Resistance Training - American College of Sports Medicine

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  • Jun 19, 2013
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1 ACSM Information On Resistance Training for Health and Fitness Resistance training is a form of physical activity that is designed to improve muscular fitness by exercising a muscle or a muscle group against external resistance. There are many positive health outcomes of resistance training. A COMPLETE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PROGRAM RESISTANCE TRAINING BENEFITS exercises. The incorporation of free weight A well-rounded physical activity program includes EVERYONE! movements can be performed as a person aerobic exercise and strength training exercise, but As we age we tend to lose lean muscle increases his or her muscular fitness. For not necessarily in the same session. This blend helps mass, which is a condition known as example, advanced individuals can maintain or improve cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness and overall health and function. Regular sarcopenia. Resistance training helps perform multiple sets and heavier physical activity will provide more health benefits than maintain and combat the loss of muscle resistances using multiple-joint exercises, sporadic, high intensity workouts, so choose mass by increasing muscular fitness. This such as squats and deadlifts. Whichever exercises you are likely to enjoy and that you can form of training can also prevent form of resistance is chosen, multiple-joint, incorporate into your schedule. osteoporosis by augmenting bone mineral large muscle group exercises should be ACSMs physical activity recommendations for healthy density. Whats more? Regular resistance performed before single-joint, smaller adults, updated in 2011, recommend at least 30 training can decrease the risk of heart group exercises. minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity disease by lowering body fat, decreasing (working hard enough to break a sweat, but still able RESISTANCE TRAINING blood pressure, improving cholesterol, and to carry on a conversation) five days per week, or 20 GUIDELINES AND EXERCISES lowering the stress placed on the heart minutes of more vigorous activity three days per The American College of Sports Medicine while lifting a particular load. Improving week. Combinations of moderate- and vigorous- (ACSM) recommends that a strength intensity activity can be performed to meet this muscular fitness is very important for training program should be performed a recommendation. enhancing quality of life. minimum of two non-consecutive days Examples of typical aerobic exercises are: VARIOUS TYPES OF RESISTANCES each week, with one set of 8 to 12 Walking Resistance training can be accomplished repetitions for healthy adults or 10 to 15 Running with traditional free weights and repetitions for older and frail individuals. Stair climbing Eight to 10 exercises should be performed dumbbells, weight machines, body weight, Cycling elastic tubing, medicine balls, or even that target the major muscle groups. Rowing Cross-country skiing common household products like milk jugs Examples of typical resistance exercises Swimming. filled with sand or soup cans. The choice that can be performed using free-weights, to incorporate a certain type of resistance In addition, strength training should be performed a machines, or body weight for the major depends on level of physical fitness, how minimum of two days each week, with 8-12 muscle groups are: repetitions of 8-10 different exercises that target all familiar a person is with specific exercise Free-Weight Machine-Based Body Weight major muscle groups. This type of training can be movements, and individual goals. For Chest Supine Bench Press Seated Chest Press Push-ups accomplished using body weight, resistance bands, example, low fit individuals can focus Back Bent-over Barbell Rows Lat Pulldown Pull-ups Shoulders Dumbbell Lateral Raise Shoulder Press Arm Circles free weights, medicine balls or weight machines. primarily on machine-based exercises as Biceps Barbell/Dumbbell Curls Cable Curls Reverse Grip Pull-ups they have been regarded as safer to use Triceps Dumbbell Kickbacks Pressdowns Dips Abdomen Weighted Crunches Seated Abs Machine Crunches, Prone Planks compared to more complex free weight Quadriceps Back Squats Leg Extension Body Weight Lunges Hamstrings Stiff-leg Deadlifts Leg Curls Hip-ups

2 ACSM stresses the importance of Load: 30-60% 1RM for upper body STAYING ACTIVE PAYS OFF! progressing resistance training programs exercises; 0-60% 1RM for lower body Those who are physically active tend to live longer, to meet specific resistance training goals. exercises healthier lives. Research shows that moderate Progression in resistance training is Volume: 1-3 sets of 3-6 repetitions per physical activity such as 30 minutes a day of brisk defined as the act of moving forward or exercise walking significantly contributes to longevity. Even a person with risk factors like high blood pressure, advancing toward a specific goal over time Rest period: 2-3 min for higher intense diabetes or even a smoking habit can gain real until the target goal has been achieved. exercises that use heavier loads; 1-2 benefits from incorporating regular physical activity This can occur with specific trainable minutes between the lower intense into their daily life. characteristics of muscular fitness, such exercises with light loads as strength, power, hypertrophy, and local As many dieters have found, exercise can help you MUSCULAR HYPERTROPHY stay on a diet and lose weight. Whats more regular muscular endurance. These four factors Muscular hypertrophy is the enhancement exercise can help lower blood pressure, control blood will improve with almost any properly of muscle size. sugar, improve cholesterol levels and build stronger, designed resistance training program, but denser bones. Load: 70-85% 1RM for novice to will be fully enhanced by properly intermediate; 70-100% for advanced modifying the load, volume, rest period THE FIRST STEP Volume: 1-3 sets of 8-12 repetitions for between sets, and the frequency of each Before you begin an exercise program, take a fitness novice to intermediate; 3-6 sets of 1-12 test, or substantially increase your level of activity, workout. The load is the amount of weight repetitions for advanced make sure to answer the following questions. This lifted in a given set, which is based on a Rest period: 2-3 min for higher intense physical activity readiness questionnaire (PAR-Q) will percentage of the 1-repetition maximum exercises that use heavier loads; 1-2 help determine if youre ready to begin an exercise (1RM). The volume is the total number of routine or program. minutes between the lower intense exercises, repetitions, and sets that are Has your doctor ever said that you have a heart exercises with light loads performed in a given exercise session. condition or that you should participate in physical Rest period is the time period between MUSCULAR ENDURANCE activity only as recommended by a doctor? each set and exercise. Frequency refers Local muscular endurance is the ability of Do you feel pain in your chest during physical to the number of exercise sessions per a muscle or a muscle group to repeatedly activity? week. How to manipulate each of these exert a submaximal resistance. In the past month, have you had chest pain when for the optimal enhancement of strength, you were not doing physical activity? Load: lower than 70% of 1RM Do you lose your balance from dizziness? Do you power, hypertrophy, or muscular Volume: 2-4 sets of 10-25 repetitions ever lose consciousness? endurance is described below. Rest period: 30 seconds to 1-minute Do you have a bone or joint problem that could be between each set made worse by a change in your physical activity? MUSCULAR STRENGTH Is your doctor currently prescribing drugs for your Muscular strength is the ability of a FREQUENCY blood pressure or a heart condition? muscle or muscle group to exert a For all the above, it is recommended that Do you know of any reason you should not maximal external force. novice individuals train the entire body 2-3 participate in physical activity? Load: 60-70% 1RM for novice to days per week. Intermediate individuals If you answered yes to one or more questions, if you intermediate; 80-100% for advanced should train 3 days if using a total-body are over 40 years of age and have recently been Volume: 1-3 sets of 8-12 repetitions for workouts or 4 days if using an upper/lower inactive, or if you are concerned about your health, novice to intermediate; 2-6 sets of 1-8 body split routine, training each major consult a physician before taking a fitness test or repetitions for advanced muscle group twice per week. Advanced substantially increasing your physical activity. If you Rest period: 2-3 min for higher intense lifters can train 4-6 days per week, training answered no to each question, then its likely that you exercises that use heavier loads; 1-2 can safely begin exercising. each major muscle group once to twice minutes between the lower intense per week. At this level, muscle group split PRIOR TO EXERCISE exercises with light loads routines of one to three muscle groups Prior to beginning any exercise program, including the trained per workout are common since activities depicted in this brochure, individuals should MUSCULAR POWER this would allow a higher volume per seek medical evaluation and clearance to engage in Power is defined as the optimal amount of activity. Not all exercise programs are suitable for muscle group. Elite weightlifters and body- work performed in a given time period. everyone, and some programs may result in injury. builders may benefit from using very high Muscular power is the highest power Activities should be carried out at a pace that is frequencies such as, two workouts per output attainable during a particular comfortable for the user. Users should discontinue day for 4-5 days per week. movement, and is required in activities of participation in any exercise activity that causes pain daily living, sport, and work. For optimal OVERTRAINING or discomfort. In such event, medical consultation improvements in muscular power, a light To reduce the risk of overtraining, a should be immediately obtained. load of 0 to 60% of 1RM should be used dramatic increase in volume should be for 3-6 repetitions over one to three sets avoided. It is recommended that a 2-10% per exercise. increase in the load be applied when the individual can comfortably perform the current workload for one to two repetitions over the desired number on two consecutive training sessions. ACSM grants permission to reproduce this brochure if it is reproduced in its entirety without alteration. The text may be reproduced in another publication if it is used in its entirety without alteration and the following statement is added: Reprinted with permission of the American College of Sports Medicine. Copyright 2013 American College of Sports Medicine. This brochure was created by Michael R. Esco, Ph.D., HFS, CSCS*D, It is a product of ACSMs Consumer Information Committee. Visit ACSM online at

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