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1 Technical Cooperation Report for 2013 Report by the Director General 1 International Atomic Energy Agency Vienna International Centre, PO Box 100 1400 Vienna, Austria Tel.: (+43-1) 2600-0 Fax: (+43-1) 2600-7 Email: [email protected] www.iaea.org/technicalcooperation GC(58)/INF/5 @ 14-22121

2 Technical Cooperation Report for 2013 Report by the Director General GC(58)/INF/5 Printed by the International Atomic Energy Agency July 2014

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4 PREFACE The Board of Governors has requested the transmission to the General Conference of the attached Technical Cooperation Report for 2013, the draft of which was considered by the Board at its June 2014 session. The Director General is also hereby reporting in fulfilment of the request contained in resolution GC(57)/RES/11 on Strengthening of the Agencys technical cooperation activities. iii

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6 Contents Summary.......................................................................................................................................................... vii The Agencys Technical Cooperation Programme in Figures......................................................................... ix A. Strengthening the Agencys Technical Cooperation Activities................................................................... 5 A.1. Technical cooperation in 2013: An overview............................................................................... 5 Global developments in 2013: The context of the TC programme......................................... 5 Responding by region: How the TC programme is tailored to Member State needs.............. 6 Developing human resources and building capacities............................................................. 7 Postgraduate training.................................................................................................. 8 Legislative and drafting assistance............................................................................. 8 Distance learning........................................................................................................ 10 Networking and technical cooperation among developing countries (TCDC).......... 11 Nuclear applications for a sustainable marine environment................................................... 13 A.2.Building a more efficient, more effective technical cooperation programme............................... 15 Country Programme Frameworks and Revised Supplementary Agreements......................... 15 Maximizing programme impact: Improving interaction with the United Nations system and building partnerships........................................................................................................ 15 Financial partnerships................................................................................................. 16 Supporting gender equality: Women in the TC programme....................................... 16 Ensuring continual improvement of the TC programme......................................................... 18 Addressing challenges that affect TC programme implementation......................................... 18 B. TC Programme Resources and Delivery..................................................................................................... 21 B.1. Financial overview........................................................................................................................ 21 Resources for the technical cooperation programme............................................................... 21 Extrabudgetary and in-kind contributions............................................................................... 22 B.2. Delivering the technical cooperation programme......................................................................... 24 Financial implementation........................................................................................................ 24 Unallocated balance................................................................................................................. 24 Human resources..................................................................................................................... 25 Programme Reserve projects................................................................................................... 25 C. Programme Activities and Achievements in 2013: Regional Overview..................................................... 29 C.1. Africa............................................................................................................................................. 29 C.2. Asia and the Pacific....................................................................................................................... 34 C.3. Europe........................................................................................................................................... 37 C.4.Latin America and the Caribbean................................................................................................... 39 C.5.Interregional projects..................................................................................................................... 41 List of frequently used abbreviations.............................................................................................................. 43 v

7 Annex 1. Achievements in 2013: Project Examples by Thematic Sector......................................................... 47 Health and nutrition............................................................................................................................... 47 Food and agriculture.............................................................................................................................. 57 Water and the environment.................................................................................................................... 68 Industrial applications............................................................................................................................ 71 Energy planning and nuclear power....................................................................................................... 76 Radiation protection, nuclear safety and nuclear security..................................................................... 83 Nuclear knowledge development and management.............................................................................. 91 Annex 2. TC Programme Fields of Activity, Grouped for Reporting Purposes................................................. 93 Figures Figure 1: Actuals by technical field for 2013..................................................................................................... x Figure 2: Support by Department to the TC programme based on the primary Technical Officer for each project (shown as percentage of total number of projects)................................................................................. x Figure 3: Female project counterparts by region, 20092013............................................................................ 17 Figure 4: Female participation in training as fellows, scientific visitors, training course participants, meeting participants and other project personnel, 20092013........................................................................... 17 Figure 5: Trends in TC programme resources, 20042013................................................................................ 21 Figure 6: Rate of attainment trends, 20042013................................................................................................. 22 Figure 7: Trends in extrabudgetary contributions by donor type, 20042013 .................................................. 23 Figure 8: Actuals in the Africa region in 2013 by technical field....................................................................... 29 Figure 9: Actuals in the Asia and the Pacific region in 2013 by technical field................................................. 34 Figure 10: Actuals in the Europe region in 2013 by technical field................................................................... 37 Figure 11: Actuals in the Latin America region in 2013 by technical field........................................................ 39 Figure 12: Interregional actuals in 2013 by technical field............................................................................... 41 Tables Table 1: TC programme resources in 2013........................................................................................................ 22 Table 2: Table 2: Payment of National Participation Costs (NPCs) and assessed programme cost (APC) arrears................................................................................................................................................................. 22 Table 3: Extrabudgetary contributions allotted to TC projects in 2013, by donors (in euros)........................... 23 Table 4: Government cost sharing allotted to TC projects in 2013 (in euros).................................................... 23 Table 5: Delivery of outputs under the TCF: financial indicators for 2012 and 2013....................................... 24 Table 6: Comparison of the unallocated balance of the TCF (in euros)............................................................ 24 Table 7: Delivery of outputs: non-financial indicators for 2012 and 2013........................................................ 25 Table 8: Programme Reserve projects in 2013.................................................................................................. 25 Table 9: Active interregional projects................................................................................................................. 42 vi

8 Summary The Technical Cooperation Report for 2013 is set Part B of this document presents a summary of out in three parts: A Strengthening the Agencys indicators and includes a review of the mobilization of Technical Cooperation Activities; B TC Programme resources for the TC programme through the Technical Resources and Delivery; and C Programme Cooperation Fund (TCF), and of extrabudgetary and Activities and Achievements in 2013: Regional in-kind contributions. Programme delivery is expressed Overview. Annex 1 describes examples of project through both financial and non-financial indicators. activities and achievements in specific thematic areas. Pledges to the TCF in 2013 totalled 66.3 million (not including National Participation Costs, assessed Part A comprises two sections. Part A.1 offers an programme costs or miscellaneous income), or 92.8% overview of the Agencys technical cooperation (TC) of the 71.4 million TCF target set for the year. New activities in 2013, with an introductory part dedicated extrabudgetary resources for 2013 came to 10.7 to the global development context. The section then million and in-kind contributions were 1.2 million. describes how the programme is tailored to respond Overall, implementation for the TCF reached 83.7% in to the specific needs and priorities of each region, and 2013, in comparison to the 2012 figure of 76.5%. highlights efforts to develop human resources and build capacities in the peaceful application of nuclear Part C of this document responds to the operative science and technology, including through postgraduate paragraphs of resolution GC(57)/RES/11, and covers training courses, assistance in drafting legislation, assistance to Member States in the peaceful, safe, secure distance learning initiatives and technical cooperation and regulated application of atomic energy and nuclear among developing countries. The section also presents techniques in specific fields. It highlights regional a snapshot of TC projects in the marine environment, activities and achievements in technical cooperation reflecting the topic of the 2013 Scientific Forum. Part in 2013. Globally, health and nutrition accounted A.2 focuses on efforts to improve the programme by for the highest proportion of actuals1 through the TC explaining the function of the Country Programme programme in 2013, followed by safety and security, Framework and how it links to national development and then by food and agriculture. The distribution of priorities and the Millennium Development Goals, and actuals varied across regions health and nutrition reviewing the Agencys TC endeavours throughout accounted for the highest percentage of actuals in 2013 to establish and operationalize partnerships with Africa (28.1%), Europe (42.7%) and Latin America the United Nations and other relevant international (34.9%), while in Asia and the Pacific it was safety and and regional organizations. This section also presents security (22.4%). ongoing efforts to enhance programme quality Project examples are presented in Annex 1 according through training in the logical framework approach, to thematic area, covering health and nutrition, food quality reviews of project concepts and designs, field and agriculture, water and the environment, industrial monitoring missions, improved Project Progress applications, energy planning and nuclear power, Assessment Reports, and the establishment of the new radiation protection, nuclear safety and nuclear security, best practices mechanism. and nuclear knowledge development and management. 1 Terminology has changed with the implementation of the Agency-wide Information System for Programme Support (AIPS/Oracle). Actuals are the equivalent of disbursements. vii

9 As of January 2014, the Programme of Action for follow-on actions, and thereby improve the quality Cancer Therapy (PACT) has been implemented and of assistance to Member States in the form of PACT managed by a newly formed Division within the TC services and associated TC activities. As of next year, Department, reflecting the growing importance of PACT activities will be covered in the TC Annual PACT and ensuring its appropriate placement within Report. the IAEA programmatic and organizational structure. The relocation is expected to reinforce successful existing linkages between TC and PACT, enhance accountability for PACT activities and facilitate viii

10 The Agencys Technical Cooperation Programme in Figures (as at 31 December 2013) 2013 target for voluntary contributions to the Technical Cooperation Fund (TCF): Rate of attainment on payments (pledges) at the end of 2013: 71 443 750 91.9% (92.8%) New resources for the technical cooperation (TC) programme: 78.2 million Technical Cooperation Fund : 66.3 million 2 Extrabudgetary resources3: 10.7 million In-kind contributions: 1.2 million TCF implementation rate: 83.7% TC 2013 year-end budget4 (TCF, extrabudgetary resources and in-kind contributions): 113.7 million 124 countries/territories receiving support 123 Revised Supplementary Agreements (as at 31 January 2014) 13 Country Programme Frameworks (CPFs) signed in 2013 91 CPFs valid as at 31 December 2013 5331 meeting participants and other project personnel 3509 expert and lecturer assignments assignments 2005 fellowships and scientific visits 3041 participants in 209 regional and interregional training courses training courses 2 Including TCF payments, National Participation Costs (NPCs), assessed programme costs (APCs) and miscellaneous income. 3 Includes donor contributions and government cost-sharing. Please refer to Table A.5 of the Supplement to this report for details. 4 Year-end budget is the total value of all technical cooperation activities approved and funded for a given calendar year plus all approved assistance brought forward from previous years but not yet implemented. ix

11 Water and the Industrial applications/ environment radiation technology 5.6% 7.6% Health and nutrition Energy 28.6% 7.7% Nuclear knowledge development and management 11.4% Food and agriculture 16.3% Safety and security 22.8% Figure 1: Actuals by technical field for 2013.5 Technical Cooperation 2.6% Others 1.8% Nuclear Energy 15.6% Nuclear Safety and Security Nuclear Sciences and 18.8% Applications 61.2% Figure 2: Support by Department to the TC programme based on the primary Technical Officer for each project (shown as percentage of total number of projects). 5 Throughout this report, percentages in charts may not add up to 100% exactly due to rounding. x

12 Technical Cooperation Report for 2013 Report by the Director General This document responds to the request by the General contributions. Part B also offers an overview of Conference to the Director General to report on the programme delivery, with both financial and non- implementation of resolution GC(57)/RES/11. financial indicators. Part A of the document provides an overview of Part C responds to the operative paragraphs of resolution technical cooperation (TC) activities from 1 April GC(57)/RES/11 by reporting on assistance to Member 2013 to 31 March 2014, presents the context for the TC States in the peaceful, safe, secure and regulated programme in 2013 and describes capacity building application of atomic energy and nuclear techniques in Member States. Reflecting the topic of the 2013 in specific fields. It presents regional activities and Scientific Forum, Part A also highlights TC activities achievements in technical cooperation in 2013. in ensuring a sustainable marine environment. Annex 1 offers examples of project activities in the Part B presents a summary of financial indicators and various thematic areas: health and nutrition, food and reviews the mobilization of resources for technical agriculture, water and the environment, industrial cooperation through the Technical Cooperation applications, energy planning and nuclear power, Fund (TCF), extrabudgetary resources and in-kind radiation protection, nuclear safety and nuclear security, and nuclear knowledge development and management. 1

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14 A. Strengthening the Agencys Technical Cooperation Activities 3

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16 A. Strengthening the Agencys Technical Cooperation Activities6 A.1. Technical cooperation in 2013: TC programme can make direct contributions to An overview7 the proposed networks, which will be composed of national science foundations and business incubators, as well as policy, intellectual property rights and risk Global developments in 2013: management organizations. The context for the TC programme The SDG discussions focused increasingly on the role The debate on the post-2015 United Nations (UN) of the private sector in development and, by inference, development agenda dominated the work of the on private sector cooperation with science, technology UN system organizations in 2013 and provided an and regulatory institutions. Input from the private opportunity to contribute to the preparation of new sector was submitted to the High-level Panel on the sustainable development goals (SDGs). The Agency Post-2015 Development Agenda in March 2013 for used its position as a member of the UN System Task inclusion in the Secretary-Generals report to the UN Team on the Post-2015 UN Development Agenda to General Assembly in September 2013. The triennial underscore the importance of including strong national United Nations Global Compact Leaders Summit science, technology and innovation institutions in the in September 2013 also provided an opportunity to new SDG framework. Until post-2015 national targets showcase the private sector role in the post-2015 and plans can be established, the Agency will continue development process. its efforts to integrate the United Nations Millennium Development Goal (MDG) targets and plans within Many of the Country Programme Frameworks (CPFs) the 20162017 technical cooperation programme. The approved in 2013 included strategies for public MDG targets should remain valid for developing new private partnerships, particularly in the areas of food partnerships and resources opportunities for the next and agriculture. Numerous Member States consider two to three years. private sector involvement in agriculture extension activities such as seed production and food processing One element of the discussions on SDGs of particular to be essential for improving rural farm incomes. It is relevance to the Agency was the UN Secretary- expected that the SDGs will incorporate targets and Generals proposal for technology facilitation indicators for private sector involvement in technical mechanisms that promote the development, transfer cooperation activities that will provide a valuable and dissemination of clean and environmentally sound framework for strengthening science, technology and technologies: a global technology transfer mechanism innovation. and the science and technology networks that enable research and development cooperation. The Agencys 6 Section A responds to section 2, operative paragraph 2 of resolution GC(57)/RES/11 on strengthening TC activities through the development of effective programmes and well defined outcomes. 7 Section A.1 responds to section 2, operative paragraph 4 of resolution GC(57)/RES/11 on contributing to the implementation of the principles expressed in the Istanbul Declaration and the Programme of Action for the Least Developed Countries for the Decade 20112020, and to the attainment of the MDGs; and to section 5, operative paragraph 2 on promoting TC activities supporting the self-reliance, sustainability and further relevance of national nuclear and other entities in Member States, and enhancing regional and interregional cooperation. 5

17 Responding by region: How the TC and socioeconomic development. The programme programme is tailored to Member State in the region is designed to focus on meeting the needs8 specific national and regional needs that are reflected in the CPF and the Regional Strategic Cooperative The TC programme is delivered in four geographical Framework. Nuclear techniques were effectively regions: Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Europe (which transferred and applied in the areas of human health, includes some countries in central Asia) and Latin food and agriculture, water resources management, America and the Caribbean. Support is tailored to environmental protection, industrial application, take into account the specific needs and priorities of energy planning and development, and radiation safety individual countries, subregions and regions. TC and security. Special efforts were made to build and support can be seen as being delivered incrementally: strengthen partnerships, mobilize additional resources, for example, a new Member State is likely to need and promote regional and subregional cooperation. assistance initially in establishing an adequate safety In addition, measures were taken to strengthen the and regulatory infrastructure. The programme also management of the programme in the region through considers the special needs of least developed countries stakeholder training, and by incorporating the when developing appropriate national programmes. application of TC best practices. Programme priorities are established at the national level through the CPF process, which takes into In response to growing energy demands and increasing consideration national development plans, and at the concerns about the effects of greenhouse gases released regional level by regional strategic frameworks and from fossil fuels, Member States in the Asia and the profiles and agreed regional priorities. As national and Pacific region continued to explore an expanded use regional priorities change over time, the TC programme of nuclear energy. This requires adequate institutional, is designed for flexibility and to respond to unforeseen technical and human resource capabilities, the circumstances and evolving situations. The number of development of which is supported by the Agency countries participating in the programme also changes through project RAS/2/016, Supporting Decision over time, as new Member States request assistance, Making for Nuclear Power Planning and Development and more advanced countries choose to focus their Phase II. In 2013, activities implemented under participation to a greater extent on regional activities. the project included a number of fellowships and scientific visits, as well as meetings and workshops In 2013, health and nutrition accounted for the highest on supporting decision-making for nuclear power proportion of actuals9 through the TC programme, at planning and development, establishing a process 28.6%. This was followed by safety and security at based management system, stakeholder involvement 22.8%, then by food and agriculture at 16.3%. The for countries embarking on nuclear power programmes, distribution of actuals varied across regions health and financing models for nuclear power plant projects. and nutrition accounted for the highest percentage of Furthermore, two training courses were held on actuals in Africa (28.1%), Europe (42.7%) and Latin radioactive waste management and providing decision America and the Caribbean (34.9%), while in Asia and support for nuclear power planning and development. the Pacific it was safety and security (22.4%). These activities contributed to the establishment In Africa, the TC programme continued to focus of Member State capacities in the area of nuclear on capacity building, supporting the efforts of energy planning and development by providing key countries in the region to address poverty reduction stakeholders with the ability to address challenges 8 This section responds to section 3, operative paragraph 1 of resolution GC(57)/RES/11 on strengthening TC activities, including the provision of sufficient resources, based on Member States needs and priorities, and ensuring that the components of TC projects are readily available. 9 Terminology has changed with the implementation of AIPS/Oracle. Actuals are the equivalent of disbursements. 6

18 and issues arising from the decision to plan or expand by the broad acceptance of the InTouch platform and the use of nuclear power. The positive feedback the responsiveness of counterparts across the region. from participating Member States has underlined The increase in the region in the number of requests for the continued need for the development of national training and SouthSouth knowledge exchanges in the decision-making capabilities in Asia and the Pacific, form of capacity building continued. in order to support an integrated regional approach to Developing human resources and building future energy planning. capacities10 In the Europe region, the focus was on strengthening The Agency delivers TC to Member States through capabilities of Member States for the safe, secure and capacity building and the provision of necessary peaceful use of nuclear technology. Special emphasis equipment. Human resource development is facilitated was placed on enhancing regional and subregional through fellowships, scientific visits, training courses, collaboration among Member States in various meetings and workshops, as well as through the priority areas defined in the Europe Regional Profile. provision of expert advice. The highest number of TC projects for 20122013 was in the field of safety. For example, the Agency In Africa, many Member States face a continuing responded to the needs of newcomers to the nuclear shortage of skilled, trained human resources. This power sector in the Europe region through project poses a challenge for the development of sustainable RER/2/007, Enhancing Nuclear Power Infrastructures national nuclear science and technology programmes, for Countries Considering Developing or Expanding and many countries must depend heavily on Nuclear Power Programmes. Requirements for an educational institutions and training provided in other increased number of training courses in the health care regions. In 2013, the Agency helped African Member area in Russian were met through project RER/6/025, States to address the shortage of qualified human Building Capacity for Medical Physics in Radiation resources by delivering more than 1824 person-months Oncology at the International Training Centre (EARTH) of training. Eighty-six national and regional training for the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) courses were conducted, benefiting a total of 1320 Region, and a training event under project RER/5/016, participants. Capacity building focused on the areas Supporting Coordinated Control of Transboundary of human health, food and agriculture, water resources Animal Diseases with Socio-economic Impact and management, environmental protection, sustainable that Affect Human Health, responded to the regions energy development, industrial applications, uranium need to be prepared for the possible spread of animal mining, and safety and security. diseases. In the Asia and the Pacific region, institutional and In the Latin America and the Caribbean region, the human capacity building through human resource transfer of nuclear technology know-how to the development remains a priority. In 2013, 591 professionals who apply such knowledge in their fellowships were implemented. This represents a 35% home countries to address real needs and improve increase in the number of fellows compared to 2012. the wellbeing of the population is a priority. This The main training areas in 2013 were nuclear and transfer has to be undertaken in the most effective radiation safety and nuclear security, application of and efficient manner possible, and the Agency and isotopes and radiation in food and agriculture, radiation project counterparts in Member States dedicated a medicine and health, and nuclear engineering and significant amount of time to improving quality and technology. In addition, 56 regional training courses project management skills, which led to a smoother with 1029 participants were organized, representing programme implementation. These efforts were aided an increase in the number of participants of 27% compared to 2012. 10 This section responds to section 2, operative paragraph 1 of resolution GC(57)/RES/11 on facilitating and enhancing the transfer of nuclear technology and know-how among Member States. 7

19 In Europe, a major component of most TC projects is same project, workshops were organized to report on the development or strengthening of human resources progress in developing national strategies on education and the expansion of Member States capabilities for and training, and to develop the syllabus for a masters the safe, secure and peaceful use of nuclear technology. programme in radiation protection. This includes sharing experiences and best practices In Europe, PGECs were supported under projects in the Europe region. Strengthening and expanding RER/9/101, Building Competence Through Education existing methods for providing training to Member and Training in Support of Radiation Protection State professionals, including through e-learning, Infrastructures, and RER/9/109, Strengthening remains a priority for further development of human Education and Training Infrastructures and Building resources. Different forms of training are used within Competence in Radiation Safety. The most recent TC projects: subregional and national training events, PGEC was conducted in Russian, from October 2012 and multidisciplinary, thematic and site-specific to April 2013, in Belarus. training events. In addition, expert meetings or workshops provide some elements of training and are PGECs also contributed to enhancing the capabilities used as platforms for sharing knowledge. of Member States in the Asia and the Pacific region, and a course was hosted in 2013 in Kuala Lumpur, Broadening the human resource skills base and Malaysia. As in PGECs in other parts of the world, further strengthening capacities in the nuclear the trainees were young professionals who needed to field is a programme priority in Latin America and acquire a sound basis in radiation protection and related the Caribbean. In 2013, a total of 1921 scientists safety fundamentals in order to become, in due course, participated in fellowships, scientific visits, training leaders and trainers in the protection of the health and courses and meetings. safety of workers and the public from the hazards that Postgraduate training may be caused by exposure to ionizing radiation. Agency-sponsored postgraduate educational courses The TC programme also supports postgraduate training (PGECs) in radiation protection and the safety of in other nuclear fields. A cooperation agreement among radioactive sources are a well-established mechanism regional nuclear educational networks in Africa, to build national competencies in radiation protection including the AFRA Network for Education in Nuclear and safety. Lasting five months, PGECs bring together Science and Technology (AFRA-NEST), was signed in candidates who speak a common language, and address September 2013. Similarly, in order to promote human the education and training needs of graduate level staff resource development in the region, seven candidates earmarked for positions in radiation protection. All from States Parties to the African Regional Co- areas where nuclear technology is applied, including operative Agreement for Research, Development and industry, medicine and research, are covered. Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA) entered a two-year AFRA Masters Programme In 2013, PGECs were carried out in Africa under project in Nuclear Science and Technology at the School of RAF/9/048, Strengthening Education and Training Nuclear and Allied Sciences of the University of Infrastructure, and Building Competence in Radiation Ghana, which is one of AFRAs regional designated Safety. The courses took place in Morocco, for French- centres (RDCs) for higher and professional education. speaking countries, and Ghana, for English-speaking countries. Twenty candidates from 14 Member States Legislative and drafting assistance participated in the French programme, while a further The Agency promotes a comprehensive national legal 20 candidates from 12 Member States participated in framework and the establishment of the necessary legal the English programme hosted in Ghana. Under the 8

20 and regulatory infrastructure through interaction with Strengthening Regulatory Frameworks and National individual States and regional training courses, and by Infrastructures for the Control of Public Exposure supporting participants from Members States to attend and Radioactive Waste Management. Delegates from the annual Nuclear Law Institute and the Organisation 16 African countries attended the School in order for Economic Co-operation and Development/Nuclear to strengthen regulatory frameworks and national Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) International School of infrastructures for the control of public exposure and Nuclear Law. radioactive waste management in their respective countries, in accordance with the International Basic Under the regional projects on legislative assistance, Safety Standards. Each national delegation included a namely RAF/0/034, Establishing a Legal Framework legal officer and a technical expert from the countrys for the Safe, Secure and Peaceful Uses of Nuclear regulatory body. The workshop was implemented Energy, RER/9/105, Establishing National Legal using TC funding as well as Peaceful Uses Initiative Frameworks, and RAS/9/063, Providing Legislative (PUI) funds contributed by the USA, and provided Assistance, the Agency reviewed the draft nuclear guidance on the content and structure of regulations, legislation of 17 Member States and provided discussion of practical case studies with lessons comments to bring them in line with the IAEA Safety learned, drafting sessions, and one-on-one reviews of Standards and relevant international legal instruments. the drafts elaborated with international experts. The Participants from 51 Member States attended the annual event further offered the participants an opportunity Nuclear Law Institute (NLI), which was established to share experiences, exchange views and discuss the in order to meet the increased demand for training in challenges in their countries. nuclear law. The NLI enables participants to acquire a solid understanding of all aspects of nuclear law, and The first School for Drafting Regulations in the Asia to draft, amend or review national nuclear legislation. and the Pacific Region took place in January/February In addition, scientific visits to Agency headquarters 2013 within the framework of RAS/9/062, Promoting were organized for individuals from 6 Member States, and Maintaining Regulatory Infrastructures for the allowing fellows to gain further practical experience in Control of Radiation Sources, supported by an nuclear law. extrabudgetary contribution from the Government of Japan. Seventeen participants from seven Member The first School for Drafting Regulations on Radiation States in the region (Afghanistan, Cambodia, Lebanon, Safety specifically for African Member States took Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal and Thailand) received place in Vienna in December 2013 under RAF/9/045, Participants at the first School for Drafting Regulations on Radiation Safety for African Member States. 9

21 training that will assist them in drafting new regulations is progressing. This initiative, collectively referred or revising existing regulations in their countries. to as the Virtual University for Cancer Control and Regional Training Network (VUCCnet), is helping to In 2013, the Agency, with financial support from the establish training and mentorship networks within and European Union (EU), conducted Schools for Drafting amongst low and middle income countries, utilizing Regulations to develop or revise safety regulations under a web-based platform to make educational materials RER/9/096, Strengthening National Infrastructures for more easily accessible to and affordable for trainees. the Control of Radiation Sources (TSA-1), (Phase II). The VUCCnet initiative is currently moving towards Three Schools have been conducted for Member States becoming an intergovernmental entity with a managing in the Europe region since 2010, and the experience secretariat located in the region. In July 2013, the so far has indicated that changes in format, operation founding Member States (Egypt, Ghana, South Africa, and follow-up are necessary to improve the Schools Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania and Zambia) efficiency or to meet specific needs regarding particular unanimously agreed to ask the government of Uganda regulatory areas. to host the secretariat of the VUCCnet on behalf of Distance learning the sub-Saharan Africa region. The Ugandan Minister for Health agreed to lead the process of establishing AFRA-NEST was launched under project RAF/0/031, an intergovernmental agreement amongst VUCCnet Promoting Human Resources Development and founding members. On 27 November 2013, a meeting Nuclear Knowledge Management. The First AFRA- was held in Uganda at Makerere University, where NEST general assembly took place in August 2013 it was agreed to launch three courses on the regional in the United Republic of Tanzania. This meeting platform by mid-January 2014. contributed to the finalization of the AFRA-NEST statute and a prioritized action plan based on selected In the Asia and the Pacific region, a meeting was held priority areas for the region: namely information and in Daejeon, Republic of Korea, under RAS/0/064, communication technology (ICT), research reactors, Supporting Nuclear Education and Training through human health and human resource development. e-Learning and Other Means of Advanced Information Communication Technology, where the use of An AFRA-NEST web portal was developed under the regional learning management system (LMS)11 project RAF/0/037, Sustaining the Contributions of was demonstrated. Participating Member States Nuclear Science and Technology to Socio-economic discussed and agreed on a strategy and procedures for Development through the Use of Information and facilitating future e-learning activities through LMSs Communication Technology, in order to increase as well as arrangements for the development and use public recognition of AFRA-NEST, facilitate of new e-learning modules, national and regional information exchange and support the management seminars using the LMS and database development. of nuclear knowledge in the AFRA region. The web As a result, there is an enhanced awareness amongst portal, hosted by Ghana, is now operational, following the participating Member States of the potential of the installation of a server and other IT equipment e-learning platforms as cost-effective training and which facilitate links with the Agencys Cyber education tools in the field of nuclear science and its Learning Platform for Nuclear Education and Training application. (CLP4NET). A regional nuclear education database will be integrated during the second phase of the Also under RAS/0/064 in 2013, 18 trainees from 16 portals development. Member States attended a course in Indonesia that provided advice and training for future instructors Also in Africa, the establishment of a Virtual University on how to organize an e-learning course on energy for Cancer Control supported by regional cancer planning, using existing Agency e-learning packages on training and mentorship networks in sub-Saharan Africa 11 https://ilms.kaeri.re.kr 10

22 the subject and providing practical guidance on course Under the regional project RLA/6/069, Strengthening implementation, mentoring and monitoring, evaluation Clinical Applications of Hybrid Modalities: SPECT/CT and certification. Additional e-learning modules on and PET/CT PET in Latin American (RLA) Member the appropriate use of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose States, and in response to Member State needs to positron emission tomography for the management of develop skills and competencies in medical imaging, cancer patients, and on nuclear cardiology, are currently two online regional courses provided training for 370 under development, while the module on designing physicians from 14 countries, in cooperation with the high quality technical cooperation projects, based on Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. the logical framework approach launched in 2012, is The courses strengthened professional skills to analyse now available in both English and Spanish. and interpret medical imaging studies, in particular with hybrid modalities such as positron emission Finally, expert missions were conducted under the tomographycomputed tomography (PETCT) and same project in order to promote online distance single photon emission computed tomography assisted training (DATOL) and enhance its utilization. computed tomography (SPECTCT). A series of The missions, conducted in Bangladesh, China, complementary webinars on computer tomography Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Viet Nam, raised awareness (CT) were conducted for 1560 participants. E-learning of online distance assisted training among TC review modules on hybrid image analysis, covering programme stakeholders and potential users. Online neck, thoracic lymph and abdominal and pelvic distance assisted training activity in the countries lymph nodes were developed and published on the was monitored to identify changing patterns of usage Human Health Campus website. Part II of an online following the launch of the online discussion platform. Distance Assisted Training (DAT) Programme for The visits confirmed the need for additional in-country Nuclear Medicine Technologists was implemented to training on the use of online distance assisted training train nuclear medicine technologists in the most cost materials, and for the development of local technical efficient way, meaning that participants did not have to expertise to ensure sustainability. take long absences from their health care institutions. The Latin American Network for Education in During 2013, 272 participants started training using the Nuclear Technology (LANENT) helps to preserve two available modules, DAT1 (two years duration) and and disseminate knowledge, and to promote nuclear DAT2 (one years duration). In 2013, 26 participants knowledge transfer in Latin America. LANENT seeks completed training using these modules. to broaden academic and scientific cooperation among Networking and technical cooperation among its members, with the aim of promoting the benefits of developing countries (TCDC) nuclear technology in areas such as education, health, industry, government, environment, mining and others. With the support of the Agency, many African Member Through LANENT, participating network institutions States have successfully developed institutions and dedicated to the education and training of professionals training centres. In the framework of AFRA, 26 RDCs and technicians in the Latin American region can in African institutions have been established, providing gain access to important information about nuclear training and expert services for regional development. technology. The network also seeks to inform the These institutions have been selected in the fields of general public of the benefits of nuclear technology in human health, food and agriculture, industry, safety and order to arouse the interest of the younger generations. security, energy and environment. As these RDCs play During 2013, a dedicated website was launched and a a major role in the human resources capacity building database providing information about education and of the region, the Agency continued the provision of training institutions and learning opportunities in the support through the TC programme. region was initiated. Possibilities for the design and Under RAF/0/038, Promoting Technical Cooperation conduct of e-learning courses were explored and the among Developing Countries in Africa through mapping of existing e-learning sources was initiated. 11

23 Triangular Partnerships, the Agency supports energy supply options for domestic and commercial Member State TCDC initiatives with a view to purposes and on data collection capacities, an approach enhancing regional self-reliance and sustainability in to develop regional expertise for TCDC has been the utilization of nuclear techniques. Eight proposals developed. jointly submitted by AFRA States Parties were The development or strengthening of human resources selected in different fields of activity, including non- is a major component of most TC projects in the destructive testing (Democratic Republic of the Congo/ Europe region, aiming to expand national capabilities Morocco, Cameroon/South Africa and Sudan/South for the safe, secure and peaceful use of nuclear Africa), water resources (Tunisia/Senegal), secondary technology. This includes sharing experiences and standards dosimetry laboratories (Algeria/Nigeria), best practices in the region. TC projects use different radon detection (Cte dIvoire/Algeria), education in forms of training: subregional and national training nuclear medicine (Ethiopia/Algeria), and education in events, multidisciplinary, thematic and site-specific nuclear science and technology (Sudan/Egypt), and training events, and in addition all meetings of experts project implementation was launched in 2013. The and workshops provide some elements of training and approach involves three actors: namely the provider, a platform for knowledge sharing. Strengthening and the recipient and the Agency, and offers the possibility expanding existing training methods among them for the Agency to be a pivotal actor, providing e-learning remains a priority for future human technology transfer to meet the development needs of resource development. Member States. In 2013, achievements in networking and knowledge Another regional project, RAF/2/009, Planning for sharing in the Europe region included further Sustainable Energy Development, is facilitating the consolidation of a unique network of specialists under development of energy plans for various subregions, project RER/0/034, Enhancing the Characterization, including the Economic Community of West African Preservation and Protection of Cultural Heritage States (ECOWAS), the Common Market for Eastern Artefacts, while support for establishing and and Southern Africa (COMESA), the East African enhancing research reactor networks was provided Community (EAC), the Southern African Development under project RER/1/007, Enhancing Use and Safety Community (SADC) and the Organization for the of Research Reactors through Networking, Coalitions Development of the Senegal River (OMVS) countries. and Shared Best Practices. This project helped As well as intensive subregional training activities on RER/1/007: CISRRC meeting, Dimitrovgrad, Russian Federation, June 2013. 12

24 research reactor facilities in the Europe region to coordinators presented their national activities in increase their networking and cooperation, as well as marine environment monitoring, and the results of their their adherence to the Code of Conduct on the Safety of monitoring programmes. Participating countries have Research Reactors. Existing subregional coalitions and developed national capacities in radioactive monitoring the European Advisory Safety Committee for Research in the marine environment, and are benefiting from the Reactors were further supported, and two new entities interaction between more advanced countries and less were established: the Commonwealth of Independent experienced ones. A follow-up action plan, including States Research Reactor Coalition (CISRRC) and the the milestones with which each country has to comply Global TRIGA Research Reactor Network. Workshops with regard to monitoring of radioactive effluents in were provided on the advanced use of neutron imaging marine waters, was developed.12 for research and applications and on the development Under the same project, the submission of national and implementation of strategic plans at research data to the Asia-Pacific Marine Radioactivity Database reactors. (ASPAMARD) for compilation, analysis and reporting Nuclear applications for a sustainable was partially achieved in 2013. A second proficiency test marine environment for seawater for the countries with existing, adequate laboratory facilities took place in the second quarter of The title of the 2013 Scientific Forum was The 2013, and the results were circulated in October 2013. Blue Planet: Nuclear Applications for a Sustainable The data were uploaded to ASPAMARD in December Marine Environment. Discussions focused on climate 2013, in conjunction with a regional training course change and ocean acidification, radioactive and non- in Sri Lanka on quality management in environmental radioactive pollution of coastal and marine ecosystems, radionuclide sampling and analysis. and the use of nuclear and isotope techniques to improve global understanding of coastal processes The Asia and the Pacific region is particularly and to support appropriate management responses to vulnerable to climate change due to its extensive improve the resilience of coastal and marine systems. coastline, unique marine environments, and large The TC programme offers Member States assistance in coastal populations. Member States in this region each of these areas. are receiving support to address the impact of climate change through regional project RAS/7/024, In Africa, the Agency continues to implement project Supporting Nuclear and Isotopic Techniques to RAF/7/009, Supporting an Integrated Approach for Assess Climate Change Impact for Sustainable Marine Marine Pollution Monitoring Using Nuclear Analytical Ecosystem Management. The project promotes Techniques. This regional project helps Member States national projects and regional coordination in response to develop and implement an integrated approach for to climate change issues. In December 2013, a three- monitoring marine pollution and risk assessment, and day mid-term review meeting was hosted by India, to apply nuclear technology to address issues such attended by 21 participants from Member States in as transboundary pollution and seafood safety. This the region. RAS/7/024 country projects span a range project was presented by Ghana at the Scientific Forum. of topics, including analyses of water, sediment and In Asia and the Pacific, the second annual review biota in mangrove and coral ecosystems, and disturbed meeting for project RAS/7/021, Marine Benchmark coastal habitats. Radioisotopes, organic isotopic ratios, Study on the Possible Impact of the Fukushima and trace elements are being used to produce data in Radioactive Releases in the Asia-Pacific Region, was a variety of projects. The meeting also discussed how held in Palau in August 2013. The 22 national project participating countries could transfer climate change assessment data to national level stakeholders, such as 12 This paragraph responds to section 2, operative paragraph 5 of resolution GC(57)/RES/11 on providing assistance and support services to Member States, and to identify and implement the lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident. 13

25 OMA/7/001: Development of technical competence for phytoplankton sampling and detection of algal toxins. policymakers, and build their understanding of the use causes, of the coastal ecosystems of the wider Caribbean of stable and radioisotopes, by the conclusion of the region, using nuclear techniques to support integrated project. The project is successfully supporting strong coastal zone management. Under the project, a network regional cooperation in climate change-related issues. of laboratories was set up to monitor pollutants in the coastal marine environment and provide governments The Gulf of Oman is frequently affected by harmful with sound scientific data as support for decision- algal blooms (HABs). Project OMA/7/001, Establishing making. The outcomes of the project were presented a Reference Laboratory for Harmful Algal Blooms, is by Cuba at the Scientific Forum. supporting the development of national capabilities to manage HABs, focusing on algal species identification, The interregional project INT/7/017, Providing biotoxin detection and measurement of environmental Coordinated Support in the Use of Receptor Binding parameters, including organic pollutants using nuclear Assay to Address Impacts of Harmful Algal Toxins in receptor binding assay (RBA) and other isotopic Seafood, concluded successfully with the publication techniques. Technical and scientific knowledge is being of Detection of Harmful Algal Toxins Using the transferred through fellowships, scientific visits and Radioligand Receptor Binding Assay: A Manual of expert missions, involving the Agencys Collaborating Methods (IAEA-TECDOC-1729) under the leadership Centre on HABs in the Philippines (the Philippine of NAEL. A validation study13 involving TC recipient Nuclear Research Institute), the IAEA Environment Member States was completed through the project and Laboratories (NAEL) and the National Oceanic and the RBA method was adopted as an AOAC International Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). This is the first First Action Official Method for the determination TC HABs-related project to be implemented for the of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins. Capacity Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine building in monitoring harmful algal toxins using the Environment (ROPME) of the Gulf region. RBA method, and joint efforts to ensure the sustained availability and suitability of radiolabelled and other In Latin America, the regional project RLA/7/012, Use custom reagents, was facilitated by the collaboration of Nuclear Techniques to Address the Management forged through a practical agreement signed between Problems of Coastal Zones in the Caribbean Region, the Agency and the NOAA. assisted Member States to improve their capabilities to reduce degradation, due to anthropogenic and natural 13 The study was published in Journal of AOAC International, Vol. 95, No. 3, 2012 795 14

26 A.2. Building a more efficient, more Maximizing programme impact: Improving effective technical cooperation interaction with the United Nations system programme14 and building partnerships17 The Agencys TC projects are typically science, Country Programme Frameworks and technology or regulatory based, so the challenge Revised Supplementary Agreements of working with the UN system is to link national Country Programme Frameworks (CPFs) define capabilities and capacities resulting from technical mutually agreed priority development needs and cooperation activities to national development plans interests that can be supported and objectives. By strengthening through TC activities. CPFs reflect the link between the institutions CPFs signed in 2013 national development plans, country involved in the TC programme and Angola Sri Lanka national development authorities, specific analyses and lessons learned from past cooperation, Bangladesh TC projects reinforce the science The former and seek linkages with United Kuwait policy interface that underpins Yugoslav Nations Development Assistance Republic of sound and sustainable national Nigeria Frameworks (UNDAFs). CPFs Macedonia development. Such linkages, or Pakistan integration with development ensure that the application of nuclear technology is integrated with Panama Turkey authority plans and partners, are a Member States existing Portugal Uganda the overarching objective of the development plans. Thirteen CPFs partnership building process. Romania Ukraine were signed in 2013. TC programme partnership Revised Supplementary Agreements Concerning the building focuses on identifying and Provision of Technical Assistance by the IAEA (RSAs) planning partnerships at the country programme and govern the provision of technical assistance by the project levels in support of the Agencys results based Agency, and are required under the Statute and the approach to project management. For the 20162017 Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating TC programme, it is assumed that every TC project Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance will require partnership building, since few counterpart by the Agency15. They must be concluded by Member institutions can work alone to produce the desired States participating in the TC programme. One RSA project results. Special efforts will be made to ensure was signed in 2013, by Malawi. As at 16 January 2014, that the methodology and tools for identifying partners 123 Member States had signed an RSA.16 is understood. These are part of the logical framework approach (LFA), using the outputs from the stakeholder, problem and situation analyses. 14 Section A.2. responds to section 3, operative paragraph 1 of resolution GC(57)/RES/11 on strengthening TC activities, including the provision of sufficient resources, based on Member States needs and priorities, and ensuring that the components of TC projects are readily available. 15 http://www.iaea.org/Publications/Documents/Infcircs/Others/infcirc267.pdf 16 This paragraph responds to section 1, operative paragraph 1 of resolution GC(57)/RES/11 on adhering to the Statute and document INFCIRC/267; and to operative paragraph 2 on the importance of RSAs. 17 This section responds to section 5, operative paragraph 1 of resolution GC(57)/RES/11 on consultations and interactions with interested States, the UN system, multilateral financial institutions, regional development bodies and other relevant intergovernmental and non-governmental bodies; and section 5, operative paragraph 3 on developing and facilitating cost-sharing, outsourcing and other forms of partnership in development. 15

27 Practical arrangements with partner organizations are resolution GC(57)/RES/11, section 4, operative focused on operationalizing country level cooperation. paragraph 8, which requests the Secretariat to actively A case in point is the cooperation agreement with the pursue financing for footnote-a/ projects. Attention was United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in also given to addressing public-private partnerships in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or CPFs, recognizing that TCF resources are limited, and Desertification, particularly in Africa (UNCCD), where might in some cases be better leveraged as seed money. the management strategy calls for two step country For projects where technology represents a major level engagement. Between 2012 and 2013, project financial commitment, the private sector can play an counterparts undertaking Agency soil management important role as investor. and conservation projects briefed their corresponding Supporting gender equality: Women in the TC UNCCD national action plan focal points on technical programme18 capabilities that could support national plans. The relevant national action plan technical requirements The Agency encourages the participation of women were then integrated into TC project designs for the in every area of the TC programme. In line with 20142015 TC cycle, ensuring that the national action the Agencys gender policy, TC activities work to plan focal point was part of the TC project management mainstream gender and to enhance gender equality. In team. The resulting integration or alignment of national 2013, 4049 women from all regions participated in the scientific/technical capability with national programme TC programme, and an increase in female participation objectives reinforces the sciencepolicy interface and in the programme (Fig. 4) was discernible in almost all demonstrates the contribution of nuclear science and regions, for example, in Latin America there were 578 technology to development. (43%) female participants, constituting a 2.5% increase in female participation against 2012. The overall Financial partnerships percentage of female counterparts (Fig. 3), however, The integration and alignment of the country remained at the same level as 2012. programme with national and partner strategies, plans and objectives during the planning and design phase for the 20162017 TC cycle provides opportunities for resource mobilization. The new post-2015 SDGs that will succeed the current MDGs will guide the UN development process and donor preferences for 15 years. The Agencys efforts to integrate or align the 20162017 TC projects with national MDG plans and targets as an interim step are expected to produce two important results: counterpart institutes will gain new understanding of how their technical capabilities contribute to national plans and strategies; and new avenues will open for future resource mobilization, assuming that official development assistance continues to prioritize the MDGSDG axis. In 2013, the Secretariat initiated a review of footnote-a/ projects with major funding components, for possible resource mobilization. This was in response to 18 This section responds to section 2, operative paragraph 3 of resolution GC(57)/RES/11 on promoting gender equality and advancing gender balance in the TC programme. 16

28 Africa Asia and the Pacific 50% Europe Latin America Percentage of female project counterparts Average female participation 40% 30% 20% 10% 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Year Figure 3: Female project counterparts by region, 20092013. Africa Asia and the Pacific 50% Europe Latin America Average female participation 40% Percentage of female trainees 30% 20% 10% 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Year Figure 4: Female participation in training as fellows, scientific visitors, training course participants, meeting participants and other project personnel, 20092013. 17

29 Ensuring continual improvement of the TC content.20 The best practices mechanism established programme19 in 2012 was implemented, and eight best practices were identified and disseminated in 2013. A second Preparations for the new 20142015 TC cycle continued best practices exercise took place in 2013, and three throughout 2013. To ensure improved quality in project more best practices were recognized at a best practices designs, two sample-based reviews of draft project dissemination meeting in February 2014. designs were conducted in January and April 2013. Lessons from the reviews of previous years were used A working group on knowledge management was to further refine the methodology. Recommendations established in 2013 to examine how the Department for improvement in terms of compliance with the of Technical Cooperation can align its knowledge LFA and core TC requirements were shared and used management activities with those of the Agencys in- to finalize the designs. Furthermore, a consolidated house corporate knowledge management system. quality assessment of all national projects and around The implementation of accepted Office of Internal 60% of regional projects was carried out in September Oversight Services (OIOS) recommendations was 2013. This has helped to establish a baseline for systematically followed up in 2013. Forty-two OIOS future quality reviews, as well as to identify areas for recommendations were closed in 2013, a significant continual improvement. increase on the 15 closed in 2012 Training workshops were facilitated in Member States Addressing challenges that affect TC as well as within the Secretariat. These contributed to programme implementation enhancing the project design capacity of TC stakeholders (counterparts, National Liaison Officers, Programme Efficient implementation of the TC programme rests Management Officers and Technical Officers) in using on several factors. These include the timely payment of the LFA methodology, and in applying the principles National Participation Costs by Member States, which and tools for TC project monitoring. An online LFA e allows the implementation of project activities to start learning course in English and Spanish supported the promptly at the beginning of the programme cycle, or learning process for all interested parties. as established in the project document. Changes in the security environment can also affect the deployment of To ensure continual improvement in the TC planned activities, and here the Secretariat may seek programme, guidelines for result-oriented TC project alternative means of delivery, including changing the monitoring were published, and the methodology for geographical location of project components such as field monitoring missions was piloted and validated training events. Finally, it is important that an adequate through several missions. Over 400 Project Progress national radiation safety infrastructure is in place Assessment Reports (PPARs) have now been before radioactive sources can be provided, and here submitted to the Secretariat, and a working group was the Secretariat works with Member States to address set up at the end of 2013 to review their format and identified gaps through dedicated technical cooperation projects. 19 This section responds to section 3, operative paragraph 4 of resolution GC(57)/RES/11 on providing Member States with information on project development according to the LFA; to section 3, operative paragraph 6 on the two-step mechanism in monitoring the quality of TC projects; and to section 3, operative paragraph 7 on enhancing adherence with the central criterion and all the TC requirements. 20 This responds to section 3, operative paragraph 5 of resolution GC(57)/RES/11 on regular reporting on the implementation and outcomes of TC projects and providing guidance to Member States. 18

30 B. TC Programme Resources and Delivery 19

31 20

32 B. TC Programme Resources and Delivery B.1. Financial overview Resources for the technical cooperation programme21 At the end of 2013, 66.3 million or 92.8% of the 71.4 million target had been pledged for the 2013 TCF, and 65.7 million in payments had been received. Total TCF resources including National Participation Costs (NPCs), assessed programme cost (APC) arrears and miscellaneous income amounted to 66.3 million (65.7 million TCF, 0.4 million NPCs, 0.02 million APCs, 0.15 million miscellaneous income), higher than the 2012 figure of 58.1 million. New extrabudgetary resources for 2013 came to 10.7 million and in-kind contributions were 1.2 million. The rate of attainment on pledges, as at 31 December 2013, was 92.8% for 2013, higher than in 2012 (89.3%). The rate of attainment on payments for 2013, as at 31 December 2013, was 91.9% (reflecting unpaid pledges of 0.6 million), higher than the 88.3% rate for 2012 as at 31 December 2012. 120 100 80 (millions) 60 40 20 0 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 TCF Extrabudgetary Funds In-kind Figure 5: Trends in TC programme resources, 20042013. This section responds to section 4, operative paragraph 2 of resolution GC(57)/RES/11 on the payment of TCF contributions and 21 NPCs, and payment of APC arrears; and to section 4, operative paragraph 5 on timely payments to the TCF. 21

33 Table 1: TC programme resources in 2013 2013 target for voluntary contributions to the TCF 71.4 million Technical Cooperation Fund, NPC, APC, miscellaneous income 66.3 million Extrabudgetary resources22 10.7 million In-kind contributions 1.2 million Total new resources for the TC programme 78.2 million Table 2: Payment of National Participation Costs (NPCs) and assessed programme cost (APC) arrears Received in 2013 Outstanding payments NPCs 0.44 million 0.4 million APCs 0.02 million ($0.03 million) 0.9 million ($1.2 million) 98.0% 95.9% 96.1% 94.8% 96.0% 94.8% 95.9% 94.5% 94.0% 96.1% 92.8% 92.3% 90.6% 94.5% 92.0% 89.9% 89.3% 91.9% 90.6% 89.3% 90.0% 89.9% 88.0% 90.2% 88.3% 86.0% 86.0% 84.0% 82.0% 80.0% 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Per cent of target pledged Rate of attainment on payments Figure 6: Rate of attainment trends, 20042013. Extrabudgetary and in-kind contributions23 Extrabudgetary contributions from all sources in 2013 (donor countries, international and bilateral organizations, government cost sharing) accounted for 10.7 million. More detail is contained in Table 3 (extrabudgetary contribution by donor) and Table 4 (government cost sharing). In-kind contributions accounted for 1.2 million in 2013. 22 Please refer to Table A.5 of the Supplement to this report for details. 23 This section responds to section 4, operative paragraph 8 of resolution GC(57)/RES/11 on seeking resources to implement footnote-a/ projects; to section 4, operative paragraph 9 on voluntary contributions and the implementation of footnote-a/ projects; and to section 4, operative paragraph 10 on extrabudgetary contributions, including the PUI. 22

34 Table 3: Extrabudgetary contributions allotted to TC projects in 2013, by donors (in euros) Chile 7 830 Russian Federation 637 660 Czech Republic 133 447 Sweden 229 239 Japan 1 062 805 United States of America 3 870 172 Korea, Republic of 234 152 AFRA Fund 269 614 Malaysia 7 670 European Commission 1 591 797 Table 4: Government cost sharing allotted to TC projects in 2013 (in euros) Albania 30 000 Kuwait 127 000 Bolivia 50 000 Malta 45 000 Costa Rica 152 460 Pakistan 411 155 Cte dIvoire 100 000 Slovakia 50 000 Croatia 75 000 Sri Lanka 120 273 Estonia 80 000 Turkey 105 624 Iran, Islamic Republic of 150 000 Uganda 325 297 Iraq 464 772 Uzbekistan 47 144 Kenya 210 804 Zimbabwe 75 050 40 35 30 25 (millions) 20 15 10 5 - 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Government cost sharing International and bilateral organizations Donor countries Figure 7: Trends in extrabudgetary contributions by donor type, 20042013. 23

35 B.2. Delivering the technical cooperation programme Financial implementation TC programme delivery is expressed in both financial and non-financial terms. Financial delivery is articulated in terms of actuals and encumbrances. Non-financial delivery (i.e. outputs) can be expressed numerically in terms of, for example, experts deployed or training courses conducted. Financial implementation for the TCF, measured against the budget for 2013 as on 31 December 2013, reached 83.7%, higher than the 76.5% attained in 2012 for the TCF (Table 5). Table 5: Delivery of outputs under the TCF: financial indicators for 2012 and 2013 Indicator 2012 2013 Budget allotment at year end24 79 514 463 86 456 641 Encumbrances + actuals 60 867 056 72 376 048 Implementation rate 76.5% 83.7% Unallocated balance At the end of 2013, the unallocated balance25 was 4.9 million. Of this total, some 0.7 million were unpaid TCF pledges. In 2013, 3.4 million were received as advance payments for the 2014 TCF. Some 1.0 million of cash is held in currencies which are difficult to use in the implementation of the TC programme. Table 6: Comparison of the unallocated balance of the TCF (in euros) Description 2012 2013 Total unallocated balance 9 924 799 4 933 346 Pledges not yet paid (681 578) (729 789) Advance payment in 2012 and 2013 for TCF for following year 3 482 041 3 354 848 Non-convertible currencies that cannot be utilized (12 257) (11 918) Currencies that are difficult to convert and can only be used (1 311 516) (994 455) slowly Adjusted unallocated balance 11 401 489 6 552 032 24 Includes carry-over from the previous year of 35.9 million, of which 29.4 million is already allocated to the budget of active and ongoing TC projects. 25 Total funds not allocated to TC projects. 24

36 Human resources26 Human resource indicators show the non-financial delivery of the TC programme. Indicators for 2013 show an increase, compared to 2012, in expert and lecturer assignments, meeting participation, fellowships and scientific visits, and the number of training courses. Table 7: Delivery of outputs: non-financial indicators for 2012 and 2013 Increase/ Indicator 2012 2013 (decrease) Expert and lecturer assignments 3250 3509 259 Meeting participants and other project personnel 4880 5331 451 Fellowships and scientific visitors in the field 1675 2005 330 Training course participants 3117 3041 (76) Regional and interregional training courses 191 209 18 At the end of 2013, there were 791 active projects with an additional 169 projects in the process of being closed. During 2013, 97 projects were closed, four of which were cancellations. Programme Reserve projects One Programme Reserve project was implemented in 2013, at the request of Saudi Arabia. Table 8: Programme Reserve projects in 2013 Encumbrances Project Actuals end 2013 Total end 2013 SAU/2/005 - Infrastructure Development for the Introduction of Nuclear Power Programme in the 34 250.60 1 577.00 35 827.60 Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. 26 This section responds to section 3, operative paragraph 1 of resolution GC(57)/RES/11 on strengthening TC activities, including the provision of sufficient resources, based on Member States needs and priorities, and ensuring that the components of TC projects are readily available 25

37 26

38 C. Programme Activities and Achievements in 2013: Regional Overview 27

39 28

40 C. Programme Activities and Achievements in 2013: Regional Overview 27 C.1. Africa Emcumbrances and actuals: 21.6million TCF Implementation rate: 80.4% Number of countries receiving TC support: 40 750 expert and lecturer assignments 703 fellowships and scientific visits 1247 meeting participants and other project personnel 922 participants in 46 regional training training courses courses Energy 5.0% Industrial applications/radiation technology 7.6% Water and the environment 7.6% Nuclear knowledge development and management 10.6% Safety and security 16.3% Food and agriculture 24.7% Health and nutrition 28.1% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% Figure 8: Actuals in the Africa region in 2013 by technical field. 27 Section C responds to section 2, operative paragraph 1 of resolution GC(57)/RES/11 on facilitating and enhancing the transfer of nuclear technology and know-how among Member States; to section 2, operative paragraph 2 on strengthening TC activities through the development of effective programmes and well defined outcomes; and to section 5, operative paragraph 2 on promoting TC activities supporting the self-reliance, sustainability and further relevance of national nuclear and other entities in Member States, and enhancing regional and interregional cooperation. 29

41 Regional highlights in 2013 CPFs signed in Africa in 2013 The number of African Member States receiving TC Angola Uganda assistance continues to grow. The Agency is currently Nigeria supporting 40 Member States in Africa through the TC programme, of which 24 are least developed countries (LDCs). Over 300 TC projects were implemented in the Africa region during the second year of the 2012 In 2013, the Agency worked with Member States in the 2013 TC programme cycle. The TC programme in region to build partnerships, mobilize extrabudgetary the Africa region achieved an implementation rate of resources, strengthen regional cooperation, and build 80.4% in 2013. human and institutional capacity for the sustainable application of nuclear technology for development. The The development of CPFs remained an important development and strengthening of adequate radiation component in targeted upstream programming safety and security infrastructure in the region remains throughout 2013, with intensive consultations and one of the highest priority areas. interaction between the Member States and the Secretariat. Three new CPFs were signed over the As in previous years, efforts were made to strengthen course of the year the management of the TC programme by providing Signature of the CPF for Angola. By linking CPFs with UNDAFs, the Agency ensures that its TC programme is integrated with broader training for stakeholders. Two induction workshops national development initiatives under UNDAFs in were conducted in 2013 for newly appointed National the African Member States. By the end of 2013, the Liaison Officers (NLOs) and National Liaison Agency was involved in the UNDAF process in 16 Assistants of African Member States, including from countries in the Africa region, and was reaching out to new Member States. The training provided a broad establish linkages and become involved in the UNDAF overview of Agency support and activities, and process in other African Member States. Three new included a component on results based management UNDAFs for Egypt, Niger and Nigeria were signed by using the LFA. the Agency in 2013. 30

42 The Agency also focused on promoting the poverty reduction in the region. The report also peaceful application of nuclear technology for presented the Agencys collaboration with other UN Africas development and prosperity. Recognizing organizations in the period from May 2013 to April the importance of advocacy work and support 2014. mobilization, the Agency participated in various The Agency also participated in events to mark United important international processes relevant to the Africa Nations Day in Ghana and in the United Republic region in 2013. This included attending the fifth Tokyo of Tanzania, raising awareness of the Agencys International Conference on African Development, contribution to development in Africa. where outreach material was distributed to highlight how Agency technical cooperation activities have The Agency is engaged in the implementation of a large supported the progress of African Member States in the scale, four year project (RAF/7/011) on water resource peaceful application of nuclear science and technology. management in the Sahel region, covering five major Advocacy work of this sort strengthens partnership aquifer systems shared by thirteen African Member outreach and collaboration, facilitates the coordination States. This project was approved by the IAEA Board and optimization of complementary activities, and of Governors in June 2012 and has received support supports a more streamlined international response to through PUI funding from Japan, Sweden and the Africas development challenges. United States of America. In addition to ongoing TC projects, eleven new national projects were initiated at The Agency provided comprehensive input to the the start of 2014 to provide further support to African UN Secretary Generals report to the UN Committee Member States in water resource management capacity for Programme and Coordination on progress in building. implementing the New Partnership for Africas Development. The Agency report presented activities A strategic action programme (subregional implemented under the TC programme that make an arrangement) for the management of the shared Nubian effective, tangible contribution to building capacity Sandstone Aquifer System was signed during the 57th in African Member States, as well as outlining how session of the General Conference by the Governments the Agency contributes to the creation of an enabling of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan. The agreement, environment for socioeconomic development and one of the key outcomes of a joint Agency and Global Signature of the strategic action programme for the management of the shared Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System by Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan. 31

43 Environment Facility project, carried out in cooperation and the Agency held a consultative meeting in Vienna with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and in November 2013 to review progress and agree on Cultural Organization (UNESCO), is the first strategic measures to further strengthen cooperation. action programme to provide a legal framework for the joint management of the aquifer. It outlines the legal, Regional cooperation policy and institutional reforms needed to address key AFRA continues to foster TCDC in Africa and to transboundary concerns and their root causes at both enhance regional cooperation among its 35 States the regional and national levels. Parties. Following the endorsement of the second Some 80% of Africas people lack access to basic Regional Strategic Cooperative Framework (RCF) radiotherapy and related cancer services. Through for 20142018, the proposed AFRA regional project the TC programme, the Agency provides assistance designs for the 20142015 TC programme cycle were to African Member States in the form of human aligned with the major themes of the new RCF. The new resource development, the conduct of expert framework prioritizes human resource development missions and the provision of certain equipment. The and strategic partnership building. Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) and the The Agency facilitated a series of meetings on Islamic Development Bank (IDB) have demonstrated partnership building and resource mobilization for the a strong interest in helping African Member States Africa region in 2013 for the AFRA Chair, the Vienna- to address the challenge of cancer under cost sharing based African Group and the Permanent Missions arrangements. A partnership with OIC and IDB for in Vienna. This led to the sharing of information on cancer control in Africa was initiated by the Agency achievements and project successes, with the aim in 2011, followed by a high level seminar in Jeddah, of seeking enhanced partnerships and strengthened Saudi Arabia, in 2012. As an outcome of the joint support for the implementation of the unfunded portion effort, three African countries (Cte dIvoire, Niger of the programme. and Tunisia) that are members of the Agency, OIC and IDB presented bankable proposals for cancer control The 24th AFRA Technical Working Group Meeting to the IDB in 2013. The representatives of OIC, IDB was held in June 2013 in conjunction with the meeting AFRA national representatives meet in Vienna, September 2013. 32

44 of NLOs and AFRA National Coordinators, and strategic programmatic initiative for AFRA-NEST. several recommendations were endorsed on enhancing The AFRA RDCs continued to play an important role efficiency and effectiveness in the delivery of the TC in the provision of education and training in various programme in Africa. fields in the region in 2013. The first general assembly of the AFRA Network The AFRA Fund was established in 2009 by AFRA for Education in Nuclear Science and Technology States Parties to mobilize additional contributions for (AFRA-NEST) was held in August 2013 in the United Agency TC in Africa. In 2013, AFRA States Parties Republic of Tanzania. The assembly contributed to the contributed 312 403 to the AFRA Fund. This has been finalization of the AFRA-NEST statute, and developed allotted to unfunded AFRA projects. a prioritized action plan to establish a sustained Voluntary contributions to the AFRA Fund, 2013 (in euros) Burkina Faso 3004.54 Ghana 3925.00 Botswana 7963.00 Mauritius 22 473.00 Cameroon 9077.00 Nigeria 111 663.00 Cte dIvoire 5406.00 Uganda 1825.00 Democratic Republic of the Congo 4855.30 United Republic of Tanzania 8033.00 Egypt 133 909.00 33

45 C.2. Asia and the Pacific Emcumbrances and actuals: 18.5 million TCF Implementation rate: 82.8% Number of countries receiving TC support: 33 930 expert and lecturer assignments 591 fellowships and scientific visits 1306 meeting participants and other project personnel 1029 participants in 56 regional training training courses courses Water and the environment 6.9% Industrial applications/radiation technology 11.5% Nuclear knowledge development and management 11.7% Energy 13.1% Health and nutrition 15.0% Food and agriculture 19.4% Safety and security 22.4% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% Figure 9: Actuals in the Asia and the Pacific region in 2013 by technical field. 34

46 Regional highlights in 2013 CPFs signed in Asia and the Pacific in 2013 In 2013, the Agency provided TC support to 33 Bangladesh Pakistan countries and territories in the Asia and the Pacific Kuwait Sri Lanka region. Significant efforts were made to increase programme quality in the region through intensified policy dialogue and coordination with national improve rice productivity, combining their expertise stakeholders, particularly NLOs and project to develop sustainable rice production systems that counterparts. Actions were deployed to streamline will improve food security and farmers livelihoods programme and project management and to support in the Asia and the Pacific region. The initiative greater efficiency in programme delivery. As a result, brings together nuclear techniques for crop mutation an implementation rate of 82.8% was achieved in the induction (supported by the Agency) and conventional region. methods that include molecular and biotechnologies Strategic planning of TC activities through the CPF (promoted by FAO and IRRI) in integrated packages modality is key to ensuring the quality and successful supported with innovative soil, water and crop implementation of the TC programme in the region. nutrient management. The initiative also aims to Four new CPFs were signed over the course of the year. develop improved rice varieties that are better able to adapt to climate variability and change, and to The Agency, the Food and Agriculture Organization transfer these varieties efficiently to rice farmers. The of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Agency component is delivered through RAS/5/065, Rice Research Institute (IRRI) are working together to Signature of the CPF for Sri Lanka. 35

47 Supporting Climate-Proofing Rice Production Systems The Co-operative Agreement for Arab States in Asia (CRiPS) Based on Nuclear Applications, technically for Research, Development and Training related to supported by the Soil and Water Management and Nuclear Science and Technology (ARASIA) promotes Crop Nutrition Laboratory and the Plant Breeding and and coordinates activities for training, research, Genetics Section. development and applications of nuclear science and technology. In 2013, ARASIA was extended for a third Regional cooperation term from July 2014 to July 2020. With the support In response to an emergency situation, and at the of the Agency, ARASIA has revised its guidelines request of Member States, the Agency supported and operating rules. This is expected to strengthen capacity building in the Asia and the Pacific and the management of ARASIA and to ensure effective Europe regions to fight the new H7N9 strain of avian development and delivery of the ARASIA programme. influenza. Relevant expertise was transferred through Over the past decade, cooperation between ARASIA regional project RER/5/016, Supporting Coordinated States Parties and the Agency has helped to establish Control of Transboundary Animal Diseases with regional cooperation and networking among various Socio-economic Impact and that Affect Human institutions in the region, particularly in food and Health, to 21 participants from 13 Member States, and agriculture, water resource management, medical through regional project RAS/5/060, Supporting Early physics, protection of the marine environment, nuclear Warning, Response and Control of Transboundary analytical techniques, and quality assurance and quality Animal Diseases, to 21 participants from 12 Member control in nuclear analytical techniques. This regional States, focusing on enhancing early and rapid cooperation has increased awareness of the peaceful diagnostic techniques, and improving the technical, application of nuclear technology among various risk assessment and epidemiological competence of institutions in the region. the participants. The courses were facilitated by six internationally recognized experts. Signature of the CPF for Bangladesh. 36

48 C.3. Europe Emcumbrances and actuals: 14.8 million TCF Implementation rate: 87.1% Number of countries receiving TC support: 29 867 expert and lecturer assignments 368 fellowships and scientific visits 2026 meeting participants and other project personnel 650 participants in 66 regional training training courses courses Water and the environment 1.6% Food and agriculture 4.6% Energy 4.7% Nuclear knowledge development and management 6.4% Industrial applications/radiation technology 8.9% Safety and security 31.0% Health and nutrition 42.7% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% Figure 10: Actuals in the Europe region in 2013 by technical field. 37

49 Regional highlights in 2013 Asia and the Regional UNDG Team, which provides guidance and facilitation at the regional level. The Technical cooperation in the Europe region in 2013 Agency also cooperated closely with United Nations covered a wide range of areas, particularly the Resident Coordinators Offices in relevant Member development of nuclear power, applications in health States and with UN Country Teams, in particular care, industry and agriculture, as well as environmental through participation in the UNDAF/One UN initiative. protection and remediation. A major emphasis UNDAF processes are in progress in 16 Member States continued to be on maintaining appropriate levels of in the Europe region: Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, safety and security, on the part of both the users of Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, Kazakhstan, nuclear technology and the regulatory authorities, in Kyrgyzstan, Montenegro, Republic of Moldova, all aspects of the peaceful use of nuclear technology. Serbia, Tajikistan, the former Yugoslav Republic of The region achieved an implementation rate of 87.1% Macedonia, Turkey, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. The in 2013. process greatly facilitates the linking of the CPF and the UNDAF in certain important thematic areas, CPFs signed in Europe in 2013 particularly health and the environment, and enhances Portugal Turkey The former synergy between the work of the Agency and that of Yugoslav other UN organizations. Romania Ukraine Republic of Macedonia Regional cooperation Regional cooperation among Member States and Member States in the Europe region received with key regional and international partners, such as assistance in developing and updating CPFs under the EC and UN organizations, is vital in enhancing project RER/0/036, Supporting Programme Review the effectiveness of the TC programme in the region. and Planning, and five CPFs were signed in the region It facilitates the open exchange of experience and in 2013. CPFs were used in finalizing plans for TC with practice among the Member States in all areas related the Agency for the 20142015 TC cycle. to the peaceful use of nuclear energy. In 2013, Member The Agency also promoted cooperation with other UN State NLOs endorsed the Europe Regional Profile for organizations through participation in the UN Regional the period 20142017, which outlines medium term Coordination Mechanism for Europe and Central priorities for the region, taking into consideration recent developments and trends. Signature of the CPF for Turkey. 38

50 C.4. Latin America and the Caribbean Emcumbrances and actuals: 13.7 million TCF Implementation rate: 89.3% Number of countries receiving TC support: 22 596 expert and lecturer assignments 343 fellowships and scientific visits 748 meeting participants and other project personnel 440 participants in 37 regional training training courses courses Energy 3.4% Industrial applications/radiation technology 3.8% Water and the environment 7.0% Nuclear knowledge development and management 11.6% Food and agriculture 17.3% Safety and security 22.1% Health and nutrition 34.9% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% Figure 11: Actuals in the Latin America region in 2013 by technical field. Regional highlights in 2012 In 2013, the Agencys TC programme supported 22 Member States in the Latin America and the Caribbean region, one of which is a least developed country. Regional priority thematic areas for the region, as established in the Regional Strategic Profile for Latin America and the Caribbean (RSP) 20072013, are food security, human health, environment, energy and industry, and radiation safety. In addition to traditional capacity building support in the 39

51 various fields of activity, particular attention was project is aimed at strengthening regional cooperation paid to supporting developments in food irradiation in the region. ARCAL cooperated closely with the technology, and to enhancing understanding of the Agency during the project design phase for the new TC processes that affect the regions marine environment. cycle. In November 2013, the project Designated Team The implementation rate for Latin America and the Members, ARCAL national coordinators responsible Caribbean amounted to 89.3%, the highest rate of all for the relevant fields of activity, and Secretariat staff four regions. met to agree on concrete steps regarding programme implementation, and to ensure that cross-cutting issues, Of the 24 Member States in the region, 11 countries such as quality and timeliness of progress reporting, had valid CPFs in place by the end of 2013 this communication and partnerships, were taken into amounts to 50% of all Member States in the region, account. excluding the two newest, namely Trinidad and Tobago and Dominica. One CPF was signed in 2013. A new In 2013, a communication strategy and a partnership UNDAF for Cuba was also signed in 2013. strategy were drafted for ARCAL under project RLA/0/046, Strengthening Communication and Partnerships in ARCAL Countries to Enhance Nuclear CPFs signed in Latin America in 2013 Applications and Sustainability. Both strategies will Panama be submitted to the ARCAL governing bodies for approval in mid 2014. Regional cooperation and partnerships Since 2012, the Agency and ARCAL have been The Co-operation Agreement for the Promotion of cooperating closely on the preparation of a new Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and RSP for the period 20162021. In November 2013, the Caribbean (ARCAL) plays an important role in an advanced draft of the new RSP was circulated to defining priorities and promoting the peaceful uses of Member States and within the Secretariat for final atomic energy in the region. Of the 24 Member States review before proceedings to formally endorse the in the region, 21 have acceded to ARCAL. document are begun. The RSP will be completed in March 2014 with an indicative implementation plan Eight regional ARCAL projects were approved that will facilitate the formulation of future TC cycles for the 20142015 TC programme. Of these, three and the subsequent selection of project proposals in address regional needs in human health, three address accordance with defined programmatic priorities. agriculture, and one the environment. One additional Signature of the CPF for Panama. 40

52 C.5. Interregional projects Interregional projects address the common needs of Member States in different geographical regions. They can be trans-regional, global, capacity building or joint activities. In 2013, encumbrances and actuals under interregional projects totalled 3.2 million. There are currently 21 active interregional projects. Industrial applications/radiation technology 1.0% Water and the environment 2.0% Food and agriculture 5.9% Health and nutrition 8.4% Energy 24.8% Safety and security 27.2% Nuclear knowledge development and management 30.6% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% Figure 12: Interregional actuals in 2013 by technical field. INT/5/150: Participants of the interregional training course on accelerated breeding of mutant traits in crops. 41

53 Table 9: Active interregional projects Project First year of Project title number approval INT0083 Support for Human Capacity Building in Developing Member States 2009 Sharing Best Practices for the Design and Management of Technical INT0085 2010 Cooperation Projects Building Human Capacity for the Construction, Operation and Use of INT0086 2012 SESAME Supporting Human Capacity Building in Developing Member States (Phase INT0087 2012 II) INT0089 Developing Human Resources and Supporting Nuclear Technology 2014 Overall Action Monitoring and Reporting EC-IAEA Contribution INT0090 2013 Agreement 2013/313-757 Supporting Non-Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Molybdenum-99 INT1056 2012 Production Capacity for Nuclear Medicine Applications Supporting Nuclear Power Infrastructure Capacity Building in Member INT2013 2012 States Introducing and Expanding Nuclear Power Supporting Member States to Evaluate Nuclear Reactor Technology for INT2014 2012 Near-Term Deployment Supporting Uranium Exploration, Resource Augmentation and Production INT2015 2012 Using Advanced Techniques INT2016 Supporting Climate Change Mitigation Strategies and Energy Options 2012 Capacity Building in Long-Range Strategic Nuclear Energy Planning for INT2017 2012 Global Sustainability INT5150 Responding to the Transboundary Threat of Wheat Black Stem Rust (Ug99) 2009 Sharing Knowledge on the Use of the Sterile Insect and Related Techniques INT5151 2012 for Integrated Area-Wide Management of Insect Pests INT6054 Strengthening Medical Physics in Radiation Medicine 2009 Supporting Quality Management Audits in Nuclear Medicine Practices INT6056 2012 (QUANUM) Providing Coordinated Support in the Use of Receptor Binding Assay to INT7017 2009 Address Impacts of Harmful Algal Toxins in Seafood INT7018 Supporting Capacity Building in Marine Environmental Protection 2009 INT9174 Connecting Networks for Enhanced Communication and Training 2012 Promoting Safe and Efficient Clean-up of Radioactively Contaminated INT9175 2012 Facilities and Sites Strengthening Cradle-to-Grave Control of Radioactive Sources in the INT9176 2012 Mediterranean Region 42

54 List of frequently used abbreviations AFRA African Regional Co-operative MDG United Nations Millennium Agreement for Research, Development Development Goal and Training Related to Nuclear NPCs National Participation Costs Science and Technology NPP nuclear power plant Agency International Atomic Energy Agency PUI Peaceful Uses Initiative APCs assessed programme costs RCA Regional Co-operative Agreement for ARASIA Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Arab States in Asia for Research, Related to Nuclear Science and Development and Training related to Technology Nuclear Science and Technology RR research reactor ARCAL Co-operation Agreement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and TC technical cooperation Technology in Latin America and the TCF Technical Cooperation Fund Caribbean UNDAF United Nations Development CPF Country Programme Framework Assistance Framework IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency 43

55 44

56 Annex 1. Achievements in 2013: Project Examples by Thematic Sector 45

57 46

58 Annex 1. Achievements in 2013: Project Examples by Thematic Area Health and nutrition radiation therapy for predominant cancers in the RCA Regional highlights region. Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cancer In Europe, the TC programme in the health area is are an increasing public health concern in many African focused on improving health care capacities in Member countries. Because of limited infrastructure and, more States through integrating nuclear medicine, diagnostic significantly, a lack of specialized human resources, radiology and radiotherapy into comprehensive health many patients must undergo medical evacuation in care programmes, to ensure widespread compliance order to receive diagnosis or treatment. A growing with internationally acceptable standards. Training number of countries in the region are prioritizing cancer has allowed medical practitioners to upgrade their control management, including the establishment of a capabilities, thus contributing to their professional radiation medicine centre. In countries with existing development. infrastructure, however, it can be a challenge to sustain a quality management system. The Agencys TC Member States in the Europe region have shown strong programme strives to provide support in the region interest in attending courses organized by the European to meet these diverse needs. Special attention is also Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (ESTRO) being given to infant and child nutrition, in support of and the European Association of Nuclear Medicine global efforts to meet the MDGs. (EANM). In 2013, a renewed agreement with ESTRO and EANM has enabled the Agency to support more In the Asia and the Pacific region, the Agency continued course participants than before. to help RCA States Parties throughout 2013 to improve national and regional radiotherapy service capacities. The focus of the Latin America TC programme in This was achieved through the completion of a series of human health was to build, strengthen and maintain regional training courses, initiated in 2010, which has essential capabilities in the national institutions created a sustainable mechanism for national training responsible for health care and services. Throughout programmes. The eight training courses supported the 2013, the programme in the region focused on attainment of adequate self-sufficiency and technical improving the quality and accessibility of health know-how in the clinical practice of image based care services by providing equipment (usually with 47

59 government cost sharing support) and training for applications to be introduced into Benins hospital radiation oncology, nuclear medicine, medical physics, care system, and the necessary human resources and nutrition professionals and technicians in these fields. equipment. Government officials made scientific visits Expert guidance for safe and effective diagnosis, to two operational radiotherapy and nuclear medicine treatment and palliation, as well as the evaluation of centres in Africa, and a coordination meeting was held programmes to prevent and treat malnutrition and in Vienna to finalize the feasibility study document promote exclusive breastfeeding, was also provided. under the guidance of Agency Technical Officers. This was done through 17 national and regional In 2010, the Islamic Republic of Mauritania projects. inaugurated its first radiotherapy facility at the National Special efforts were made in the region to build Oncology Centre (CNO) of Nouakchott, supported by partnerships for resource mobilization to strengthen project MAU/6/002, Planning the Establishment of national health care facilities, especially in light a Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine Centre, and of the increasing incidence of cancer. A significant subsequently by project MAU/6/003, Establishing a number of professionals were financed through type Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy Centre within the II fellowship contributions. Several projects benefited Framework of a National Cancer Programme (Phase from significant financial contributions by the country 2). The centre treated 250 patients in 2012 and 176 in and external donors, particularly in relation to the the first half of 2013, with most patients undergoing procurement of large pieces of equipment, such as simulation and computerized radiotherapy treatment linear accelerators, high dose rate brachytherapy planning. The Agency has been providing extensive afterloaders and SPECT scanners. expert services following the opening of the centre, with a focus on delivering clinical services in radiotherapy. Radiation oncology in cancer management When the CNO was inaugurated, it was staffed with In Benin, the Agency is helping the Ministry of specialists recruited from abroad, because specialized Health address financial, technical and managerial national medical staff, including radiation oncologists, considerations for the establishment of a radiotherapy medical physicists and radiotherapy technologists, were and nuclear medicine service in Benin through undergoing long term, specialized training provided by project BEN/6/004, Supporting the Development the Agency in other francophone African countries. In of a Feasibility Study for the Establishment of a Radiotherapy Centre in Cotonou. The development of the feasibility document was enriched by the imPACT mission report produced after the April 2013 imPACT mission to Benin. For countries like Benin which lack both services and radiotherapy specialists, a feasibility study can guide national authorities responsible for decision-making on national health policies and strategies related to cancer, and is frequently the first phase of a full-fledged project in the field. Under the project, assistance was provided in the form of expert missions, scientific visits and the procurement of useful publications and IT support equipment to conduct surveys and collect data on Benins cancer profile. The project raised awareness of radiation medicine among decision-makers, and studied the future location of the GAB/6/005: Libreville Cancer Institute, established by radiotherapy service, as well as providing advice on Gabon with the assistance of the Agency. a range of related issues, such as the clinical isotopic 48

60 2013, three medical physicists and four radiotherapy has demonstrated its commitment to this objective technologists returned from a two-year long training, by providing a significant budget ($1.5 million) to and in November 2013, the first two national radiation contribute to the training of the necessary professionals. oncologists graduated successfully and returned home In order to ensure the safe use of these medical to take up their duties. Radiotherapy is now provided facilities and to comply with the requirements of the locally by Mauritanians. The CNO aims to become a International Basic Safety Standards, the Government regional reference hospital for radiation medicine, and of Gabon is committed to further strengthening the the Government has already approved the construction regulatory safety infrastructure at the national level. of a nuclear medicine centre, which is being supported To support the re-establishment of radiotherapy services under project MAU/6/003. The CNO recently hosted in Afghanistan, a field mission to Kabul, supported a regional training course organized by the Agency by project AFG/6/012, Establishment of a Radiation for radiotherapy technologists from francophone Oncology Centre in the Medical University of Kabul, African countries. In future, the CNO is expected to was undertaken in January 2013 by an Agency team become self-sustaining with regard to locally trained working closely with the National Working Group on radiotherapy technologists. Radiotherapy. Following the field mission, the layout Until recently, medical evacuations for cancer patients of the proposed radiotherapy centre was finalized and in Gabon were a serious public health challenge. To a bankable project document Comprehensive Cancer address this in a sustainable way, it was decided to Control in Afghanistan was developed. The bankable expand and improve national cancer care capacity project document aims to support the Governments by integrating radiotherapy into a comprehensive efforts to engage key national stakeholders and cancer control programme. Under project GAB/6/005, potential partners in mobilizing the resources needed to Establishing a Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy re-establish cancer therapy capabilities in the country. Centre in Libreville, Gabon is receiving assistance In Malaysia, the Agency is helping to increase access in the development of technical expertise that will to conventional radiotherapy and more advanced cover all related professional fields, with the objective techniques by building national capacities through of making the newly established radiotherapy centre, fellowship training, and expert missions in support the Libreville Cancer Institute (within the Libreville of national workshops and seminars under project Hospital) fully functional. The Government of Gabon MAL/6/020, Strengthening Cancer Services AFG/6/012: Site visit to the old rehabilitated radiotherapy building in Kabul. 49

61 throughout the Country. As a result, Malaysia has Member States were trained, helping to strengthen improved the accuracy, efficiency, accessibility and the skills of medical physicists to apply radiotherapy timeliness of cancer diagnosis and treatment, using technologies, and contributing to an improved quality new and established radiotherapy technology. The of patient treatment and safety in radiotherapy in CIS development of human resource capacities and expertise countries. in the fields of nuclear medicine, radiodiagnosis and Three-dimensional (3D) conformal radiotherapy radiotherapy has led to a significant improvement in has been strengthened at the Bucharest Institute of the quality of cancer treatment in the country. Oncology with the introduction of new techniques, In Europe, there is a gap between the demand for including image guided radiotherapy, supported by and the supply of experienced medical physicists project ROM/6/016, Upgrading Radiotherapy Practice and radiotherapy staff in several Member States. In at the Oncology Institute through the Introduction of response to this, several training events have been New Techniques. The project activities incorporated implemented under agreement with the ESTRO under the recommendations of the Quality Assurance Team project RER/6/022, Strengthening Knowledge of for Radiation Oncology audit carried out in 2012. Four Radiation Oncologists and Radiation Therapists, and national training workshops were organized, dealing project RER/6/023, Strengthening Medical Physics with quality management in a radiotherapy department, in Radiation Medicine. The Agency supported six patient positioning and immobilization in radiotherapy, ESTRO training courses in 2013, one of which (in and the definition and delineation of target volume Moscow) delivered Russian for the benefit of radiation in certain tumours. Radiotherapy treatment planning oncologists from Russian-speaking areas of the Europe and related quality assurance (QA) issues were also region. A Technical Meeting on Harmonizing Quality addressed in the workshops. Audit in Radiotherapy and Promoting the Concept of A first-of-a-kind training event took place in Belgrade, Audit in Member States was also held in Vienna in Serbia, under project SRB/6/007, Upgrading the 2013. Radiotherapy 3D Treatment Planning System to Six courses were organized under project RER/6/025, Improve the Quality of Cancer Care. The course, Building Capacity for Medical Physics in Radiation on 3D conformal planning and delivery in modern Oncology at the International Training Centre (EARTH) radiotherapy, brought together all the countrys experts for the Commonwealth of Independent States Region, in clinical radiation oncology in order to familiarize supported by an extrabudgetary contribution from the them with modern techniques and training in their field. Russian Federation. Over 110 professionals from 11 RER/6/025: Training event for Russian speaking medical professionals. 50

62 Project PAK/6/021, Establishing Standardized Quality completion of the project. The funds are expected to Assurance and Quality Control in Radiation Oncology, cover the construction of the medical facilities and the is focusing on technological and human resource procurement of a radiotherapy machine. development in Pakistan. While Pakistan already The initiative is being supported by the Agency possesses advanced radiotherapy facilities, it aims to through project BKF/6/005, Strengthening the further develop its capacities to provide wide coverage Nuclear Medicine Facility for Diagnostics of Non- and state-of-the art cancer treatment to the population. Communicable Diseases, which includes both The project supported this important national priority capacity building and equipment procurement. This by providing radiotherapy equipment, as well as project continues the Agencys technical assistance advanced training for radiation oncologists in the started in 2006, which has benefited from a high level areas of brachytherapy, intensity modulated radiation of national commitment and project ownership. The therapy and 3D conformal treatment planning. nuclear medicine centre became fully operational in Nuclear medicine and diagnostic imaging early 2012. Cancer is the second highest cause of mortality in In Namibia, a new nuclear medicine department was Burkina Faso. Approximately 70% of cancer patients inaugurated at the Oshakati Intermediate Hospital, are diagnosed too late for curative treatment to northern Namibia, on 12 December 2013, with the help remain an option, and a significant percentage must of the Agencys TC programme. The new department be evacuated for radiotherapy in France, Morocco is the second facility in Namibia to provide diagnostic or Ghana. The Government of Burkina Faso issued a and treatment services in the areas of endocrinology, national strategic plan for cancer control for the period cardiology and oncology. Prior to the opening of the 20132017, comprising the development of early new department, the countrys only public nuclear detection programmes for cancer, and the establishment medicine department was located in Windhoek, at the of a nuclear medicine centre and a radiotherapy centre Bernard May Cancer Care Centre, some 800km away at the Yalgado Oudraogo Teaching Hospital. The from Oshakati. The new nuclear medicine department Government has committed a significant budget to offers its patients possibilities that were formerly this ambitious project, with funds being provided unavailable or unaffordable for most people, such as for the 20132017 period and beyond, until the the treatment of thyroid cancer. NAM/6/006: Inauguration of a new nuclear medicine department at the Oshakati Intermediate Hospital, northern Namibia, by the President of Namibia and the Agencys Director General, December 2013. 51

63 Support for the establishment of the new centre was Nuclear Medicine Techniques in the Management provided under project, NAM/6/006, Expansion of of Diseases, Including Coronary Artery Disease Nuclear Medicine Services. Over the past eight years, (AFRA), 5000 copies of a brochure, Introduction to the Agency has supported the provision of expert Nuclear Medicine in Diagnosis and Treatment, were services, training and procurement of equipment. In published and distributed, with the aim of raising addition, the Agency supplied a SPECT double head awareness on nuclear medicine in the region. To address gamma camera to the Windhoek Central Hospital. human resource constraints, the project supported The Government allocated funding for the long-term the development of a harmonized syllabus for an training of a nuclear medicine physician, as well academic and clinical training programme for nuclear as the provision of a SPECT double head gamma medicine physicians in French-speaking countries in camera for the newly constructed Oshakati nuclear Africa. Under the framework of project RAF/6/038, medicine department. The inauguration ceremony at Promoting Regional and National Quality Assurance the Oshakati Intermediate Hospital was attended by Programmes for Medical Physics in Nuclear Medicine the President of Namibia, HE Hifikepunye Pohamba, (AFRA) a harmonized syllabus for an academic and the Agencys Director General, Mr Yukiya Amano, clinical training programme for imaging medical and Namibias Minister of Health and Social Services, physicists (i.e. for nuclear medicine and radiology) has Dr Richard Nchabi Kamwi. In his speech, President been developed. Pohamba stressed that the new centre will greatly Support was provided to Mongolia under project contribute to the overall health of the Namibian people, MON/6/016, Upgrading and Improving the Quality of and highlighted the Agencys contribution towards the Nuclear Medicine Practice, through the replacement establishment of this new facility. of an obsolete gamma camera with a double-head South Africa is seeking to synthesize and assess SPECT camera upgradable to SPECTCT. This is a radiolabelled neuroreceptor ligands in pre-clinical and major step forwards in improving national capabilities clinical applications of interest to the local disease in nuclear medicine services, and is a milestone in burden. The project involves a number of collaborating improving the quality of the diagnostic process of institutions in South Africa, coordinated by the South cancer patients which remains a major national health African Nuclear Energy Corporation (Necsa). Through concern in Mongolia. The project was supported by the project SAF/6/016, Imaging Brain Receptors Using Government of Mongolia with 300 000 in government Radiolabelled Compounds in Pre-Clinical and Clinical cost sharing. Applications, a workshop on the use of PETCT in Quality management principles were enhanced in all radiotherapy planning was conducted at Tygerberg nuclear departments in Israel through Quality Assurance Hospital, Cape Town, in April 2013. Fifty participants in Nuclear Medicine (QUANUM) missions, supported from both nuclear medicine and radiation oncology, by project ISR/6/019, Improving Quality Management including clinicians, radiographers, physicists and and Clinical Practice of Nuclear Medicine. Clinical technologists, received training in clinical applications, practice in nuclear medicine was improved with molecular imaging related features and the technical the introduction of a quality management system aspects of PETCT applied in radiotherapy. The specifically for nuclear medicine services, in order to project also built capacity through training courses on improve patient care. physical aspects of PET data acquisition and image analysis in neuroscience and on the functioning of a Capacity building assistance has been provided PET radiopharmacy laboratory. to Qatars Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC) through project QAT/6/004, Establishing a Nuclear Nuclear medicine in Africa suffers two main Medicine Imaging Centre Including Positron Emission challenges, namely limited awareness of its potential, Tomography (PET), Computed Tomography (CT) and inadequate human resources to manage facilities. and Cyclotron. This has helped HMC to establish the Under project RAF/6/037, Sustaining Clinical 52

64 first and only nuclear medicine department in Qatar Centre, has helped improve national diagnostic with a PET-CT scanner and cyclotron facility. The capabilities through the establishment of a nuclear PET-CT centre offers complete patient care ranging medicine laboratory for early detection of diseases in from diagnosis and assessment of treatment response the Republican Clinical Hospital. Under the project, for cancer, cardiology and neurology patients. HMC the Republic of Moldova received expert services, and has engaged more clinicians in the PET-CT field and individual and group training on nuclear medicine, more patients have been referred to HMC. The project and a SPECT gamma camera and CT was procured started with 10 patients per week and by June 2013, and installed. The SPECTCT hybrid system makes it HMC was scanning around 40 patients per week. possible to survey patients accurately and effectively, HMC is currently building the capabilities to develop a and to begin treatment without delay. comprehensive QA programme for the PET-CT facility. In Uruguay, the TC programme supported the In Yemen, a core group of professionals has been introduction of advanced nuclear techniques and trained in whole body and planar imaging using a instruments for radiation oncology and nuclear variable angle dual-head digital gamma camera system medicine, with a special focus on quality. Projects for SPECT. With the support of project YEM/6/009, URU/6/030, Implementing Public Health High Dose Strengthening the Existing Nuclear Medicine Centre at Rate Brachytherapy, URU/6/031, Developing Hybrid Al-Thawra Hospital in Sanaa, national capacities for Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography cancer detection and treatment have been significantly Technology to Optimize Diagnosis of Patients with enhanced. A meeting took place in June 2013 in Vienna Cancer, and URU/6/032, Improving the Care for the Aden Oncology Centre, to work on the design of Cancer Patients Through the Use of a Linear and layout of the Centre. Accelerator, have led to the establishment of three new services for advanced diagnosis and treatment, namely Around 50 medical practitioners have participated teletherapy, brachytherapy and nuclear medicine. These in Agency regional training events and Agency/ services have strengthened the public health system EANM training courses under project RER/6/026, and improved the quality of the treatment received by Strengthening Single Photon Emission Computed patients. The new services are already contributing to Tomography/Computed Tomography (SPECT/ the practical training of the next generation of radiation CT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET)/CT oncologists, nuclear medicine doctors, medical Hybrid Imaging Applications for Chronic Disease physicists, technicians and technologists. Diagnosis. Participants increased their knowledge and strengthened their skills in the application of enhanced In May 2013, the Agency supported a QUANUM nuclear medicine technologies, reinforcing the central workshop and pre-audit mission to the American role of nuclear technology either as a first line modality Hospital Dubai (AHD) under the interregional project or as a complement to other diagnostic tests and INT/6/056, Supporting Quality Management Audits therapeutic procedures. These enhanced capacities are in Nuclear Medicine Practices (QUANUM), to assist contributing significantly to better quality management the hospital to integrate the concepts of the QUANUM of patients with chronic diseases such as cardiovascular process into their nuclear medicine practice. The AHD disease and cancer. is one of the few hospitals with Joint Commission International accreditation in Asia. During the pre- National TC projects in nuclear medicine can have QUANUM mission, up to 20 participants attended a a significant impact on entire health care systems in workshop planned within the scope of the mission. small countries. In the Republic of Moldova, project The mission successfully set the scene for a future full MOL/6/008, Strengthening Nuclear Medicine QUANUM audit, which is expected to take place in Practice to Improve Chronic Disease Diagnosis by August 2014. Implementing SPECT/CT in Clinical Practice and Preparing a Feasibility Study for Establishing a PET 53

65 Radioisotopes, radiopharmaceuticals and Two national projects in Nicaragua (NIC/6/014, radiation technology Improving the Quality of Radiotherapy (Phase II), and NIC/6/017, Upgrading Teletherapy Service in Key advances have been made in Cuba in the the National Radiotherapy Centre) have focused on production of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals, improving the quality of services provided by the only using good manufacturing practices (GMP). Under public radiation oncology service in the country. The project CUB/6/020, Improving the Availability of staff of the Nora Astorga National Radiotherapy Centre Yttrium-90 Radiopharmaceuticals, infrastructure were trained on quality issues related to radiation was upgraded with modern equipment, and specialists treatment. Equipment and software were provided to were trained in GMP management, the production of ensure that treatment planning was in accordance with radiopharmaceuticals, quality control, regulations and international quality standards. One hundred patients metrology. The Isotope Centre (CENTIS) established are treated every day using the Centres two cobalt a reference metrology system for yttrium-90 therapy machines. measurements, received a licence for yttrium-90 radiopharmaceutical production, and established Nutrition protocols for quality control, radiation protection The importance of addressing early infant nutrition and waste management. Together with other national is well recognized, but evaluation of infant nutrition research institutes, CENTIS developed procedures intervention programmes has traditionally been for labelling the monoclonal antibody rituximab difficult, hindering programme upscaling and and the peptide DOTA-TATE with yttrium-90 and is improvement. Now, however, stable isotope techniques currently working with ethylenediaminetetramethylene are available to monitor such programmes. Under phosphonic acid (EDTMP)yttrium-90 as a good regional project RAF/6/039, Applying Stable Isotope candidate for bone metastasis pain palliation. These Techniques to Monitor and Improve Infant and Young results will contribute to the countrys strategy to reach Child Interventions in AFRA Countries, the Agency sustainability in the treatment of different diseases is providing the tools to evaluate feeding practices using therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals, and opens a and adherence to World Health Organization/United window for the development of radiopharmaceuticals Nations Childrens Fund (WHO/UNICEF) guidelines. based on Cuban biotechnology products such as Using deuterium dilution techniques, human milk monoclonal antibodies and peptides. intake in breastfed babies can be measured and an Dosimetry and medical physics estimation of the exclusivity of breastfeeding can be made. In addition to providing valuable data to improve Uzbekistan has established a fully operational national infant feeding programmes, the programme central unit capable of checking the quality of X-ray has facilitated technology transfer and training. equipment and diagnostic practices. The unit was set up with the support of the Agency under project Malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are a UZB/6/007, Improving X ray Diagnostic Services public health concern in Cameroon. Various health and Quality Control of Equipment, which provided surveys on vitamin A deficiency and anaemia have equipment, expert support and training for local staff. shown a deterioration in the nutritional status of Located in Tashkent, the unit can provide services for vulnerable groups, such as women and children of less the whole country, and covers digital and conventional than five years of age. In response to this situation and X-ray equipment in radiography, fluoroscopy, dental in line with MDGs 4 and 5, the Government launched applications, mammography, computer tomography a vitamin A supplementation programme for children and angiography. The introduction of this service will of 6 to 59 months and women at the immediate post- significantly increase the safety of X ray diagnostic partum stage. Cameroon did not have an effective procedures in the national health sector. system to evaluate vitamin A status, and identified the isotope dilution technique as the preferred approach to 54

66 In Myanmar, capacity in nutrition studies has been established through project MYA/6/026, Assessing Risk Factors Associated with Obesity in Women, specifically with respect to data interpretation, analysis, and report writing. Fellowship training was carried out in Australia at the Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation of Queensland University of Technology. The comprehensive training included theory of stable isotope techniques to assess body composition, sample collection and analysis of deuterium enrichment by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The prevalence of overweight and obese children and adolescents in Bahrain is high and increasing, and an in-depth understanding of the situation with a thorough assessment of body composition and dietary intake was necessary. The Agency is helping Bahrain, under project BAH/6/001, Applying Nuclear Techniques for Childhood and Adolescent Obesity Interventions, to build a body composition facility that will enable the BAH/6/001: Installation of the BOD POD facility measurement of body fat, total body water and bone to measure body fat by densitometry. mineral content, providing the most accurate assessment of body composition. The capacity building process determine such status and to assess the effectiveness of is well under way with the provision of equipment intervention programmes. With Agency support under and training through fellowships, scientific visits and project CMR/6/013, Using Stable Isotopes to Assess expert missions. The assessment will be conducted in the Effectiveness of the Vitamin A Supplementation 2014 and actions for the improvement of interventions Programme, Cameroon now has experts trained to aimed at reducing childhood obesity will be carried out apply the isotope dilution technique, and a functional based on its results. laboratory. In Kuwait, a body composition suite has been In South Africa, project SAF/6/015, Determining established, including facilities for the measurement of the Influence of Probiotics to Reduce Morbidity and total body bone mineral content, bone mineral density Improve the Immune Status of People Living with and soft tissue composition using dual energy X-ray HIV/AIDS, is building national capacity to determine absorptiometry, and facilities for the assessment of body composition as a crucial aspect of monitoring body composition and total daily energy expenditure nutritional status and morbidity. Using the deuterium using stable isotope dilution techniques, under project dilution technique allows an accurate determination KUW/6/004, Assessing Childhood Obesity Using of small but important changes in fat-free mass that Stable Isotope Techniques. The body composition of cannot be identified using available non-nuclear 176 healthy Kuwaiti children of between 6 and 10 years techniques. Data collection and the study on patients of age was measured. Based on the project results, the began in February 2013. Training in stable isotope Ministry of Health, in collaboration with the Ministry techniques to assess body composition, total daily of Education, launched a national programme on energy expenditure and vitamin A status has been nutrition awareness, providing healthy snacks at school provided through fellowships and expert missions. and including a physical activity component in the educational curriculum. Under project KUW/6/005, Evaluating a Trial Intervention to Promote Healthy 55

67 Lifestyles of School Children, baseline data on body Identifying drug resistance composition and energy expenditure were collected. Regional project RAF/6/040, Applying Molecular Data interpretation is being conducted to evaluate the Techniques to Interventions against the Major Poverty effectiveness of trial interventions to reduce childhood Related Diseases (HIV, TB and Malaria) for Improving obesity. Disease Control (AFRA) has generated medically Poor nutrition is of particular concern in Latin America, and epidemiologically valuable data on mutations where changing diets and lifestyles mean that 18% of causing drug resistance in the microbes responsible children and adolescents are overweight or obese. A for these diseases, as well as information on their recently completed regional project in Latin America, circulating genetic types. Through the project, three RLA/6/064 Using Nuclear Techniques to Address the RDCs with expertise in the field have been established. Double Burden of Malnutrition in Latin America and Consumables and equipment were procured, and the Caribbean, has enabled Member States to collect standard protocols were developed. A range of expert data from 1767 children between the ages of six and meetings, coordination meetings and regional training twelve years in 54 schools in the region, on body courses took place, and several papers were published, composition and risk factors for NCDs. The data will with many more in the pipeline serve as a baseline for Member States efforts to reach the targets set out in the WHO Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases 20132020, which includes a target of no increase in adolescent obesity. 56

68 Food and agriculture Regional highlights The agriculture and livestock sectors play an important role in the economy of countries in the Europe region. Food and agriculture is a high priority area of the However, the region is threatened by the emergence TC programme for most African Member States. or re-emergence of TADs, as well as the introduction Food security, regional and international trade of exotic pests. In 2013, the TC programme helped competitiveness, scarcity of water and climate change Member States to increase agricultural and livestock have forced regional decision-makers to expand their productivity by expediting the transfer of technologies existing response options to harness the potential of that allow early and rapid diagnosis of TADs, improve modern nuclear and nuclear related techniques. This is crop adaptability and quality, and facilitate the being achieved through capacity building, technology environmentally-friendly suppression of fruit pests. transfer and infrastructure enhancement. Ensuring food security is also a key priority for In the Asia and the Pacific region, the Agencys the Latin America region, with a particular focus continued assistance to Member States is strengthening on increasing agricultural and animal productivity. competencies in soil and water management, and in crop Current practices include the use of agrochemicals nutrition, as well as in mutation breeding. Enhancing and veterinary drugs that may pose risks to human agricultural productivity and developing suitable crop health, as well as causing environmental damage and varieties tolerant to drought and salinity and adaptable incurring trade restrictions. The potential existence of to climate change remains a regional priority. chemical contaminants in food and feedstuffs requires With regard to animal production and health, coordinated national and regional Agency support projects in the region have focused on improving to ensure that there is adequate infrastructure and artificial insemination techniques, and the transfer capabilities for contaminant and residue analysis and of technologies for early detection and control of monitoring, as well as for reducing the negative impact transboundary animal diseases (TADs), including on food, feedstuffs and the environment. those with zoonotic impact. The Agency is supporting Crop production Member States in the Asia and the Pacific region to enhance food security by establishing national and In the United Republic of Tanzania, project URT/5/028, regional networks that enable early response to, and Improving Crop Production and Productivity through control of, TADs, as well as facilitating eradication the Use of Nuclear and Nuclear-Related Techniques, programmes for some zoonotic diseases. builds on the activities of an earlier Agency-supported project to further strengthen capacity in methodologies, 57

69 techniques and protocols to evaluate and screen rice are now sensitive to the new virulent races of Ug99, varieties for resistance to disease. The functional which lowers grain yield and increases cultivation capacities of the Kizimbani Agricultural Training expenditure because of the need for fungicide sprays Institute, Zanzibar, have been strengthened through to control the rust. Under the Agencys interregional the project. Assistance has been provided through technical cooperation project INT/5/150, Responding fellowships, scientific visits for core staff, expert to the Transboundary Threat of Wheat Black Stem Rust missions and the supply of equipment to upgrade (Ug99), 300 000 M2 and M3 generations received the laboratories. As a result, the institute is now able from several Member States were screened in Kenya. to conduct plant breeding research activities on rice Project success can be illustrated by the development varieties, allowing the development of improved of 13 advanced mutant lines resistant to Ug99 from and disease-resistant rice varieties. The project has six participating countries, 132 lines with moderate strengthened links between the institutes research resistance, and 231 lines with moderately susceptible activities and the demonstration and dissemination reaction. Two advanced resistant mutant lines have activities supported by a local government initiative. successfully passed the national performance trials These include comprehensive support for extensive in Kenya, with higher yields than the controls. One evaluation in the field and the eventual release of mutant was released28 as a mutant variety under the improved varieties to farmers. trade name ELDO NGANO1 on 15 January 2014. This variety is now available to anyone in the world where Local farmers have also been involved in the selection Ug99 is a threat to wheat production; this helps to solve of superior genotypes in a process called participatory the problem of food security in countries that depend variety selection at farmer field days organized at on wheat as their major crop and staple food. the crop maturity stage. It is expected that local and commercial rice varieties developed for increased In Kazakhstan, the Agency is helping to improve disease resistance and productivity will mostly yield and quality by enhancing the diversification benefit small scale farmers, particularly women, and and adaptability of crops. Under project KAZ/5/003, consumers at large. Increasing Micronutrient Content and Bioavailability in Wheat Germplasm by Means of an Integrated Wheat black stem rust (Ug99) is a recurring problem Approach, several promising mutant lines have been in wheat growing areas, and a potential threat to wheat developed. The laboratory for molecular genetics and production worldwide. Ninety per cent of the elite lines quality control for cereals has been upgraded. URT/5/028: Farm trials of improved and disease-resistant rice varieties, United Republic of Tanzania. THE KENYA GAZETTE; NAIROBI, 7 February, 2014; Published by Authority of the Republic of Kenya; Vol. CXVI-No. 18; 28 GAZETTE NOTICE No. 781; Page: 258 58

70 Agricultural water and soil management application on pasture improvement, and the effect of soil fertility on the physical and chemical properties of According to the United Nations Environment the soils (soil structure, water holding capacity, erosion Programme (UNEP)29 and UNCCD30, soil vulnerability). Using isotopic and related techniques, desertification affects 46% of Africa, with 55% of that the dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM) and its area at high or very high risk, and water erosion being status in the soil can be determined. In addition, the use by far the most common type of land degradation. Soil of compound specific isotope analysis can assess the and water resource conservation is therefore a major contribution of the different components of the pasture agronomic and environmental concern in the region. livestock systems. Mid-infrared spectroscopy has also To efficiently control and mitigate the loss of soil by been introduced as a conventional tool for rapid and erosion and reduce the environmental impacts, soil cost-effective characterization of the SOM status of the conservation measures need to be targeted to areas with selected field trials. A functional laboratory has also high erosion and sediment transfer. been equipped and five people have been trained under In Algeria, assistance has been provided to the National the project. Institute of Forestry Research to integrate national Seychelles has limited land for agricultural production, initiatives aiming at the control of desertification in so efficient soil nutrition and water management Algerias arid and semi-arid agro-ecosystems under is crucial. Project SEY/5/007, Increasing Crop project ALG/5/028, Preserving Arid and Semi-Arid Production through Effective Management of Soil Agro-Ecosystems and Combating Desertification by Salinity in the Coastal Area using Nuclear and Related Using Advanced Isotopic Techniques, Developing Techniques, aims to support the development of Decision-Making Tools and Supporting Sensitisation mitigation and adaptation measures to reduce the effect of the Local Population on the Needs of Desertification of soil sodicity and salinity in the coastal zones. With Control. The Agency has provided technical Agency support, the first soil diagnostic laboratory in cooperation in the form of staff training, advisory Seychelles has been established, and was officially services and equipment, thereby helping to improve opened on 1 August 2013. It aims to collect, analyse and the capacity of the counterpart institution in using disseminate soil and plant information so that farmers advanced isotopic techniques for the development of can grow more and better food. Through the project, the integrated measures to stop desertification. The project facility received state-of-the-art analytical equipment has helped to develop technical initiatives that may for soil, plant, seed and chemical testing. Training in be used as decision-making tools for policymakers on the use of the new equipment was also provided so that desertification control at the national level and to raise staff can carry out the required analytical procedures. the awareness of local populations of the needs for The Government of Seychelles has contributed to the desertification control. project by financing the laboratory. Angola is benefiting from project ANG/5/011, Under project RAF/5/058, Enhancing the Productivity Monitoring Soil Fertility in Pasture Areas for Their of High Value Crops and Income Generation with Improvement and Maintenance, an interdisciplinary Small-Scale Irrigation Technologies, the Tea Research project that supports the sustainable intensification Institute of Tanzania is introducing small scale of pasture production through the development of irrigation (SSI) to small scale tea plantation farmers. integrated pasturelivestock systems. The project Different irrigation application rates are being applied studies the effects of manure addition and fertilizer and calibrated using nuclear isotope techniques to 29 Africa: Atlas of Our Changing Environment (2008). United Nations Environment Programme publication, 374 pp, ISBN: 9789280728712. 30 Desertification: The invisible frontline (2014). Secretariat of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, UNCCD publications. ISBN: 978-92-95043-74-9. 59

71 select the best irrigation rate and scheduling for the varieties have been evaluated in the field and found to tea plantations. When compared to rainfed crops, produce 2.4 tonnes/ha yield and 2.6 tonnes/ha yield, appropriate SSI improved tea yield by 400%, increasing respectively. productivity from 1000 kg tea/ha/year under a rain-fed Cambodia has built capacity to assess nitrogen use regime in 2010 to 4000 kg tea/ha/year in 2012 under efficiency to improve soil fertility management SSI. The project has generated tremendous interest practices through project KAM/5/001, Improving from small scale farmers who are eager to adopt the Soil Fertility and Crop Management Strategies in technology, and has removed the fear of handling Diversified Rice-Based Farming Systems. The modern farming technologies such as drip irrigation project has also supported the training of fellows at equipment. The project will bring about better tea and the Agricultural Research Group, Philippine Nuclear higher production, and will improve the livelihood of Research Institute, focusing on the assessment of small scale tea farmers, while also responding to the nutrient and fertilizer management in rice production, impact of climate change in the United Republic of and the efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer use. Tanzania. In Myanmar, a national workshop on salinity tolerance At the regional level, the Agency is providing significant in rice focused on the genetics of salinity tolerance in assistance in regional capacity building and analytical rice, on screening for salinity tolerance and on using support development through project RAF/5/063, marker assisted selection in rice breeding, particularly Supporting Innovative Conservation Agriculture for salinity tolerance. The workshop was carried out Practices to Combat Land Degradation and Enhance as part of project MYA/5/020, Strengthening Food Soil Productivity for Improved Food Security. The Security through Yield Improvement of Local Rice ten participating African Member States are learning Varieties with Induced Mutation (Phase II). to use and adapt fallout radionuclides methods (e.g. caesium-137) to assess the magnitude of soil erosion, 60. Under project RAS/5/064, Enhancing the impact of major land use and the effectiveness of Productivity of Locally-underused Crops through specific soil conservation technologies under African Dissemination of Mutated Germplasm and Evaluation agricultural and environmental conditions. The Agency of Soil, Nutrient and Water Management Practices, is also supporting the development of a regional network a group fellowship on agricultural soil and water to strengthen conservation agriculture practices that management to support sustainable crop production combat land degradation and enhance soil quality and in the Asia and the Pacific region was provided at productivity. the Agencys laboratories in Seibersdorf. Twenty-six fellows from 21 countries participated successfully in The Agency has provided comprehensive assistance the training. to the development of institutional capacity at the Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA) The Agency has been assisting Iraq in the assessment under the framework of the project BGD/5/028, of soil quality and dust formation using fallout Assessing Crop Mutant Varieties in Saline and Drought radionuclides and stable isotope techniques, with the Prone Areas Using Nuclear Techniques. Through the aim of enhancing agricultural land productivity. Under project, four salt and drought tolerant, high yielding, project IRQ/5/018, Using Fallout Radionuclides early maturing rice varieties have been identified. and Stable Isotope Techniques to Assess Soil Quality The selected salt tolerant rice and drought tolerant and Dust Production for Enhanced Agricultural Land varieties have been accepted by farmers, and have been Productivity, Iraqi teams have been trained in the use evaluated in the field to establish suitable management of fallout radionuclide techniques to assess soil erosion practices for soil, water and nutrients in saline and and dust formation, and on the role of organic carbon drought prone areas. In addition, BINA has registered in restoring soil productivity and reducing soil erosion. two mutant varieties of salt tolerant groundnut as Field experiments have been conducted with the aim Binachinabadam-5 and Binachinabadam-6. Both 60

72 IRQ/5/018: Collecting soil samples of enhancing biological nitrogen fixation using nuclear of animal production and health to improve food aided techniques and genetic characteristics of the security at the household and national level. Outbreaks biological agents. of transboundary diseases such as contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, foot-and-mouth disease, Livestock production Newcastle disease and avian influenza threaten not African swine fever is prevalent in Benin. This disease only Botswanas domestic food availability, but more than halved the pig population during a 1997 also its very profitable international trade in animals outbreak in the West African subregion. Addressing the and animal products. The assistance provided by the challenge of African swine fever will improve swine Agency through project BOT/5/008, Using Nuclear health, production and productivity, and will contribute and Molecular Diagnostic Techniques for Improved to enhanced food security for the population. Under Diagnosis of Animal Diseases, supported the project BEN/5/006, Improving Animal Health and application of nuclear and nuclear related molecular Productivity, the Agency is working to strengthen diagnostic techniques to improve the early and rapid the capacity of the Veterinary Diagnostics and diagnosis of TADs. The project provided training Seromonitoring Laboratory in the diagnosis and control for researchers, expert missions and procurement. of African swine fever, with the aim of increasing Other assistance was provided through an EU funded animal productivity in Benin. The project has supported Southern African Development Community (SADC) the training of the laboratory personnel, as well as the foot-and-mouth disease control project and a World provision of laboratory equipment and reagents. As a Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) twinning result of the project, the laboratory has been able to programme that supported the achievement by the carry out several analyses and tests, including a study Botswana National Veterinary Laboratory (BNVL) of the prevalence of brucellosis and avian influenza, as of OIE Reference Laboratory status. The twinning well as routine laboratory tests. The study results will programme complements the Agency project, contribute to better management of animal resources. enhancing the outputs and targeted outcomes. The BNVL now provides the first line of diagnosis for In Botswana, agriculture, especially livestock TADs in the country and is seen as a support centre production, is the backbone of the rural economy. The by SADC countries. The laboratory is accredited, or Government has prioritized sustainable strengthening in the final stages of accreditation, for several disease 61

73 diagnostic and food safety testing procedures. The unsustainable livestock production systems in the BNVL is considered as an animal health regional United Republic of Tanzania. The project supports the centre supporting the entire SADC region and has enhanced application of artificial insemination (AI) been involved in several regional and national training radioimmunoassay techniques to assess progesterone courses. levels in pregnant cows, and the introduction of heat synchronization schemes in heifers and dry cows. The Madagascar has some of the greatest biodiversity on Agency improved the technical capacity of the National the planet, with some unique animal and plant species Artificial Insemination Centre through fellowship that are not found anywhere else. The country also training and scientific visits in animal production and depends heavily on animal production some 60% AI, breeding strategies, reproductive technology and of rural families depend on livestock partially or quality control of AI, and genetic improvement of fully for their livelihood. Under project MAG/5/016, local stock. The necessary laboratory and processing Appling Nuclear Techniques to Optimize Animal equipment was also provided. Better management and Production, and project MAG/5/020, Improving quality assurance systems were introduced, which have Stockbreeding Productivity Through the Application improved the national capacity to train inseminators of Nuclear and Related Techniques for Reducing and technicians and increased the number of animals Rural Poverty, the Agency has successfully trained inseminated. This will result in a significant increase in seven scientists and 42 veterinary assistants and milk and beef production. artificial insemination technicians in the country in modern technologies related to livestock breeding Regional project RAF/5/057, Strengthening Capacities and reproduction, nutrition and health. The peri- for the Diagnosis and Control of Transboundary Animal urban farmers who have benefited from the quality Diseases in Africa, has attracted the participation services delivered by the trained personnel have been of 33 African Member States, with the objective of able to meet 50100% of their family expenditures improving diagnostic capabilities for TADs that hinder with income from dairy farming. Some progressive livestock development and affect farmers incomes in farmers make yogurt to add a value of up to 85% on the region. As a result of the project, advanced animal top of the fresh milk price. As an initiative for the disease diagnostic capacities have been established conservation of Madagascars biodiversity, 200 DNA in 27 Member States over the past five years. New samples were collected from three major indigenous molecular techniques were developed and introduced cattle breeds for genetic characterization. The project through three training courses, together with established team has also been provided with protocols, guidelines molecular and serological procedures. Most of the and other research tools and equipment. The projects participating national laboratories are now equipped to integrated approach, involving genetic characterization carry out rapid molecular diagnosis. Additional project of livestock, improvement in livestock reproduction, support introduced new approaches for the estimation and the nutrition and health management of dairy of disease prevalence and built capacity in the design cows in peri-urban smallholder dairy farms, coupled of field exercises, as well as in the use of statistical with innovative yogurt production and marketing, has tools to evaluate diagnostic results. New technologies contributed to poverty reduction and increased food and reagents were tested for their usefulness and a security. number of procedures were adapted to allow for easier shipment and storage. Additional funds for training and Project URT/5/027, Improving Livestock Production laboratory equipment were provided by Japan, South and Productivity through Sustainable Application Africa and the USA. of Nuclear and Related Techniques, implemented in partnership with the Tanzania Atomic Energy In Myanmar, livestock breeding capacity was built Commission (TAEC) and the National Artificial through TC assistance for the establishment of a Insemination Centre, builds on the achievements genetic laboratory, training in basic DNA molecular of earlier TC projects to address ineffective and techniques, and the production of detailed procedures 62

74 for the genetic characterization of local breeds under scientifically justified epidemiological models for project MYA/5/022, Improving Animal Productivity the control of brucellosis and or other TADs in the through the Use of DNA-Based Technology and country, as well as helping to establish a network of Artificial Insemination. epidemiological units. In Cambodia, project KAM/5/002, Using Nuclear and Regional project RER/5/016, Supporting Coordinated Molecular Techniques to Improve Animal Productivity Control of Transboundary Animal Diseases with and Control Transboundary Animal Diseases, Socioeconomic Impact and that Affect Human supported capacity building in livestock breeding Health, aims to improve the general preparedness through setting up a semen laboratory and providing of the Europe region as a whole to respond to animal training on semen processing in AI, laboratory work disease challenges. In 2013, in addition to helping related to semen evaluation, extension work related Member States fight the avian influenza A(H7N9) to AI services, management of an AI centre, semen virus, the project provided training and workshops distribution and evaluation of insemination services. in addressing mosquito-transmitted animal diseases Specific training was also provided in laboratory work of increasing importance (e.g. African swine fever), on radioimmunoassay techniques. including diseases with zoonotic impact (West Nile fever, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever and Rift The economy of Bosnia and Herzegovina depends Valley fever). significantly on agriculture. TADs have increased in prevalence due to a lack of consistency in disease Insect pest control control strategies in the country. Inadequate control measures for brucellosis led to the sudden spread of Fruit flies continue to present significant economic the disease among the human population. Project challenges to the Africa region. Supported by project BOH/5/001, Reducing the Incidence of Brucellosis RAF/5/062, Preventing the Introduction of Exotic in Animals and Humans by Surveillance and Control, Fruit Fly Species and Implementing the Control of has supported the upgrade of laboratory capacities, and Existing Species with the Sterile Insect Technique and the designation and training of a strategically important Other Suppression Methods, six countries (France, epidemiological team, competent to design and enforce Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Seychelles and the United Republic of Tanzania) signed a RER/5/016: Hands-on laboratory training session in Seibersdorf on early and rapid nuclear diagnostic and tracing technologies for African and classic swine fever. 63

75 memorandum of understanding (MoU) in June 2013 project has resulted in increased production with to strengthen subregional cooperation to prevent the reduced production costs and lower pesticide usage, invasion of exotic fruit fly species and to improve the with particular success in the false codling moth control of existing species. The MoU records agreement programme, a major pest of citrus fruits. It will thus on principles and the intent to establish mechanisms to facilitate safer subsistence farming and commercial facilitate the strengthening of subregional cooperation production, and promote local and international trade. through exchange of information, expertise and Although the incidence of malaria in South Africa sharing of resources among the parties. The key has been considerably reduced, it is still one of the areas of cooperation agreed upon include exchange potentially most threatening public health problems in of information and materials and mutual assistance, the country. The malaria distribution in South Africa is the provision of fellowships and scientific visits free in the southernmost tip of the continent and in northern of charge, sharing of expertise, establishment and KwaZulu-Natal, eastern Mpumalanga and north-eastern implementation of common protocols for surveillance Limpopo provinces. South Africa aims to ascertain and control of fruit flies, and the sharing of production the feasibility of using mosquitoes reared under and irradiator facilities for the production and supply laboratory conditions in prospective SIT suppression of sterile insects to other parties. programmes against malaria transmitting mosquitoes The Agency continues to support Ethiopia in its effort with the support of project SAF/5/013, Assessing to free areas from tsetse and trypanosomosis, and to the Sterile Insect Technique for Malaria Mosquitoes enhance its livestock and agricultural development in a South African Setting. The project is part of the under project ETH/5/016, Creating Sustainable Nuclear Technologies in Medicine and the Biosciences Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Free Areas for Enhancing Initiative (NTeMBI), a national collaborative platform Livestock and Agricultural Development. The managed by Necsa. In 2013, expert assistance was Southern Rift Valley Tsetse Eradication Project provided in the design of a mobile, modular (container (STEP) resumed field activities in the Deme region based) mosquito mass-rearing facility, as well as in the in early 2014, deploying a target barrier in the Deme development of genetic sexing strains, compatibility Gorge to prevent reinfestations of wild flies. A plan tests, and field site selection. A fellow from the National for a comprehensive survey of Deme has been agreed. Institute for Communicable Diseases received training A bankable document has been developed with the in competition assays at the Agencys Insect Pest Agencys support to facilitate the mobilization of Control Laboratory, and two South African experts additional funds to complete the first phase of STEP visited SIT laboratories in Canada and Brazil to further and the launching of the follow-up phase of the project. strengthen their expertise and knowledge of mosquito production facilities. In South Africa, under project SAF/5/011, Refining an Integrated Application of SIT against Some Key For over ten years, the Agency has been working Lepidopteran Pests of Southern African Agricultural with Senegal to assess the feasibility of creating a Crops, a new cobalt 60 source was installed in July zone free of tsetse fly in the Niayes region, using an 2013 at the irradiator of the Institute for Deciduous area-wide integrated pest management approach. The Fruit, Vines and Wine (Agricultural Research Council) operational phase of project SEN/5/033, Supporting in Stellenbosch. The source was replaced with the the Operational Phase of Eliminating Glossina Palpalis government covering 50% of the cost and the other Gambiensis from the Niayes Area by Promoting the 50% being covered by TC funds. Together with the Development of Integrated Stockbreeding, began in expert technical assistance, advice and human capacity 2012. Suppression activities were initiated in an initial building provided through the project, the successful segment of the zone and were followed by operational installation of the cobalt-60 source has strengthened ground releases. As a result, in 2013, there have been the national capacity to refine and integrate SIT no wild fly catches in this segment. The suppression techniques for suppressing lepidopteran pests. The work was extended to a second segment at the end of 64

76 SEN/5/033: Aerial releases of sterile flies by gyrocopter. 2012 and followed by operational ground releases. As Fruit Fly, Dacus ciliatus, and Establishment of of mid-2013, all ground releases were supplemented by Optimal Sterilizing Doses: Towards Small-Scale SIT, some aerial releases using carton boxes, and all flies a completely artificial diet with good signs of stability have since then been released by air using gyrocopters. was developed, and an artificial system to collect eggs As of early 2014, all releases will be conducted from was also established. An optimal irradiation dose to the air using a new chilled adult release system. sterilize this species has been set (140 Gy). Females Monitoring data indicate a significant reduction (over were shown to be significantly more sensitive than 98%) of the fly population in the second segment. males to irradiation, and doses of 60 Gy can induce full sterility in them. Eradication activities will be extended to the last block in 2014, and the project is expected to be completed The first regional exotic pest database, the Middle East by the end of 2016. The impact of the project can be Fruit Fly Exotic Pest Database (MEFLYPDB) was seen in the initial results of a socioeconomic study that developed under project RAS/5/059, Supporting Area- showed that farmers located outside the tsetse infested Wide Integrated Pest Control of Native and Exotic area produced 38% more milk and sold 2.8 times more Flies in the Middle East Subregion Incorporating the animals than farmers located in the tsetse-infested zone Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), for Israel, Jordan and an economic difference of 1.37 million each year. the territories under the jurisdiction of the Palestinian Authority. The database is intended to make it easier to Myanmar has developed capacity in field surveillance share information and to help in preparing and enabling of pests and pest damage, as well as suppression quick and suitable response actions on the discovery of techniques to be used against Lepidoptera, and the an exotic pest in the region. It describes and explains use of biological control against diamondback moths, phytosanitary procedures common to all exotic fruit fly through project MYA/5/021, Integrating Sterile Insect species of quarantine significance to the Middle East Technique with Other Biocontrol Tactics to Improve countries. MEFLYPDB includes information on the Diamondback Month Control. biology, hosts, pathways, surveillance and control of An artificial mass rearing system has been transferred these pests. The database also includes information on to Israel under ISR/5/017, Targeting the Olive Fly expertise available within the region and incorporates with SIT in Olive Orchards Located in the North and both field techniques and regulatory documents that South of Israel. Quality assurance parameters for have been released worldwide in connection with fruit the larval diet for fruit fly, the egg carrying medium fly control and quarantine, so that its contents reflect and rearing environmental conditions have been the current situation regarding these phytosanitary determined. Under project ISR/5/018, Improvement measures. of Artificial Mass-Rearing Systems for the Ethiopian 65

77 In the Europe region, recent data (November 2013) Food safety indicate that, thanks partly to the support provided Project RLA/5/059, Harmonizing Official Control under the regional, PUI-funded project RER/5/018, Laboratories to Analyse Chemical Contaminants Supporting Fruit Fly Pest Prevention and Management in Food and Feedstuffs (ARCAL CXXII), has in the Balkans and the Eastern Mediterranean, contributed to enhanced food safety in the fifteen the efficacy of the SIT in the Neretva pilot area of participating countries, which are now implementing Croatia has been confirmed. Infestation levels of the internationally recognized methods for analysing Mediterranean fruit fly in mandarins were reduced by chemical contaminants in food and feedstuffs. The 96%, if compared with the non-SIT area in terms of the countries have established a regional cooperation and number of fruit-fly larvae per kilo of fruit. Furthermore, integration network as a result of the project, which mandarins produced in the valley have recently provides a direct cooperation mechanism for mutual received the prestigious controlled designation of assistance through national programmes, resources and origin certification. The project has also fostered the expertise. Several laboratories boosted their analytical establishment of a regional fruit fly network. skills/capabilities with new techniques, most of As part of Panamas efforts to ensure the which were harmonized, thus enhancing international competitiveness of agricultural products, project credibility. Many counterparts have subsequently PAN/5/020, Strengthening Technical Capacity to invested in new equipment, strengthening this group of Control Mediterranean Fruit Fly Using the Sterile Insect official control laboratories as part of complementary Technique (SIT), aims to manage fruit flies throughout national chemical residue programmes for foods the country. Building on the experience acquired and feeds in Latin American Member States. All through regional project RLA/5/057, Establishing participating institutions in the region implemented and Maintaining Fruit Fly Free and Low Prevalence laboratory quality systems or programmes, including Areas in Central America, Panama and Belize, Using the development of protocols for analytical method the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) (ARCAL CVI), development and validation. With better equipped and two additional national projects, the country has technicians and scientists, the laboratories were implemented an integrated approach to suppress these able to increase their participation in interlaboratory pests. The Agency, the US Department of Agriculture, comparison exercises, with consistent results in the International Regional Organization for Plant most of them. As a result, nine laboratories achieved and Animal Health, the Inter-American Institute for accreditation, and an additional four are in the process Cooperation on Agriculture, and the FAO have been of accreditation. Five of the participating laboratories working to support this initiative. Within four years, became the projects reference laboratories and centres Panama was able to export non-traditional agricultural of excellence, training and facilitating other Member export crops such as tomatoes, bell peppers and papaya, States both within and outside the region. Twelve of and to increase production of peaches, pears and apples, the participating countries now have functional residue quadrupling export earnings. These increases allowed monitoring programmes with laboratories using not only Panama but Central America to become a tailored nuclear and complementary techniques that major supplier of fresh agricultural commodities to meet international standards. Exports of food products the USA. Hundreds of rural jobs, typically for men to international markets have increased, while the in field pest control and for women in the packing need to subcontract tests to other countries (including and transportation services industries, were created. overseas) has been greatly reduced. A major achievement in the Panama project was the Project RLA/5/060, Harmonizing and Validating containment of the South American melon fly, which Analytical Methods to Monitor the Risk of Chemical was threatening to spread into Panama and thus threaten Residues and Contaminants in Foods to Human the exports of all Panamas cucurbitaceous crops. Health (ARCAL CXXVIII), has contributed to the 66

78 Contaminants on Agricultural Products and in the Environment (ARCAL CXXIV), has contributed to increasing the number of accredited laboratories, improving the applications of pesticide management practices, advancing risk and quality management and deepening the technical level of all participating network laboratories. The project helped to collect information on relevant pesticide processes in the subcatchments and pesticide loads to the environment. Laboratory capabilities were enhanced in several areas, including analytical methods, radioisotope techniques, mass spectrometry, data interpretation, sampling procedures, biomonitoring, pesticide transport processes, catchment modelling, and in feeding back laboratory results to stakeholders while supporting farming communities. From an initial set of nine laboratories, the network has expanded to include representatives from 16 countries in the region. The result of these and previous related efforts has been the establishment of the Latin American and Caribbean Analytical Network (RALACA) (), which brings together analytical laboratories to enhance regional capabilities for food safety and environmental sustainability. These complementary actions have greatly contributed to ensuring the absence, or acceptable safe level, of contaminants, adulterants, RLA/5/060: Laboratory practical exercise. naturally occurring toxins or any other substance that may make food injurious to health on an acute or chronic basis. improvement of food quality and safety programmes These achievements were made possible by the within national food control systems and industry, strong SouthSouth cooperation established among ensuring adequate food monitoring practices the analytical laboratories in the region as a result of throughout the food production, processing, storage Agency assistance. and distribution chain. Such monitoring practices help to maintain the credibility of the food control system. The project established methodologies under a quality assurance/quality control system to reach ISO17025 certification, identified specialized food safety centres for supporting SouthSouth cooperation, and developed human resource capacities for validation and analysis of inorganic contaminants, pesticides, mycotoxins and veterinary drugs. Project RLA/5/061, Supporting Quality Management for the Assessment and Mitigation of Impacts of 67

79 Water and the environment Regional highlights To evaluate these effects in a systematic way and facilitate the adoption of better levels of structural and In Africa, the Agencys large-scale TC project in the functional safety and management of water resources Sahel region continued throughout 2103. The project across the region, characterization of the interrelation addresses the decline of fresh water resources in of surface water and groundwater is essential. In 2013, the region, and focuses on both macro level issues multiple water projects that incorporated a wide range (transboundary water resources) and micro level of nuclear science and technology across the Latin challenges (potable supply consumption). America region were completed. Air and water pollution control is a TC priority in the Water resource management Europe region. TC projects in 2013 provided help for monitoring and investigation of different pollutants, The Sahel project, RAF/7/011, Integrated and using nuclear and complimentary analytical methods, Sustainable Management of Shared Aquifer Systems and for the development of models. and Basins of the Sahel Region, focuses on capacity building by training Member States in the use of Water resources in Latin America and the Caribbean are isotope techniques to meet challenges in water used intensively as an energy source in hydroelectric resource assessment and management. In 2013, and geothermal power generation, as well as in the expert missions were carried out to support Member agricultural, food, chemical and textile industries. Large States in sampling campaigns and data analysis. The dams and their reservoirs are subject to both climate generated data and the available hydrological data variation and climate change, which may affect the from participating countries will further bridge data regulation and storage capacity of the reservoirs and, gaps for the characterization of the five transboundary consequently, reduce the volume which may be used aquifers in the region. This information will provide for electricity generation, supply of drinking water and the basis for developing a shared aquifer diagnostic flood control, leading to rationing of these basic public analysis, which will contribute to set the policy and services for all sectors of the economy. The management institutional reforms necessary for the establishment of potable water particularly in coastal aquifers of a framework for agreed joint management of shared and wastewater is a problem for many cities. Intensive, groundwater resources. uncontrolled extraction of groundwater seriously affects the delicate saltwater/freshwater balance, In an arid country like Kuwait with harsh and hot causing changes in flow patterns, a drop in the water climate conditions, the scarcity of freshwater supplies table, saltwater intrusion and leaching of pollutants. presents a serious threat to sustainable socioeconomic 68

80 development and growth. The issue of the study and environmental isotope data to prove, calibrate or verify management of water resources has been identified conceptual hydrological models. These activities have as one of the top national priorities in the social and been supported by the Agency within the framework of economic development strategy of the country. With project RER/8/016, Using Environmental Isotopes for the support of the Agency, Kuwait is carrying out Evaluation of Streamwater/Groundwater Interactions groundwater investigations through a number of in Selected Aquifers in the Danube Basin. The project TC projects. Activities under project KUW/8/005, was successfully completed in early 2013, but Member Assessing the Hydrological and Hydrochemical States in the region are continuing their cooperation. Interaction between the Main Aquifers in Southern In Georgia, the Agency supported national studies Kuwait Using Geochemical and Isotopic Methods, of water resources through project GEO/7/001, have helped to build a more detailed conceptual model Supporting Environmental Isotope Assessment to of groundwater flow and transport within the aquifer Improve the Sustainable Management of Groundwater system of southern Kuwait. Resources. The project focused on eastern Georgia As a follow-up to project KUW/8/005, more data which has a large deficit in water for irrigation and have been collected for isotopic characterization of domestic use due to its climate. Using hydrological, groundwater covering the whole of Kuwait, including hydrochemical and isotopic techniques, the project both stable and radioactive isotopes under project has produced sufficient data to improve the basis for KUW/7/001, Using Isotope Investigations to Evaluate informed decision-making on locations for groundwater Groundwater Hydrology. The evaluation of these data extraction for drinking and irrigation purposes in the has helped to comprehensively identify the origin, Shiraki Plain area (Alazani and Iori River valleys), and age and movement of groundwater within Kuwaits on volumes. The Agency provided field and laboratory aquifer system. This is essential for the formulation equipment and reagents, expert services and training, of an appropriate management strategy to protect and and helped the counterpart to prepare a report with employ Kuwaits water resources in the most judicious findings and recommendations for the local authorities. manner. Marine, terrestrial and coastal In Europe, the need for high quality drinking water environments and for long term secure supply is growing. The drinking water requirements of several million people A continuous monitoring system for levels and isotopic are covered by bank filtered (riparian) groundwater composition of airborne radionuclides in Kuwait has resources along the Danube River and its tributaries. To been set up under project KUW/9/004, Assessment better protect groundwater bodies, Bulgaria, Croatia, of Atmospheric Transport of Radionuclides. Baseline Hungary, Slovakia, Slovenia and Serbia have used levels of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in KUW/8/005: Operating the newly installed stable isotope analyser. 69

81 Kuwaits atmospheric environment were established, Algal Blooms in the Caribbean Region, Applying and national capabilities for early identification and Advanced Nuclear Techniques, Radioecotoxicological measurement of radionuclides in the atmosphere, Evaluations and Bioassays (ARCAL CXVI), was especially in the event of a radiological or nuclear completed in 2013. The project aimed to contribute accident, were remarkably improved. to the holistic understanding of the state of health of coastal zones, and to reduce public health risks and Also in Kuwait, the national analytical capability to damage to local economies caused by harmful algal detect and analyse alpha, beta, and gamma radiation blooms (HABs) in the Caribbean area. It enhanced the emitters in atmospheric, marine, and terrestrial capability of Member States to monitor algal toxins in environmental compartments was strengthened under seafood resources and to manage the challenges posed project KUW/9/006, Establishing an Integrated by HABs. The participating Member States were Environmental Radioactivity Monitoring Network. Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El An information system for data integration and Salvador, Haiti, Mexico, Nicaragua, Uruguay and the dissemination was developed, and relevant radiation Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. modelling codes were used to model radionuclide dynamics in various environmental compartments, and Throughout the course of the project, 104 specialists to study dose and risk assessment. were trained through fellowships, scientific visits and regional courses. As a result of the project, the region By facilitating the harmonized use of quality standards now has nine laboratories (Colombia, Costa Rica, in sampling methods, radioanalytical measurements Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Mexico, and data treatment, project RER/0/033, Supporting Nicaragua, Uruguay and the Bolivarian Republic of Quality Assurance for the Measurement and Monitoring Venezuela) equipped with technologies and experts of Radioactivity in the Environment, has significantly for the identification of species of toxic microalgae. improved environmental monitoring capabilities in A regional inventory of potentially toxic microalgae some 30 Member States in the Europe region, enhancing species, and capacities for the evaluation of toxicity public safety and protection. An important milestone in in marine microalgae and food using receptor binding 2013 was the conduct of a regional training course on assay (RBA) was established. In addition, five harmonization of procedures for sampling techniques, Members States (Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, El including a practical field exercise, in Seibersdorf, Salvador and Nicaragua) are now equipped and able to Austria. evaluate toxicity in marine microalgae and food using Following the implementation of project RER/1/008, RBA methodologies. Supporting Air Quality Management, the vast El Salvadors capabilities to monitor marine resources majority of participating Member States in the Europe using nuclear techniques has been improved through region have adopted standard procedures for collecting project ELS/7/005, Establishing the Tetrodotoxin and analysing atmospheric particulate matter. Nine Baseline in Conotoxic and Ichthyotoxic Populations. countries have also produced data on transboundary The country is now able to assess toxicity in movements of atmospheric particulate matter. The microalgae, molluscs, fish, snails, crabs, sea turtles project supported the establishment of a regional and phytoplankton using the radioassay method. Upon database, making a tangible contribution to data completion of the project, ten sites with occurrence harmonization and promoting a better understanding of HABs in the coastal zone were assessed, risks of the status of atmospheric pollution in Europe and were identified and the population was warned. The Central Asia. laboratory established a national inventory of almost In Latin America, regional project RLA/7/014, 200 species of harmful, toxic and harmless microalgae Designing and Implementing Systems for Early and published a baseline of conotoxic species in the Warning and Evaluation of the Toxicity of Harmful country and their relationship with red tides. 70

82 Industrial Applications Regional highlights Reference products for science and trade The increasing use of nuclear technology and Under regional project RAS/1/017, Improving equipment requires the utilization of measuring Analytical Quality through Proficiency Testing and instruments and this creates a demand for maintenance, Certification of Matrix Reference Materials in ARASIA development, testing and quality control of equipment. Member State Laboratories, regional resources in In Africa, many countries face the challenges of ARASIA countries were used to characterize new service breakdowns because of poor or non-existent reference materials (RMs), and good measurement maintenance services. This can have very damaging practices were identified and utilized. This has provided consequences, particularly in the medical sector. the basis for the establishment of a regional platform for Shortcomings in equipment maintenance are due to collaboration in the characterization and certification of the fast pace of development of emerging technologies RMs. Over 120 specialists from ARASIA States Parties and a limited number of skilled maintenance staff in were trained. Two RMs, uranium ore (JAEC 001) and Member States, often exacerbated by brain drain. In spiked water, were produced and certified in a relatively addition, insufficient technical documentation for short time and with a small budget. The commercial equipment repair and maintenance, and intermittent value of the produced RMs in the market could reach power supply in some countries, can have a negative at least 150 000. Both RMs are now available for impact on equipment maintenance. use by laboratories in ARASIA countries for quality control, method validation and for proficiency testing In Europe, sterilization using different radiation in the region. Now that expertise in preparing RMs and sources is widely used to sanitize disposable health proficiency testing items has been developed, new RMs care products in several countries. The preservation of to address specific regional needs can be developed. cultural heritage is also important for the region. Here, Three ARASIA States Parties (Jordan, Oman and nuclear analytical methods play a key role in cultural Saudi Arabia) are embarking on national initiatives for heritage object identification and can be applied to the preparation and characterization of other RMs to preserve certain types of cultural heritage artefacts. fulfil their national needs. Regional project RER/1/011, Introducing and Harmonizing Standardized Quality Control Procedures Research reactors for Radiation Technologies, has focused on the use of the relevant ASTM International and International Africa has ten research reactors in eight countries that Organizations for Standardization (ISO) standards at are currently participating actively in research reactor different levels in this region. related nuclear programmes. Africas research reactor facilities are used to provide training for staff for the 71

83 RAS/1/017: Preparation of drinking water trace element RMs at King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST). advancement of nuclear technology, as well as for Technology in Morocco was used in a workshop for research, the production of radioisotopes, and medical the performance of hands-on training demonstration and industrial applications that benefit socioeconomic experiments. A meeting was held to present and development in the region. discuss common areas for improvement of national strategic plans for research reactors, and another was Under project RAF/4/022, Enhancing Research held to discuss the lessons learned and to improve Reactor Utilization and Safety (AFRA) a series of the capability of national laboratories using nuclear events were held in 2013. Participating Member activation analysis and other analytical techniques. States were trained in safety and security for the management of risks related to research reactors. A In Uzbekistan, the Agency reached a key milestone meeting took place to provide training on the Incident in 2013 with the completion of the upgrade of the Reporting System for Research Reactors and to instrumentation and control (I&C) system for the exchange information on safety significant events. 10 MW WWR-SM research reactor operated by the The Regional Workshop on Operational Radiological Institute of Nuclear Physics at Ulugbek, near Tashkent. Protection Programme for Research Reactors provided The new digital I&C system went through six months practical information and guidance to research reactor of trial operation and, upon completion of testing at full specialists on the establishment of an effective power with a full set of new sensors for critical process operational radiation protection and radioactive waste parameters, was accepted for routine use. Modernization management programme. Several safety missions were of the I&C system, which was achieved in partnership conducted to facilities in order to review the safety with the EC and the US Department of Energy (Global status of the reactors and to provide counterparts with Threat Reduction Initiative) within the framework of recommendations for further improvement. A first project UZB/9/005, Improving Operational Safety of Integrated Safety Assessment of Research Reactors the Research Reactor at the Institute of Nuclear Physics mission was carried out at the SAFARI-1 research (Phase II), has significantly improved the safety level reactorin South Africa. This project benefited from an of one of the most heavily used research reactors in the extrabudgetary contribution from the EC. Europe region. Under the same project, the TRIGA Mark II facility of the National Centre for Nuclear Energy, Sciences and 72

84 Radioisotopes and radiation technology for supporting the establishment of a regional centre of industrial applications expertise and experimental capabilities in neutron beam techniques at the SAFARI-1 research reactor through In Egypt, many companies produce agrochemicals, project SAF/1/005, Establishing a Regional User but controlled release usage is not yet widespread, Access Centre of Excellence in Neutron Beam Line although it is advantageous both economically Applications. SAFARI-1 is a 20 MW tank-in-pool type and environmentally. Through project EGY/8/022, nuclear research reactor owned and operated by Necsa Producing Curable Polymeric Materials for Controlled and is the only nuclear research reactorin the country. Release of Agrochemicals by Using Electron Beam The project aims to develop qualified human resource (EB) Accelerators, the Agency has provided support capacity, improve beam characteristics, and support the to Egypts National Center for Radiation Research installation of a more versatile sample environment and and Technology (NCRRT) to enhance the use of the most recent instrumentation suites. It has already environmentally friendly radiation processing of new supported the upgrading of the SAFARI-1 beam line materials. This includes the preparation of curable infrastructure. In 2013, two fellows received hands-on polymeric materials for the controlled release of training in neutron scattering investigations in material agrochemicals. The project supported fellowship science and related applications. The project will training and equipment delivery, and also promoted the continue until the end of 2015. industrial applications of EB accelerators. It has helped to enhance the capacities of the NCRRT and, as a In Malaysia, specialized training and expert advice result, the NCRRT has established quality management to Malaysian professionals delivered through project procedures for the introduction of radiation technology MAL/1/011, Developing Efficient Non-Destructive in new fields, increased the efficiency of agrochemicals Testing (NDT) Data Management through Integrated produced in Egypt, reduced the production costs NDT Modalities, has strengthened the infrastructure of controlled release technology and enhanced of the countrys NDT management system and the beneficial effects of agrochemicals and other has enhanced industrial inspection and evaluation biologically active agents. activities. Malaysia is also working to develop green materials and processes using ionizing radiation and In South Africa, a high-energy analysis system for nanomaterials to mitigate environmental pollution accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at iThemba generated from industrial wastewater, supported by LABS is being upgraded under project SAF/0/004, project MAL/1/010, Developing Green Materials and Completing the High-Energy Analysis System for Processes Using Ionizing Radiation and Nanomaterials Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at iThemba LABS for Environmental Remediation. In addition to expert (Gauteng). Also in South Africa, the Agency is UZB/9/005: New digital I&C console for the WWR-SM research reactor, Uzbekistan. 73

85 missions to increase the knowledge and competency the Establishment of an Industrial Dosimetry of young researchers in conducting nanofibre radiation Intercomparison Programme, Jordan and the Syrian grafting activities, several fellowships and scientific Arab Republic completed a first industrial dosimetry visits were conducted in China and India to support intercomparison exercise in October 2013. The capacity development. participating laboratories are working to achieve certifications of traceability for their dosimetry Myanmar has placed a fellow at the Institute for calibration in 2014. Advanced Study, Italy, for a masters degree programme on nuclear and ionizing radiation technologies with Member States in the Europe region received support the support of project MYA/1/014, Building National in upgrading the quality of NDT and in harmonizing Capability to Use Radiotracer and Sealed Source training and certification activities to comply with Techniques in Industry. The project aims to promote ISO standards in the field under project RER/1/009, learning, build capacity and support hands-on training Developing Coordinated Non-Destructive Testing in radiotracer and sealed source techniques for Activities to Comply with International Organization industrial applications. An expert mission took place for Standardization (ISO) Codes for Training, in Myanmar in 2013 to provide support for a national Certification and Harmonization. These inputs seminar on stakeholder awareness and to train a local have increased industrial and environmental safety, team in tracer technologies. productivity and quality management and assurance in a range of industrial and energy-related installations, Some ARASIA Member States are focusing on the including the nuclear, oil and gas, aviation, automobile utilization of irradiation facilities, such as gamma and power generating industries, as well as civil ray and electron beam facilities, for commercial engineering. A regional TC workshop on NDT quality scale irradiation of medical and agriculture products. management was held in Zagreb in October 2013; However, for the successful implementation of this event also offered specialists from the region irradiation, precise calibration for the radiation dose the opportunity to liaise with colleagues from the rate and a reliable measurement of the radiation dose international community during relevant sessions of the are required. Under project RAS/1/015, Supporting 7th International Conference on NDT in Certification RAS/1/015: The Jordan Atomic Energy Commission has participated in an industrial dosimetry intercomparison exercise 74

86 AZB/8/002: Early stages of construction of the radiation processing facility in Azerbaijan. and Standardization also taking place in Zagreb Reports elaborated through project RLA/0/037, that month. Twenty participants already certified in Supporting a Sustainable Increase in the Use radiography level II from eleven countries received of Research Reactors in the Latin American and additional training in preparation for the next level of Caribbean Region through Networking, Exchange of certification. Experiences, Knowledge Preservation and Training of Human Resources (ARCAL CXIX) document In Azerbaijan, expert services, local staff training and the present status of production, use and demand of facilities for a cobalt-60 irradiator and for dosimetry radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals in the region, and microbiology laboratories have been provided and include medium and long term proposals for under project AZB/8/002, Creating Capabilities for reaching self-sufficiency. The project has promoted a Radiation Processing. The construction of premises better and more efficient use of the regions research to host the cobalt-60 gamma irradiator for national reactors and ancillary facilities. radiation processing is under way. The Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission is building Peru has geological terrain likely to contain deposits a set of six new hot cells to upgrade its medical of uranium and other radioactive minerals. Within isotope production facility, with cooperation from the framework of project PER/2/016, Evaluating the the Agency through project CHI/4/022, Modernizing Uraniferous Potential in the Magmatic Environments the Radioisotope Production Laboratory of La Reina in the Eastern Andes Region, the Peruvian Institute Nuclear Centre by Incorporating Advanced Concepts of Nuclear Energy (IPEN) has established cooperation of Safety and Good Manufacturing Practices. An with the Institute for Geology, Mining and Metallurgy. agreement was reached to manufacture the hot cells This has facilitated access to geological maps, field locally, with expertise and some key components work, analysis of rocks and sample preparation. The procured by the Agency, while the country provides samples were analysed for uranium, thorium and labour and materials. This presented better value for potassium in the IPEN laboratory, and the existence money, supported compliance with good manufacturing of areas with anomalies and manifestations that practices and radiation safety considerations, and characterize uranium deposits was confirmed. The ensured the transfer of the know-how required for the project supported the training of new professional staff construction of the cells. in the geology of uranium, as well as guidance by a uranium exploration expert during field work. 75

87 Energy planning and nuclear power Regional highlights an appropriate legal and regulatory framework, develop the necessary nuclear power infrastructure and Poor energy capacity is detrimental to social and build related national human resource capacities. More economic development. Africa, although richly specifically, in the framework of the implementation endowed with diverse energy and mineral resources, of the integrated work plan (IWP) for Malaysias has limited energy capacity. The Agency has provided nuclear power programme, the Agency has reviewed tailored assistance to Member States in the region 21 regulations and guidelines on topics such as nuclear through national and regional projects that focus on liability, safeguards, radiation and nuclear safety, and creating or enhancing national capacities to develop nuclear security. energy planning study reports as a tool to aid decision- making. In the Europe region, a number of interested Member States are receiving support related to building their Targeted assistance and awareness raising activities first NPPs, preparations for the introduction of nuclear are also available for countries concerned with the safe power, or for decision-making on the nuclear power and efficient management of uranium and other related option. The programme priority in this area is to radioactive mining activities. provide support to the building of proper infrastructure Several Member States in Asia and the Pacific continue and the development of human resources needed for to show interest in nuclear power and a number have the safe and secure deployment of nuclear power. The taken concrete steps towards constructing their first main target countries in Europe are Poland and Turkey, nuclear power plants (NPPs). The Agency is providing which have taken decisions to start programmes, and assistance through both national and regional projects, Belarus, which has started construction of its first NPP. strengthening national capabilities to develop national Energy planning nuclear power infrastructures in embarking countries as well as supporting countries operating NPPs. Niger is receiving technical assistance through project NER/2/003, Assessing the Potential Contribution of For example, extensive support has been provided to Nuclear Power in the National Energy Mix for the Malaysia, as it considers the nuclear option, to establish 76

88 Development of Sustainable Energy Strategies and wishing to embark on nuclear power by supporting Nuclear Power Introduction Planning. One project feasibility studies on the requirements, challenges and objective is to enable the country to develop a plan obligations related to nuclear power programmes. for sustainable energy development using models for Up to eighteen Member States participated in the planning energy supply and demand developed by project, gaining self-assessment capabilities for nuclear the Agency. These include the Model for Analysis of power programmes through workshops, training Energy Demand and the Model for Energy Supply courses, meetings, and expert assistance. A regional Strategy Alternatives and their General Environmental workshop was held on requirements for developing Impacts (MESSAGE). Two training workshops on strategic plans, road maps and feasibility studies for these models were held in February and April 2013 nuclear power programmes in October 2013 in Nigeria. in Niamey, and a preliminary report on the analysis In South Africa, an Integrated Nuclear Infrastructure of national energy demand and supply of electricity in Review (INIR) mission, funded through the PUI and the long term (up to 2035) has been prepared. Three an extrabudgetary contribution by South Africa, was national officers involved in the implementation of conducted in 2013, and provided recommendations the programme were trained by the Agency in Vienna and suggestions regarding infrastructure development in August 2013and subsequently contributed to to support new build projects. In Uganda, at a final the report. recap meeting held in December 2013, the participating Cambodia has also increased its capacities in energy Member States and the Agency agreed to continue planning through a national training course on the joint efforts for capacity building for countries seeking use of MESSAGE, through project KAM/2/001, nuclear power as an option in their national energy mix Developing National Capability in Energy Planning in the next TC project cycle, and to establish a regional and Economics. Fellows received intensive training in network for emerging nuclear power programmes in Vienna on applying MESSAGE for Cambodias energy Africa. The project was funded by the TCF and by the mix scenarios. United States of America through the PUI. National projects on capacity building for energy In Nigeria, under project NIR/2/007, Developing a planning were implemented in two LDC Member Nuclear Power Infrastructure Aimed at Education, States, Benin and Burundi. In addition, 24 countries Training and Facility Development for a Successful Albania, Bangladesh, Croatia, Ghana, Honduras, Implementation of the Approved National Nuclear Indonesia, Islamic Republic of Mauritania, Jordan, Power Programme, assistance has been provided Kenya, Malaysia, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Nepal, for the establishment of a multi-layered programme Oman, Senegal, Seychelles, Singapore, Sri Lanka, to develop nuclear power infrastructure that will Sudan, Tunisia, United Republic of Tanzania, Uruguay enable the growth of the critical human resources and and Zimbabwe received technical support to infrastructure needed for the successful implementation enhance their planning expertise for sustainable energy of the national nuclear power programme. A development. multifunction nuclear power simulator has been purchased and installed and is currently used by all Introduction of nuclear power national stakeholders, including the regulatory body, The Agency supports capacity building for the for education and training. introduction of nuclear power through national, Under project MAL/2/005, Strengthening National regional, and interregional projects. In Africa, regional Capacities and Capability for Nuclear Power Programme project RAF/0/033, Increasing Awareness at Decision Planning, and project MAL/9/014, Strengthening the Making Level about the Requirements and Challenges Regulatory Authoritys Capabilities to Ensure Safety, Related to the Feasibility of a Nuclear Power Security and Safeguards for the Development of the Programme, aims to support African Member States Nuclear Power Programme, the Agency continued to 77

89 assist Malaysia in strengthening national capacities for strategy and plans for significant human resource its nuclear power programme decision-making. PUI capacity development to establish a national nuclear funds were used to support fellowships and to develop technology training centre. The Agency has since capabilities in safety analysis using thermal hydraulic carried out a detailed assessment of the needs and system codes for plant response to accidents. Several developed technical specifications for the required expert missions were supported for the development training simulator. and implementation of integrated management systems In February 2013, following the promulgation of based on the International Basic Safety Standards, the Atomic Energy Control Act 2012, Bangladesh as well as on related Safety Guides, for regulatory established the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Regulatory bodies and operating organizations focused on pre- Authority (BAERA) as a structurally separate entity operational design, construction and commissioning and appointed a Chairperson to the new regulatory of NPPs. Furthermore, reviews were carried out body. In view of the pressing needs of its NPP of Malaysias strategy and plans for stakeholder programme, Bangladesh is intensifying efforts to involvement with civil servants, as well as for public strengthen BAERA. communications on nuclear energy development plans. In addition, the projects aimed to promote the sharing Through project JOR/2/007, Developing Nuclear of experiences between advanced and newcomer States Infrastructure for the Construction and Operation of in conducting public opinion polls, engagement with a Nuclear Power Plant, support has been provided local communities, and mobile exhibitions. for 19 activities in Jordans national nuclear power programme IWP. These Within the framework of Viet What is an integrated work plan? included capacity building of Nams IWP for 20112015, key organizations, review of and with ongoing Agency An integrated work plan (IWP) guides the countrywide site survey support, the country has the implementation of a national nuclear and site characterization taken considerable steps to power programme, and promotes effective preparations, improvements develop a national nuclear implementation of planned activities to the financial risk mitigation power infrastructure. Project supported by the Agency. An IWP strategy, stakeholder VIE/2/010, Developing consolidates all technical assistance by involvement through public Nuclear Power Infrastructure the Agency to the Member States nuclear information, development and Phase II, has enhanced power programme. implementation of a strategic coordination among national human resource plan for institutions and ensured the nuclear power, and assistance active involvement of several national institutions in in the establishment of a capable owner/nuclear power the nuclear power programme. operator. Information on the latest development of In Bangladesh, the Agency has provided comprehensive small modular reactors and expert support for the support for the development of national nuclear bankable feasibility study were also provided, as well power infrastructure within the framework of project as a review of laws and regulations and support for BGD/2/012, Establishing Infrastructures for the enhanced nuclear safety and security. Introduction of a Nuclear Power Plant. Several The United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the Agency advisory and expert missions have contributed signed an IWP on 5 June 2013 to facilitate an enhanced significantly to institutional capacity building in the working relationship between the Agency and the planning and management of the NPP. Furthermore, national organizations involved in the UAEs nuclear following Agency advice, the Bangladesh Atomic power programme. Nuclear power for electricity Energy Commission established a special NPP generation is a national priority for the UAE and ongoing construction project management organization in activities are progressing as planned. Construction of May 2013. Bangladesh is also developing a national 78

90 The United Arab Emirates and the Agency sign an IWP to support the implementation of the UAEs national nuclear power programme. the second reactor began on 28 May 2013. The signing transboundary issues in nuclear power programmes, of the IWP supports the priorities related to nuclear as well as an integrated approach to safety, security power outlined in the UAEs CPF for 20122016, and and safeguards, are addressed from the perspective reinforces the mutual cooperation between the UAE of operating facilities. The project has also involved and the Agency to ensure the successful progress of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the USA in TC UAEs nuclear power programme. activities for the first time. As a special subproject, support is being provided to develop nuclear power In Europe, project RER/2/007, Enhancing Nuclear infrastructure in Turkey, and a national peer review has Power Infrastructures for Countries Considering, been completed through a Phase 2 INIR mission. Developing or Expanding Nuclear Power Programmes, renders human resource capacity building support Under project BYE/2/004, Developing Nuclear to countries in the region at different stages of their Power Infrastructure and a Staff Training System for nuclear power programmes. Regional cooperation and a Nuclear Power Programme, the Agency conducted RER/2/007: Visit to the Watts Bar NPP in Tennessee during the Workshop on Effective Management of Safety, Security, and Non-proliferation Issues at Operating Nuclear Facilities, Oak Ridge, USA. 79

91 an INIR mission, supported further capacity building national seminar on energy development scenarios to of the nuclear energy programme implementing key Albanian stakeholders, policymakers and decision- organization and assisted the Government of Belarus in makers in the energy sector, who acknowledged adopting a new national human resources development the Agencys valuable cooperation in the field of plan. A computer based training system and a turbine sustainable energy development. laboratory support the education base of universities in In Georgia, project GEO/0/003, Supporting the Belarus. The operating organization was strengthened Development of a National Infrastructure for the with the provision of staff training and retraining Potential Application of Nuclear Energy, was documentation. The Sosny Joint Institute for Power completed with the issuance of a draft energy study for and Nuclear Research (the main technical support Georgia. This included a review of all relevant issues organization) was further strengthened by individual with regard to the application, appropriation and use staff training. Belarus began the construction of its first of nuclear energy. The project also strengthened local NPP in November 2013. expertise on energy system analysis and planning. The capacities of the Polish National Atomic Energy The Agency arranged multiple training sessions for Agency (NAEA) to efficiently supervise a nuclear power Georgian personnel, and Agency experts visited the programme have been increased by staff training under country to introduce the Agencys energy planning tools project POL/9/021, Strengthening Nuclear Regulatory and to guide the project team members in the collection Authority Capabilities to Prepare the Introduction of of energy statistics and data. Software and computer Nuclear Power. Individual staff training was provided equipment to support the efficient use of analytical tools by regulatory authorities and nuclear safety training were provided under the project, which also supported centres in Germany, Finland, France, Slovakia, Spain the establishment of the national International Nuclear and the United States of America. In addition, several Information System (INIS) centre for the exchange of national training events were held for NAEA staff, nuclear information with equipment and training. covering management systems, legislation related to licensing, human resource development planning, Nuclear power reactors regulatory control and design safety assessment. Project RER/9/125, Strengthening Nuclear Safety Poland also hosted an INIR mission in April 2013. Assessment Capabilities Through the use of the In 2013, the Agency supported enhancement of the Safety Assessment, Education and Training (SAET) capabilities of the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority Programme, successfully completed its second and to manage the licensing process and oversee the final year in 2013, having paved the way forward for construction, commissioning and operation of multiple Member States in Europe that participated in the TC unit NPPs to be built at the Akkuyu and Sinop sites. This programme to adjust their nuclear and radiation safety was carried out in cooperation with the Government of training curricula to current needs. The project has Turkey, which funded project TUR/9/017, Enhancing been especially important in view of the fulfilment the Turkish Atomic Energy Authoritys capabilities for of the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety. Within regulatory oversight of construction, commissioning project RER/9/125, a first-of-a-kind workshop was and operation of new nuclear power plants. An INIR organized to collect feedback from Member States mission was conducted in Turkey in November 2013. on probabilistic safety assessment Level 3, which is a relatively new topic for nuclear power countries. Hands-on training and expert guidance provided under project ALB/2/014, Supporting a Safe and Long term operation (LTO) and ageing management is Sustainable Electricity Supply, were instrumental in vital for older NPPs. National codes and approaches the preparation of the technical document An Analysis in the Europe region differ in details, which could of Energy Supply Options for Albania until 2040. The result in significantly different LTO results. Thus, a major achievements of the project were presented at a harmonization process was required. Under project 80

92 RER/2/009, Strengthening Capabilities for Nuclear to establish and put into operation the tritium removal Power Plant Lifetime Management for Long Term research facility under ROM/2/009, Upgrading Operation, an upgraded VERLIFE31 procedure was Capacity to Develop and Implement the Technology for discussed in depth, and training for LTO and ageing Tritium Removal from Heavy Water at the Cernavoda management was provided. The knowledge gained by Nuclear Power Plant. The project contributed to the Member States within the framework of the project availability of well trained and competent staff that are has helped to prepare harmonized strategies for NPP needed to support the new facility. lifetime management and operation. Project RLA/9/060, Enhancing Operational Safety in Project RER/9/124, Improving Operational Safety Nuclear Installations, implemented by the Agency and of Nuclear Power Plants, aimed to share information co-financed by the EU, concluded in September 2013. and experience, and to provide support in resolving The project assisted operators of a number of countries deficiencies in specific areas of NPP operational in the Latin America region operating NPPs to enhance safety where problems have been identified, and their current safety culture procedures and practices, in implementing improvement programmes. drawing on the experience of the USA and countries Participants exchanged information, lessons learned, in Europe with advanced nuclear power programmes. recommendations, suggestions and good practices A key project output is the Ibero-American Nuclear from their Operational Safety Review Team Platform for Operators in the Area of Safety (PIANOS), (OSART) missions, shared lessons learned from the a web-based platform that supports collaboration and implementation of OSART recommendations and knowledge sharing among professionals working in suggestions, and advised the Agency on how to improve Latin American nuclear power utilities. PIANOS was the effectiveness of the OSART process. Activities officially launched on 10 July 2013 at a ceremony under project RER/9/124 are contributing to increased attended by staff from the Permanent Missions of use of the OSART programme in the region, which will Brazil, Mexico and the EC, as well as senior Agency contribute to operational safety improvements. officials. Staff of the Latin American NPPs and representatives of Spanish utilities joined the ceremony In Romania, support was provided to strengthen via video conference. engineering capacity on tritium removal technology and RLA/9/060: The launch of PIANOS. 31 Unified Procedure for Lifetime Assessment of Components and Piping in WWER NPPs during Operation 81

93 Nuclear fuel cycle mission to the United Republic of Tanzania in May/ June 2013 reviewed the countrys uranium operations Regional project RAF/3/007, Strengthening and environmental and safety performances, including Regional Capabilities for Uranium Mining, Milling the Mkuju River Project. The mission focused on and Regulation of Related Activities, aims to enhancing the operational performance and safety strengthen the capabilities of African Member States of facilities through the uranium production cycle. in the effective and efficient management of uranium Member States participating in project RAF/3/007 resources and other radioactive ores, and also supports strengthened their national human resource capacities a strengthened legislative framework. Up to 28 through a regional workshop on uranium exploration Member States participated in the project, enhancing and resources in Africa (November 2013, Malawi) their knowledge and institutional services in uranium and two regional training courses on uranium mining mining and processing. The project also aimed tailings management (May 2013, Zambia) and on to improve environmental, health and safety, and uranium mining and opportunities for socioeconomic technical areas of the uranium production cycle through development in Africa (August 2013, Democratic workshops, training courses, meetings, and expert Republic of the Congo). The project was funded by the assistance. A Uranium Production Site Appraisal Team TCF, with PUI funds from the USA. 82

94 Radiation protection, nuclear safety and nuclear security Regional highlights Under project RAF/9/038, Promoting Self Assessment of Regulatory Infrastructures for Safety and Radionuclides and ionizing radiation are applied in Networking of Regulatory Bodies in Africa, efforts agriculture, pest control, medicine and industry. These have been directed towards enhancing and improving applications require regulation, control and monitoring. the performance of regulatory systems and ensuring The Agency provides ongoing support to Member conformance with international standards through self- States in the implementation of the International Basic assessment and enhanced regional cooperation. The Safety Standards, and the establishment of practices final coordination meeting of the project was held in for the safe management and regulatory control of Arusha, United Republic of Tanzania, in December radioactive sources. Many projects in this area receive 2013, enabling all project counterparts and their significant support through extrabudgetary resources representatives to review the status of participating from the EU, the PUI, and from individual Member Member States in employing the self-assessment States. exercise, and to record lessons learned and country experiences throughout the five-year period of the Governmental regulatory infrastructure for project. Sixteen participating countries had completed radiation safety a full self-assessment life cycle: the response phase, the Under project RAF/9/042, Sustaining the Regulatory analysis phase and the development of an action plan. Infrastructure for the Control of Radiation Sources, Singapore has been assisted in strengthening its a first regional training course on licensing and capabilities to address and respond to possible inspection of uranium mining and milling was held radiation exposure in the industrial, medical or other in South Africa. The objective was to train African domestic industries, as well as possible radiological Member State regulators on licensing and inspection and nuclear incidents which could have transboundary of uranium mining and milling in order to enhance impacts. Fourteen fellows from Singapore participated regulatory control over these activities. The course also in training courses and scientific visits to Japan and helped Member States to strengthen regulatory control Denmark on the topic of emergency preparedness and over uranium mining and milling by applying effective response, within the framework of project SIN/9/018, licensing and inspection programmes. 83

95 Strengthening Human Capacity in Radiation Agency standards. Participants concluded that to Protection and Nuclear Safety. In addition, Singapore effectively respond to diverse needs in the region, received assistance on waste management related to it is essential to tailor awareness programmes for decommissioning, which strengthened its radioactive policymakers, as well as capacity building activities, to waste management capabilities. Current practices for conditions in Member States. the disposal of residual material containing enhanced Israel provided a one-week training course for levels of natural radionuclides were reviewed. six Palestinian counterparts on the application of In Malaysia, project MAL/9/014, Strengthening the gamma spectrometry for environmental radioactivity Regulatory Authoritys Capabilities to Ensure Safety, surveillance, sampling, sample preparation, sample Security and Safeguards for the Development of measurement and analysis under PAL/9/006, the Nuclear Power Programme, supported national Establishing Legislative and Regulatory Infrastructure, workshops on self-assessment and the use of the Safety Infrastructure for Occupational and Medical Integrated Review of Infrastructure for Safety tool, Exposure Control, and Emergency Response as well as on regulatory strategies and approaches, Capabilities. including organizational and staffing structures. In Europe, Member States have received assistance in Malaysia also received assistance in the area of strategic establishing adequate national legal frameworks for the programme planning for borehole disposal of disused application of safe and peaceful uses of nuclear energy sealed radioactive sources (DSRSs), in support of the under project RER/9/105, Establishing National countrys efforts to identify suitable disposal sites for Legal Frameworks, supporting their compliance with low level waste and DSRSs. international obligations and fundamental requirements Under project MON/9/006, Strengthening of of relevant legal instruments and international Regulatory and Radiation Protection Technical standards. Capabilities, monitoring detectors and equipment Under project BYE/9/017, Strengthening the were provided to Mongolia to strengthen national Effectiveness of Nuclear and Radiation Safety regulatory and radiation protection capacities. Regulatory Authority by Increasing the Efficiency Cambodia is moving forward in building its for Qualification of Specialists and Experts, and in radiation safety infrastructure, supported by project parallel to national nuclear infrastructure development KAM/9/001, Establishing a National Radiation in Belarus, the Agency organized scientific visits to Safety Infrastructure. A three-week national training regulators in Armenia, the Czech Republic, France, course was held in 2013 on the organization and Hungary and the Russian Federation. National implementation of a national regulatory programme for workshops were held on the development of legislation the control of radiation sources. and regulation for nuclear and radiation safety, on the development of regulatory inspection programmes, A high level regional meeting on the regulatory and on the licensing system for NPPs. Expert missions infrastructure for the control of radiation sources was were carried out to review the national legal and organized by Nepals Ministry of Science, Technology regulatory framework for nuclear and radiation safety, and Environment in August 2013, attended by 36 and to review the national strategy on radioactive participants from 16 Member States and one entity in waste management. Such missions also supported a the Asia and the Pacific region. The meeting, which systematic assessment of regulatory competencies took place in the framework of project RAS/9/062, for staff development and the creation of a nuclear Promoting and Maintaining Regulatory Infrastructures emergency crisis centre in Belarus. for the Control of Radiation Sources, addressed the apparent diversity in progress towards implementing In Latin America and the Caribbean, harmonized regulatory infrastructure compatible with the relevant regulatory guides for inspection and authorization 84

96 for ten practices involving relevant potential risk Radiation protection of workers, patients from the medical and industrial fields were prepared and the public under project RLA/9/064, Strengthening National Radiation in diagnostic, interventional and therapeutic Regulatory Infrastructures for the Control of Radiation procedures in medicine provides benefits to hundreds Sources. of millions of people each year. However, physicians Supporting safety in nuclear power plants must carefully balance the potential benefits and the and research reactors risks related to radiation exposure of people when using these medical procedures. The Agency works to support The Agency initiated the preparation of the IAEA the reduction of unnecessary exposures to ionizing Fukushima Report in 2013, to be finalized by the radiation in medicine, as a substantial percentage of end of 2014. Within the framework of project individual medical exposures are unjustified. RAS/9/068, Strengthening and Harmonizing National Capabilities for Response to Nuclear and Radiological The Agency supports the promotion of effective Emergencies, support was provided to experts within radiological protection monitoring in occupational the Asia and the Pacific region to attend the working exposure through project RAF/9/043, Strengthening group meetings and assist in the drafting of the report the Transfer of Experience Related to Occupational on the accident.32 Expert participation from Africa, Radiation Protection of the Nuclear Industry and Other Europe and Latin America and the Caribbean was also Applications Involving Ionizing Radiation. Under the supported through the TC programme. scope of the project, and in line with the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards and The Agency continues to support the Bushehr nuclear related Safety Guides, an intercomparison exercise of power plant (BNPP-1) in the Islamic Republic of Iran personnel dosimetry systems was initiated. The activity through the TC programme, with a focus on safety was successfully completed in the Africa region in issues. The Iran Nuclear Regulatory Authority is cooperation with the Algerian secondary standard receiving support for the enhancement of its nuclear dosimetry laboratory. Twenty-seven African Member regulatory infrastructure and support is being provided States participated in the exercise, helping to strengthen to the Iran Nuclear Waste Management Company a harmonized approach to the implementation of for the safe construction of the Talmesi radioactive specific safety requirements. Three countries outside waste storage and disposal facility, which will receive the region also participated upon special request, with radioactive waste from BNPP-1 in the near future. a view to strengthening networking for a harmonized approach at the international level. Participants from 27 African Member States took part in an intercomparison exercise of personnel dosimetry systems. 32 This paragraph responds to section 2, operative paragraph 5 of resolution GC(57)/RES/11 on providing assistance and support services to Member States, to identify and implement the lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident. 85

97 Project RAF/9/044, Strengthening Radiation Cooperation with strategic partners to improve Protection of Patients during Medical Exposure, aims radiation safety programmes in Member States in to strengthen the radiation protection of patients and Latin America and the Caribbean was expanded health workers in accordance with the requirements of in 2013. The European Union funded projects to the International Basic Safety Standards. The project support Member States in the early identification and works to build national capacity, using local specialists characterization of disused sealed radioactive sources trained, and technical capabilities developed, under and in devising national strategies for regaining and earlier projects dating back to 2005. The main focus improving control over orphan sources. Under project of the project is to attain the highest benefit with the RLA/9/068, Strengthening the National Infrastructure least possible risk to all patients through the safe and and Regulatory Framework for the Protection of appropriate use of ionizing radiation in medicine. Public and the Environment for Safe Management of Building on the efforts and achievements of previous Radioactive Waste, 36 professionals from 14 Member regional projects, the current project has made a States received specialized training in this field. significant difference. As a result, in many countries In Brazil, 30 medical institutes in Rio de Janeiro, Sao the consistency of the justification for and optimization Paulo, Belo Horizonte, Salvador and Porto Alegre of medical radiation exposure with the International implemented radiation protection and quality assurance Basic Safety Standards has been addressed, and quality programmes for dose optimization of patients and assurance procedures and diagnostic reference levels workers, supported by project BRA/9/056, Supporting have been included. The main sustainable outcome is National Assessment of Quality Control and Radiation the creation of an effective, efficient, active professional Protection in Interventional Cardiology Departments, network that provides a forum for sharing experience, and in collaboration with the Brazilian Society of best practices, and lessons learned. Hemodynamics and Interventional Cardiology. Specific training on radiation protection in dental radiology was carried out for the first time in the Transport safety Latin America and the Caribbean region under project In order to build and maintain competencies in radiation, RLA/9/067, Ensuring Radiological Protection transport and waste safety infrastructure, eleven of Patients during Medical Exposures. Dental Member States in Latin America (Bolivia, Brazil, examinations are the most frequently carried out Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, radiological procedure and account for 21% of Guatemala, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay and Bolivarian total radiation exposure worldwide33. As a result Republic of Venezuela) developed a complete of the project, 15 Member States initiated national assessment of the education and training needs for programmes to reduce the dose in dental radiography. current and planned facilities and activities within National technical services for personal dosimetry their countries. The activity was supported by project and workplace monitoring were advanced under RLA/9/070, Strengthening the Education and Training project RLA/9/066, Strengthening and Updating Infrastructure and Building Competence in Radiation Technical Capabilities for the Protection of Health Safety. In addition, current levels of competence and Safety of Workers Occupationally Exposed to and available training resources were identified, and Ionizing Radiation. As part of the quality assurance of education and training needs were prioritized. laboratories measuring exposure, five intercomparison Emergency preparedness and response exercises were conducted to ensure a uniform level of capacity in analysing the results. Furthermore, a A series of emergency preparedness and response prototype of a national dose registry was prepared for activities were held in the Africa region under project Member States to adopt as a best practice. RAF/9/047, Strengthening and Harmonizing National Capabilities to Respond to Nuclear and Radiological 33 http://www.unscear.org/unscear/en/publications/2000_1.html Emergency. The project funded the participation of 86

98 observers and attendees at the workshop on exercising emergencies, using an integrated all-hazards approach. the response to radiation emergencies, and regional In 2013, numerous expert meetings to develop and training courses were held on medical response to upgrade national response plans were held under radiation emergencies and on generic procedures for projects RER/9/100 and RER/9/118, which increased response to a nuclear or radiological emergency at Member States abilities to take action to enhance their research reactors. emergency preparedness infrastructures. In August 2013, the Agency, through the TC programme In Lithuania, as a result of project LIT/6/005, and the Incident and Emergency Centre, hosted a Establishing the National Biological Dosimetry workshop to review the draft regional radiological Laboratory for Cytogenetic Analysis of Ionising and nuclear emergency preparedness plan of the Radiation Exposure and Biological Dose Assessment, Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf, a new biological dosimetry laboratory was inaugurated in order to provide recommendations for improvement in November 2013, marking an important step and advice on future directions. The plan is the first towards further enhancing Lithuanias radiation safety of its kind; it aims to put in place a joint regional infrastructure in the field of emergency preparedness emergency response system to ensure that if a nuclear and response. or radiological disaster strikes, Member States will be Under project RLA/9/074, Strengthening and able to provide effective and appropriate emergency Harmonizing National Capabilities for Response to response in a coordinated and integrated manner. The Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies, new regional workshop assessed the plan for consistency with IAEA training materials on radiation emergencies caused Safety Standard Series No. GS-R-2, Preparedness and by natural disasters and response to the treatment of Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. an overexposed patient were developed for Latin The workshop also discussed the needs of the Gulf America and the Caribbean. Institutional competencies countries with regard to human resource development, related to medical response, biodosimetry and public training, equipment and know-how necessary for the communication were strengthened. The project funded implementation of the plan, and outlined follow-up the participation of observers in a full scale emergency actions for future activities and collaboration with the exercise in the region. Agency. The workshop was organized under regional project RAS/2/015, Supporting the Introduction of Radioactive waste management, Nuclear Power for Electricity Generation and Seawater decommissioning and environmental Desalination. remediation Emergency preparedness and response has been The Agency is helping African Member States to identified as a long standing priority within the Europe establish or improve inventories of radioactive waste, region. In 2013, activities under project RER/9/100, in order to improve their waste management facilities, Developing National Arrangements and Capabilities through project RAF/3/006, Improving Waste for Preparedness and Response to a Nuclear and Management Infrastructure in Africa (AFRA). Project Radiological Emergency, with supplementary activities also include the collection and conditioning funding from the EU, focused on improving and of spent radioactive sources. developing national infrastructure in this field and supported an Emergency Preparedness Review In Cameroon, assistance under the project was provided mission to Jordan. This project, together with project to support the establishment of national legislation and RER/9/118, Strengthening and Harmonizing National a national strategy on waste management. Training Capabilities for Response to Nuclear and Radiological in searching for and securing radioactive waste and Emergencies, assisted Member States in establishing orphan radioactive sources was also provided. In or strengthening coordinated national systems for Nigeria, the Agency assisted the review and revision preparedness and response to nuclear and radiological of the engineering design of the low and intermediate 87

99 level radioactive waste processing and storage facility management of NORM contaminated waste. This that will be installed at the Nuclear Technology Centre will provide safe working conditions for oil and gas in Sheda. The revised design has provided spaces for workers, and ensure environmental protection for the off-loading, segregation, separation of active from general public. non-active areas, buffer storage zone, processing and The Agency continues to assist Iraq through projects storage, a laboratory, underground waste storage tanks IRQ/9/007, Decommissioning and Remediation of for liquid wastes, etc. In Botswana, the establishment Former Nuclear Facilities and Sites, and IRQ/9/009, of a sealed source radioactive waste storage facility Strengthening the National Radioactive Waste is under way. A final draft architectural design was Management Programme. Efforts have led to submitted and reviewed with Agency assistance in the the finalization of phase 1 decommissioning and last quarter of 2013. Construction of the facility may completion of the planning and commencement of start in late 2014. phase 2 decommissioning, including the Tammuz-2 Many African Member States have specific interests research reactor, the fuel fabrication facility, and the related to the legacy of past mining operations and Adaya nuclear burial site. the ongoing accumulation of operational waste, in Iraqi teams have been trained in technical particular naturally occurring radioactive material decommissioning tasks, including site-specific project (NORM). Project RAF/3/006 further developed planning and the further development of radiation national capacities, in particular human resource protection measures. Agency support has been provided capacity, in the field of NORM through national for the development of a national waste management workshops in Burkina Faso, Cameroon and Uganda. plan, regulatory capacity for waste management and The events raised awareness of the risks posed by disposal (including revision of the waste management NORM, and guidance on possible mitigation actions. and disposal regulations) and a safety case and NORM is also of concern in other regions, particularly assessment for new low level waste facilities, and a in the oil producing countries of the Middle East. In quality management system has been implemented. Qatar, project QAT/9/006, Monitoring and Assessing In 2013, project RER/3/010, Supporting Preparation Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) for Remediation of Uranium Production Legacy from the Oil and Gas Industry, is addressing waste Sites, was completed. An important project outcome management issues in the oil industry in the country was the preparation of the terms of reference for the by building national capacity to help ensure proper IRQ/9/009: Visit by an Iraqi team to Andras geological disposal. facility in Bure, France, 2013. 88

100 environmental impact assessment and feasibility study high level radioactive waste through regional project for five high-priority sites in Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan RER/9/103, Training in Radioactive Waste Disposal and Uzbekistan. In addition to extensive training, Technologies Using Underground Research Facilities, numerous field missions and visits to sites with well- which took over from project INT/9/173, Training established remediation programmes, the project in Radioactive Waste Disposal Technologies in pulled together a group of international stakeholders Underground Research Facilities, in 2009, and allowed which could be instrumental in pursuing the costly the participation of Member States from all TC regions: remediation effort itself. In cooperation with the EC, Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Europe and Latin America. the Coordination Group for Uranium Legacy Sites The projects built confidence and competencies in was established for information exchange, provision geological disposal as the most viable option for of technical advice and coordination of the members handling radioactive waste. Approximately 500 actions to maximize synergies and avoid duplication professionals from 29 Member States have been trained of effort. Similarly, project RER/9/121, Supporting in various technical aspects, as well as in stakeholder Environmental Remediation Programmes, has involvement and public confidence, through 33 training helped increase preparedness capabilities for the safe courses, 3 workshops, 1 group scientific visit and 15 and cost-effective implementation of environmental fellowships. Project activities were made possible by remediation projects in Member States in the Europe the substantial hosting contribution of the members of region. Through a series of training events, it has the Underground Research Facilities (URF) Network, helped prepare participating countries to develop who extended rich experience and provided access capacity in planning and managing projects in the area to the URFs developed in their advanced geological of environmental remediation. disposal programmes worldwide, in particular Canada, France, Germany, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, the In 2013, the Agency completed an eleven-year training United Kingdom and the USA. programme in the area of deep geological disposal of RER/9/103: Agency trainees and instructor in the Meuse-Haute Marne underground research laboratory, France. 89

101 In Slovakia, project SLR/9/010, Improving the and a site visit to facilities in the Czech Republic, Characterization Techniques for the A1 NPP and the ongoing procurement of equipment for the Decommissioning Project, is directly linked to the decontamination of metallic material. national Bohunice A1 NPP decommissioning project. In 2013, project INT/9/174, Connecting Networks for Advanced characterization techniques have been Enhanced Communication and Training, supported implemented and the associated equipment has been further development of the content structure of the provided and is being used for the Bohunice A1 NPP CONNECT platform and assisted in building Member decommissioning. The counterparts knowledge has State capacity to use the platform. CONNECT enables increased, particularly on characterization for the Member States to share and exchange knowledge purpose of treatment and disposition of radioactive within specialized Agency networks, including the waste. radioactive waste management networks, in a more Under project EGY/9/039, Establishing a National timely, efficient and cost-effective way. To enhance the Decontamination Operational Unit for Hot transfer of information among participating Member Laboratories and a Waste Management Centre, in States, CONNECT provides various training materials, Inshas, Egypt, national capabilities to safely manage including e-learning modules, videos, and libraries, radioactive material and waste have been enhanced. as well as a wiki database on decommissioning and Activities included expert missions to Egypt, scientific environmental remediation topics. Funding from the visits of Egyptian specialists to waste management and EU was also provided for the enhancement of the decommissioning facilities in Germany and Slovakia, platform and the development of e-learning materials. 90

102 Nuclear knowledge development and management An increased educational and research capacity in the limited number of skilled maintenance staff in gamma spectrometry and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) Member States, exacerbated by brain drain, insufficient techniques was created in the University of the West technical documentation for equipment repair and Indies (UWI), Jamaica, through project JAM/0/004, maintenance, and intermittent power supply in some Developing National Capacities for the Application of countries. Nuclear Science. Capacities now include laboratories Regional project RAF/0/041, Sharing Best Practices for radioecology, medical physics research and in Preventive Maintenance of Nuclear Equipment teaching, and analytical sample preparation. Over (AFRA), helps Member States to address these 200 samples of soil, red mud, crop foods and human constraints. The project builds on the achievements placenta were analysed with the low background of a former project, RAF/4/021, Strengthening gamma spectrometer and 1000 samples by means of National Facilities for the Maintenance and Repair the handheld XRF spectrometer (soil, household dust, of Medical and Scientific Instruments (AFRA IV- vegetables, food crops, seagrass, different types of 14), and prioritizes the promotion of a preventive meat including fish, and human tissue). Laboratory and maintenance culture in African Member States as part in situ analytical services were provided to two bauxite of an integrated national procurement strategy. As well companies for measuring radionuclides in bauxite as a tailored capacity building training programme on waste materials. Three publications in peer review operational preventive maintenance of scientific and journals were produced related to gamma spectrometry medical equipment, provided through both national measurements at UWI. and regional mechanisms, the project contributed to The increasing use of nuclear technology and equipment developing regional expertise in some Member States creates a demand for maintenance, development, that allows the provision of some first line maintenance testing and quality control of equipment. In Africa, training. This included various components of power many countries face challenges in servicing equipment, conditioning, maintenance, troubleshooting, repair due to poor or non-existent maintenance services, and quality control, calibration and tests, and system particularly in the medical area. The shortcomings are programming. Furthermore, participating countries due to the fast development of emerging technologies, were encouraged to develop a centralized national 91

103 maintenance programme and network of laboratories. introduce and expand outreach programmes on nuclear The project promoted TCDC and cooperative activities science and applications in secondary schools. with partners for mutual assistance and regional self- With the Agencys assistance through project ISR/0/003, reliance, as well as the phased implementation of Human Resource Development and Nuclear quality management systems and the promotion of Technology Applications Support Establishment modern techniques for maintenance using information of an Information Center and Exhibition on Nuclear and communication technology tools. Energy and Applications, an information centre and In Gabon and the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, the exhibition on nuclear energy and its applications was Agency is assisting the national authorities through inaugurated on 30 June 2013, attended by the President national projects GAB/0/004, Establishing Preventive of Israel. The centre, which is the first of its kind in Maintenance and Sustainable Management of Medical Israel, aims to educate the public on the benefits of and Scientific Equipment at the Oncology Institute the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, using models, in Libreville and MAU/0/003, Supporting the simulations and other educational material. The Establishment of National Technical Competencies in centre is linked to the national educational system and Preventive Maintenance and Sustainable Management supports the academic curriculum, and has welcomed of Nuclear Equipment of the National Oncology Centre approximately 50 000 visitors since its opening. to build the capacities of biomedical engineers to deal In Europe, project RER/0/034, Enhancing the with the preventive maintenance of nuclear medical Characterization, Preservation and Protection of equipment. These countries have recently established Cultural Heritage Artefacts, has supported the state-of-the-art radiation medicine services, and the consolidation of a unique network of specialists project is helping to develop a sustainable national from nuclear science and conservation institutions preventive maintenance management plan and skilled from the 28 Member States in the Europe region. In staff, in order to reduce the equipment downtime. December 2013, a new website a key project output Under project RAS/0/065, Supporting Sustainability was launched to support the sharing of knowledge and Networking of National Nuclear Institutions in Asia and experiences in the uses of nuclear technology and the Pacific Region, the TC programme supported for cultural heritage characterization, dating and knowledge management for Member States in the Asia preservation in the Europe region. The site can be and the Pacific region by assisting the development accessed at http://nuclculther.eu/. of a standard portfolio of extra-curricular materials The Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and on nuclear science and technology for secondary Applications in the Middle East (SESAME) reached schools. The portfolio will provide reference material out to a wider audience through outreach activities that countries can use when developing or enhancing and networking with the support of project INT/0/086, their own national education and outreach strategies Building Human Capacity for the Construction, and programmes. It represents a compendium of Operation and Use of SESAME, in 2013. This resources and activities for secondary school teachers included the hosting by the Agency of the SESAME and students, and is composed of best practices from council meeting, a special information session for the around the world. The portfolio was developed by a Vienna-based Permanent Missions on 29 May 2013, specialist advisory group of experts from Australia, and an exhibition at the Agencys General Conference. Finland, India, Israel, Japan, Republic of Korea and the United States of America, as well as Agency staff. An accompanying set of instruction material supplements and complements the extra-curricular activities and academic curriculum. Once the portfolio reaches the final stage of completion in 2014, a number of Member States may choose to pilot it as part of an initiative to 92

104 Annex 2. TC programme Fields of Activity, Grouped for Reporting Purposes34 Nuclear Knowledge Development and Management Capacity building, human resource development and knowledge management (01) Building national nuclear legal infrastructures (03) Industrial Applications/Radiation Technology Reference products for science and trade (02) Research reactors (08) Radioisotopes and radiation technology for industrial applications (18) Sustainable Energy Energy planning (04) Introduction of nuclear power (05) Nuclear power reactors (06) Nuclear fuel cycle (07) Food and Agriculture Crop production (20) Agricultural water and soil management (21) Livestock production (22) Insect pest control (23) Food safety (24) Health and Nutrition Prevention and control of cancer (25) Radiation oncology in cancer management (26) Nuclear medicine and diagnostic imaging (27) Radioisotopes, radiopharmaceuticals and radiation technology for health care applications (28) Dosimetry and medical physics (29) Nutrition for improved health (30) Water and the Environment Water resources management (15) Marine, terrestrial and coastal environments (17) Safety and Security Governmental regulatory infrastructure for radiation safety (09) Safety of nuclear installations, including siting and hazard characterization (10) Governmental regulatory infrastructure for nuclear installations safety (11) Radiation protection of workers, patients and the public (12) Transport safety (13) Nuclear security (14) Emergency preparedness and response (16) Radioactive waste management, decommissioning and environmental remediation (19) 34 The field of activity number is shown in parenthesis. 93

105 Technical Cooperation Report for 2013 Report by the Director General 1 International Atomic Energy Agency Vienna International Centre, PO Box 100 1400 Vienna, Austria Tel.: (+43-1) 2600-0 Fax: (+43-1) 2600-7 Email: [email protected] www.iaea.org/technicalcooperation GC(58)/INF/5 @ 14-22121

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