science and that are offered as frequently as every two years. In technology in current research programs. Thus, the addition, the host universities require that course USPAS mission is to provide a rigorous and descriptions and instructor CVs be submitted balanced educational program in the science of roughly one year in advance of the session, to be particle beams and their associated accelerator vetted by their faculty. The USPAS curriculum technologies. A brief history of the School can be covers all major aspects of accelerator physics and found in reference [3]. engineering that are crucial to the user facilities for accelerator-based science. Since its founding in 1982 by Dr. Melvin Month, the U.S. Particle Accelerator School has Course offerings continually strived to close the large gap between Fundamentals of accelerator physics, design of the need for trained accelerator professionals and storage rings and synchrotrons, linacs, intense the supply provided by the limited university beam accelerators, beam optics, spin dynamics. programs in the U.S. Originally organized as symposium style school, the USPAS dramatically Synchrotron radiation sources, free electron changed its format in 1987 to its present, highly lasers, strong field radiation, successful paradigm in which each session consists Beam theory, non-linear dynamics, collective of several rigorous courses running in parallel. effects, beam instabilities, Students may register for one full course (45 Computational methods in beam dynamics, contact hours) or choose two half-courses (23 beam optics and electromagnetism, contact hours each) in which each half-course is Radiation physics and accelerator safety, one week in duration. A full-course offers the radiation effects, equivalent of 3 semester hours of host university credit; each half-course offers the Engineering and technology equivalent of 1.5 semester hours of credit. Students Experimental techniques of beam physics, may earn graduate academic credit from the microwave measurements and beam university which hosts the session by completing instrumentation labs, accelerator vacuum nightly homework assignments and passing a final systems, beam manipulation techniques exam for their course. All courses run in parallel; RF systems, magnetic systems, superconducting Some of our hosts are on the quarter system; in that case an magnets, superconducting RF, superconducting equivalent quarter credit is awarded. materials, beam sources The USPAS does offer one undergraduate course, Fundamentals of Accelerators. Use of lasers in accelerators, optics-based

16 16 Barletta, Chattopadhyay, Seryi diagnostics, optically-based timing systems As is common at most U.S. universities, at the High power electronics, pulsed-power completion of each course the students provide an electronics, high power rf-sources, control and evaluation of the course content and of the quality feedback systems, of the instruction. These data provide direct feedback about academic quality to the USPAS Radiation shielding and accelerator safety Director, Curriculum Advisory Committee, and systems, USPAS Board of Governors as well as to the Applications and management individual instructors. Accelerator applications in medicine, discovery The USPAS provides an unparalleled source of science, and industry, continuing education for accelerator physicists, Management of research institutions, technologists and engineers from its consortium Project management. members. Attendees from the national laboratories Each year the USPAS offers one or more hands-on and partner universities remain a core USPAS laboratory courses in which students learn to use constituency. The Fermilab, SLAC and sophisticated instrumentation such as network Brookhaven, institutions that historically have had analyzers and fiber lasers, etc. Full, two-week largest accelerator operations (and largest operating experimental courses in beam physics at operating budgets), send the largest numbers of participants accelerators are offered roughly every two years. to USPAS sessions. The most recent of these offerings used the Energy USPAS scholarships Recovery Linac-based free electron laser at Jefferson Lab. The next such hands-on offering (in Thanks to the strong participation and continuing the Winter 2013 session) will be at Duke financial backing of the members of the governing University using the 1 GeV electron storage ring consortium, the USPAS is able to offer at least and free electron laser. Unfortunately, due to partial scholarship support to nearly all degree- practical considerations only a dozen students can seeking students who register for and are eligible to be handled in such experimental courses on receive academic credit. Scholarship support is also operating accelerators. available to some overseas participants who are not Figure 3 displays a histogram of enrollment in eligible to receive academic credit in the U.S. courses of various types. Not surprisingly the basic Scholarship students account for roughly two-thirds courses are the most popular with students. Typical of all attendees. class enrollment ranges from forty in the Some statistics undergraduate (Fundamentals of Accelerators) class to several in highly specialized classes. This The USPAS mechanism allows U.S. universities to latter number explains why single universities offer roughly 800 contact hours annually of cannot afford to offer specialty courses, even if rigorous academic instruction in accelerator science appropriate resident or guest faculty members are and engineering. All together the USPAS has available to teach. offered over 500 for-credit courses at 46 academic USPAS faculty members are composed of sessions to more than 5000 students. This number university faculty (~25%) and of senior researchers includes more than 3400 individuals and more than from national laboratories (~70%) and industry 1000 students who have taken more than one (~5%) with deep practical experience in specific USPAS class. More than 20% of the USPAS fields. participants from more than 25 countries travel to the U.S. to attend academic sessions. At least 250

17 Paper Title 17 Figure 3. The average class size of USPAS courses by type. USPAS graduate students have become intellectual course on a specialized topic with the autumn leaders in their field, and 25 have returned to offering being a general course on accelerator USPAS session as instructors. Moreover, 150 physics. This general course is given at the USPAS instructors have enrolled in one or more introductory level in even years and at the courses at USPAS sessions. intermediate level in odd years. Especially 3.3 The CERN Accelerator School ****** noteworthy is the practice of the CERN School of producing high quality, written proceedings. In 1983 the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) initiated its own accelerator The CAS program of regular courses is augmented school, the CERN Accelerator School (CAS), every two years by a course on a specialized topic under the leadership of Kjell Johnson and operating in the framework of the Joint International with much the same model as the early USPAS Accelerator School (JAS) program. The JAS is a symposium-style, topical sessions. The CAS now collaboration of USPAS, CAS, the Budker Institute offers both introductory and specialized training for Nuclear Physics in Russia, and KEK in Asia. courses for accelerator physicists and engineers In 1985 CAS also initiated a series of annual John twice a year and at periods that do not conflict with Adams lectures. The texts of many of these can be the times of the USPAS sessions. The courses found on the CAS website. consist of lectures and tutorials spread over a period of one to two weeks depending on the topic. Typically each lecturer at a CAS session presents 3.4 The Joint Universities Accelerator from two to five hours of material. The courses School take place in different member states of CERN The Joint Universities Accelerator School (JUAS) drawing their participants from the CERN member was started in 1994 to meet a European demand to states as well as other countries. train students in the foundations of accelerator The CAS pattern of courses is to offer a spring See http://cas.web.cern.ch/cas/Proceedings.html ****** The CAS website is http://cas.web.cern.ch/. The JUAS website is at http://juas.in2p3.fr/.

18 18 Barletta, Chattopadhyay, Seryi science, engineering, and technology. The school is The Technologies & Applications course covers the organised by the European Scientific Institute topics: Introduction to accelerators & components; with the support of fourteen major European vacuum systems; radio-frequency engineering; universities and the CERN Accelerator School. conventional and superconducting magnets; room JUAS offers an intensive programme for students temperature and superconducting RF systems; and modular courses for professionals. The JUAS beam instrumentation; electron and ion sources; format consists of two five-week courses taught radiation and safety; low energy electron annually by European accelerator specialists. The accelerators; production of medical isotopes; JUAS curriculum, the constituent course syllabi, radiation therapy; accelerator driven reactor and lecturers are recommended and evaluated systems; radio-isotopes in medicine; high current annually by an advisory board of accelerator proton linacs. scientists and representatives from the supporting Lectures and tutorials are augmented by site visits European academic institutions. and demonstrations plus a practicum at CERN and According to its website, JUAS courses are at the Bergoz Instrumentation Company. intended for students from any recognised Students at JUAS sessions take examinations under European University and assume no prerequisite the control of one of the partner universities, which knowledge of accelerators. JUAS participants are validate the courses. Successful candidates may expected to have a basic and proven knowledge (4 obtain credits at their home university through the years at university) of physics or engineering. Students must enrol for a minimum of one five- European Credit Transfer System (ECTS)*******. week course. For staff members and Ph.D. students JUAS recommends that all students take the of laboratories that use particle accelerators and of examinations, which are mandatory for those manufacturing companies that specialize in students who receive a grant equipment for accelerators, JUAS does allow part- time participation. As the language of instruction is 3.5 Joint International Accelerator English and all participants are expected to have a School good knowledge of the English language. The USPAS and CAS together with the Budker The full JUAS program covers a wide variety of Institute for Nuclear Physics (BINP) in Russian and topics during ten weeks from January to March. the KEK Laboratory in Japan have organized a The instructional program includes about 200 hours series of accelerator schools focused on specialized of lectures, tutorials, guided studies and seminars. topics in accelerator physics and technology. The Accelerator Physics covers the following: Furthermore, the US-CERN-Japan-Russia Joint Introduction to accelerators; Relativity & electro- International Accelerator School (JAS) aims to magnetism; Particle optics; Transverse beam strengthen collaborative relationships with the dynamics; Longitudinal beam dynamics; Linear educational programs of the USPAS, CAS, BINP accelerators; Space charge; Instabilities; Injection and KEK by working together on an advanced and extraction; Cyclotrons; Synchrotron radiation. topical course, alternating venues among the four regions. According to its web-site The European Scientific Institute for Applied Physics (ESI) is a non-profit association of 20 European ******* institutions, universities, companies, hospitals and therapy centres For an official explanation see from larger Europe. Sited at the "Centre Universitaire de Formation et http://ec.europa.eu/education/lifelong-learningpolicy/ects_en.htm de Recherche" on the border between France and Switzerland in Information about past and future Joint International School Archamps, very close to Geneva, ESI was founded in 1994. sessions can be found on the USPAS and CAS websites.

19 Paper Title 19 The JAS sessions follow the symposium style of 3.6.6 Linear Collider School instruction that is used regularly by the CERN Since 2006 the Global Design Effort of the School. The First Topical Course in Nonlinear International Linear Collider (ILC) has sponsored Dynamics was held in Europe 1985 under joint an annual topical school aimed at building a cadre USPAS-CAS sponsorship and was followed the of physicists and engineers for an international next year by a Course on New Accelerator Methods TeV-scale lepton collider project, i.e., ILC, the and Techniques held in Texas. Thereafter, sessions Compact Linear Collider (CLIC), or a Muon were held every two years through 2002. KEK Collider. Instructors and students are chosen with joined in organizing the Joint School in 1994; balanced representation from the three regions: the BINP joined in 1997. Americas, Asia and Europe. Participation is limited After a several year hiatus, the organizing to 70 students all of whom receive financial aid institutions have agreed to sponsor the 11th Topical (full or partial) for covering the expenses for Course in 2011 at the Majorana Center for attending this school, including airfare, lodging, Scientific Cultural in Erice, Sicily. In 2013, a meals, local transportation and school supplies. General Course will be held in Japan to be Applications are limited to graduate students, post followed shortly thereafter by a Topical Course on doctoral fellows and junior researchers; former Machine Protection to be held in the U.S. attendees are allowed to apply a second time. The JAS sessions foster collaborations among the The topics covered include the following: accelerator communities of the four regions in scholarly work, both writing and teaching. During Overview of TeV-scale future lepton colliders the school program, participants are encouraged to Accelerator physics for sources, damping rings, present and discuss their technical challenges with linacs and beam delivery system internationally well-known experts and scientists. In this way the school environment provides a Super conducting and warm RF technology, positive atmosphere for mentorship as well as low-level and high power RF, and beam learning. Nine volumes of proceedings have been instrumentation published. 3.6.7 KoRIA Accelerator School 3.6 Ad hoc topical workshops and schools In Korea a project to create a facility to study rare Training in accelerator science may also be offered isotopes is in its formative stages. This project, on an ad hoc basis as required for specific projects KoRIA, will have to assimilate many entry-level or scientific research programs. Typically the goals researchers who have little familiarity with the of such symposium-style schools are 1) to constituent technologies. To aid in this process, the provide just-in-time training for new project staff project foresees a series topical accelerator schools, and 2) to interest students who may eventually the first of which will be held in late 2012. work on or collaborate with the project. This kind 4 Discussion and Conclusions of training program is common in many areas of physics. Throughout the past three decades, education in accelerator science and technology has been carried out in a close, successful partnership among An early example of such a school was held in 1992 on the site universities, national accelerator laboratories and of the then-under-construction Brazilian Light Source in Campinas the regional accelerator schools. Over that same Brazil. One of the authors (WAB) presented a series of lectures on period the accelerator-relevant infrastructure in synchrotron radiation and free electron lasers. universities has atrophied considerably especially

20 20 Barletta, Chattopadhyay, Seryi in the U.S. Therefore, an important aspect of an Alliance, LLC under Contract No. De-AC02- accelerator education program in any country 07CH11359 with the United States Department of should be directed toward strengthening this three- Energy. Author WB thanks the Offices of High way partnership with the addition of more Energy Physics, Basic Energy Sciences, and structured academic programs and more hands-on Nuclear Physics of the Department of Energy and training opportunities in the major research the Directorate of Physical and Mathematical universities. Sciences of the National Science Foundation for their strong continuing support of accelerator Several universities and formalized consortia of education in the U.S. Authors SC and AS thank the universities have expressed recent or renewed Science and Technology Facilities Council, UK, for interest in developing Masters and Ph.D. degree its support of accelerator education and training in programs in accelerator physics. However, new or the UK. Author SC thanks Prof. Roger Jones of the augmented funding is going to have to be available Cockcroft Institute and University of Manchester from the national funding agencies to support these and Prof. Carsten Welsch of the Cockcroft Institute programs. Electrical engineering and nuclear and University of Liverpool for their assistance and engineering departments at some universities also contributions on the CI Education and Training display interests in accelerator education. These program and the European Union Initial Training departments are important for training students in networks respectively. Author AS thanks JAI areas such as control systems, high-power and RF faculty colleagues in the three universities for the electronics cryogenic engineering or techniques of help in describing the JAI training program. high-power thermal and radiation load design. Judging from the steadily rising attendance at References USPAS sessions over the past five years [1] Robert and Marianne Hamm, Accelerators in including many applications from students from Industry: The Beam Business, Phys. Today, June more than twenty-five countries student interest 2011, pp. 46-51. in accelerator science and technology has never [2] F. Kirchner et al., TIARA WP5 Deliverable 5.1 been higher. Taking advantage of the opportunity Education and Training Survey Report, May 9, 2012 these students represent will require an expanded available at http://cdsweb.cern.ch investment in university-based accelerator research [3] Toni Feder, Accelerator School travels the and in a new generation of hands-on training university circuit, Phys. Today, 63, February 2010, pp. 20 23 instruments. An accompanying expanded program of undergraduate student internships at laboratory research centers would attract some of the most talented undergraduate physics and engineering students into graduate study in accelerator science and technology. All such educational programs would benefit from expanded outreach to industry, to pre-university school systems, and to the public at large. Acknowledgments One author (WAB) thanks the Board of Governors of the USPAS for its continuing strong support; his work is partially supported by Fermi Research

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