Popular Woodworking Magazine October 2010 #185 - Wood Tools

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1 Toshio Odate Reinvents Drawer Joinery OCTOBER 2010 #185 Arts & Crafts Sideboard An Updated Recipe Yields a Tasty Buffet Veneer: The Future Of Woodworking (And Thats Good) Michael Dunbars 7 Fixes for Bad Bowsaw Technique Factory Cart Coffee Table In 1 Day 2 Pages That Will Change the Way You Glue Joints US $5.99 10 Free Video on Greene & Greene Finger Joints: Visit popularwoodworking.com/oct10 cnVlZ2VyAEu7ALAEMTAuNAI4MAExBVVQ JUYrVyBQdWJsaWNhdGlvbnMsIEluYyAo SW9sYSBkaXZpc2lvbikPR3JlZ29yeSBL Qy1BDDA3NDQ3MDAxMzU1NgA= 0 74470 01355 6 FnL1 01 02 03 04 04 0120 Display until October 18, 2010 popularwoodworking.com ~c1_1010_PWM_Cover_US.indd C1 7/23/10 9:24:45 AM



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6 C O N T E N T S OCTOBER 2010 34 38 52 F E AT U R E S 26 Arts & Crafts 38 Veneer is the 52 Where Does the Buffet Future: Part 1 Glue Go? This contemporary server combines classic Marc Adams contends that the material once An experiment exposed under Plexiglas reveals elements from traditional Arts & Crafts masters used on the nest furniture of the past should be thirst, not starvation, leads to weak glue joints including Gustav Stickley, Harvey Ellis and part of your woodworking future. And he shows (and it leads the author to adopt a new gluing Greene & Greene a recipe for design success. you how to get started. technique). BY RO B ER T W. L A N G BY M A RC A DA M S BY RO B ER T W. L A N G ONLINE u Finger Joints ONLINE u Veneer Mill Visit ONLINE u Three Methods Watch Bobs video on how to cut Greene & We visited Danzer Veneer take a look inside Watch through the Plexiglas as Bob and Senior Greene-style nger joints at the table saw. this Edinburgh, Ind., mill. Editor Glen D. Huey compare different methods popularwoodworking.com/oct10 popularwoodworking.com/oct10 for gluing up mortise-and-tenon joints. popularwoodworking.com/oct10 34 Understand & 46 Magobeis Dining Use a Bowsaw Table: Part 2 These traditional tools are woefully The fear of a sagging tabletop leads to an misunderstood by modern woodworkers innovation in drawer design. heres a primer. BY TO S H I O O DAT E BY M I C H A EL D UN BA R ONLINE u Calculating ONLINE u Bowsaw Ergonomics Drawer Parts Get an even better understanding of the With a tted drawer front, you can easily ergonomics and proper motion of bowsaws by calculate the balance of the drawer parts. Watch watching this video of Mike in his shop. as Senior Editor Glen D. Huey shows you how. popularwoodworking.com/oct10 popularwoodworking.com/oct10 46 COVER PHOTO BY AL PARRISH; BOWSAW PHOTO BY CHRISTOPHER SCHWARZ; VENEER PHOTO BY AL PARRISH; GLUE PHOTO BY ROBERT W. LANG; DRAWER PHOTO BY LAUR OLENDER popularwoodworking.com 3 ~c2-5_1010_PWM_TOC.indd 3 7/22/10 9:46:36 AM

7 C O N T E N T S OCTOBER 2010 18 22 54 REGUL AR S 8 How You 16 Earlex HV 5000 24 Factory Cart Can Save Spray Station Coffee Table Woodworking TOOL TEST BY T H E ED I TO R S I CAN DO THAT BY D R E W D EP EN N I N G ON THE LEVEL BY C H R I S TO P H ER S C H WA R Z ONLINE u Tool Test Archives We have lots of tool reviews on our web site, free. 54 Optimize a Spray Gun 10 Cutting Beads popularwoodworking.com/tools FLEXNER ON FINISHING LETTERS BY B O B FL E X N ER FRO M O UR R E A D ER S 20 Brooke Smith 14 Handsaw DESIGN MATTERS BY G E O RG E R . WA L K ER 62 Glossary TERMS OF THE TRADE Tenon Jig Woodworkings terminology can be over- TRICKS OF THE TRADE 22 Three-legged whelming. Learn the terms used in this issue. FRO M O UR R E A D ER S Turned Chair VIDEO u Tricks-in-Action ARTS & MYSTERIES 64 Chainsaw Watch a video of one of our tricks at work. BY P E T ER F O L L A N S B EE Massacre popularwoodworking.com/tricks END GRAIN BY J O E A S N AULT Number 185, October 2010. Popular Woodworking Magazine (ISSN 0884-8823,USPS 752-250) is published 7 times a year, February, April, June, August, October, November and December, which may include an occasional special, combined or expanded issue that may count as two issues, by F+W Media, Inc. Editorial and advertising offices are located at 4700 E. Galbraith Road, Cincinnati, Ohio 45236. Unsolicited manuscripts, photographs and artwork should include ample postage on a self-addressed, stamped envelope (SASE); otherwise they will not be returned. Subscription rates: A years subscription (7 issues) is $24.95; outside of the U.S. add $7/year Canada Publications Mail Agreement No. 40025316. Canadian return address: 2835 Kew Drive, Windsor, ON N8T 3B7 Copyright 2010 by Popular Woodworking Magazine. Periodicals postage paid at Cincinnati, Ohio, and additional mailing offices. Postmaster: Send all address changes to Popular Woodworking Magazine, P.O. Box 420235, Palm Coast, FL 32142-0235 Canada GST 24 Reg. # R122594716 Produced and printed in the U.S.A. TOOL TEST AND I CAN DO THAT PHOTOS BY AL PARRISH; ARTS & MYSTERIES 4 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE October 2010 PHOTO BY PETER FOLLANSBEE; FLEXNER ON FINISHING PHOTO BY BOB FLEXNER ~c2-5_1010_PWM_TOC.indd 4 7/22/10 9:47:07 AM

8 For more information, go to PWFREEINFO.COM. ~c2-5_1010_PWM_TOC.indd 5 7/22/10 9:47:27 AM

9 C O N T R I B U T O R S Bob Flexner as been a contributing editor to Popular OCTOBER 2010, VOL. 30, NO. 5 Woodworking Magazine for more than a decade and is popularwoodworking.com among the most respected experts on wood nishing EDITORIAL OFFICES 513-531-2690 and renishing. Hes taught countless nishing classes, PUBLISHER & GROUP EDITORIAL served as editor of the trade magazine for professional DIRECTOR Steve Shanesy x11238, [email protected] renishers and written for more than a dozen maga- EDITOR Christopher Schwarz zines. x11407, [email protected] Bob recently completed the massive task of revising SENIOR ART DIRECTOR Linda Watts and updating all the columns hes written for us over x11396, [email protected] the years to develop a new book: Flexner on Finishing EXECUTIVE EDITOR Robert W. Lang (Popular Woodworking Books). Its a no-bull approach x11327, [email protected] to the process and products of nishing, and a must-have SENIOR EDITOR Glen D. Huey x11293, [email protected] for those interested in going beyond nishing basics. MANAGING EDITOR Megan Fitzpatrick x11348, [email protected] Bob Flexner Optimize a Spray Gun, u To read more about Bobs new book, visit the Woodworkers ASSOCIATE EDITOR FOR THE WEB Drew DePenning BookShop (WoodworkersBookShop.com) and typeFlexner in x11008, [email protected] page 54. the search bar. PHOTOGRAPHER Al Parrish F+W MEDIA, INC. Michael Dunbar has been a chairmaker since 1971. He CHAIRMAN & CEO David Nussbaum CFO James Ogle has written seven woodworking books and authored PRESIDENT Sara E. Domville countless magazine articles, and hes been featured in EXECUTIVE VICE PRESIDENT, eMEDIA Chad Phelps The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal. In 1980, SENIOR VICE PRESIDENT, OPERATIONS Phil Graham he and his wife, Sue Dunbar, founded The Windsor IT DIRECTOR Jim Kuster VICE PRESIDENT, AUDIENCE DEVELOPMENT Tim Langlitz Institute, a New Hampshire-based school that teaches EVENTS DIRECTOR Cory Smith all things Windsor (Mike has taught more than 3,000 NEWSSTAND DIRECTOR Susan Rose people how to make a Windsor chair). At his web site, in PRODUCTION COORDINATOR Vicki Whitford addition to a list of classes and a gallery of his work, youll ADVERTISING nd his blog, which is on our list of must reads. ADVERTISING DIRECTOR Don Schroder In addition to teaching at his school, Mike is working 331 N. Arch St., Allentown, PA 18104 on a series of adventure novels for young adult readers TEL. 610-821-4425; FAX. 610-821-7884 (if you know any agents or publishers in that eld, hed [email protected] love to hear from you). ADVERTISING SALES COORDINATOR Connie Kostrzewa Michael Dunbar TEL. 715-445-4612 x13883 [email protected] Understand & Use a u To read more about Mike and his school, visit Bowsaw, page 34. thewindsorinstitute.com. Marc Adams has been a professional woodworker for 30 years, during which hes won numerous awards, worked with the U.S. government on woodworking- related issues, and been featured in many books and SUBSCRIPTION SERVICES: Subscription inquiries, orders and magazines. He is also the founder of North Americas address changes can be made at popularwoodworking.com (click on Customer Service). Or by mail: Popular Woodworking largest woodworking school, the Marc Adams School Magazine, P.O. Box 420235, Palm Coast, FL 32142-0235. Or call of Woodworking. In addition to his work at the school, 386-246-3369. Include your address with all inquiries. Allow 6 to 8 weeks for delivery. Marc presents at universities, woodworking guilds and NEWSSTAND DISTRIBUTION: Curtis Circulation Co., trade shows, and trains the trainers for some well-known 730 River Road, New Milford, NJ 07646. tool manufacturers. ATTENTION RETAILERS: To carry Popular Woodworking Magazine in your store, call 800-894-4656 or write Magazine While Marc works in many styles and teaches on a Retail Sales, P.O. Box 5014, Iola, WI 54945-5014. wide variety of woodworking topics, some of his most BACK ISSUES are available. Call 800-258-0929 for pricing or arresting work is in veneer and marquetry. His story in visit popularwoodworking.com. Send check or money order to: Popular Woodworking Magazine Back Issues, F+W Media Products, this issue is the rst of a three-part series on working with 700 E. State St., Iola, WI 54990. Please specify publication, Marc Adams veneer, which Marc sees as the future of furniture. month and year. Copyright 2010 by F+W Media, Inc. All rights Veneer is the Future, reserved. Popular Woodworking Magazine is a page 38. u To read more about Marc and his school, visit marcadams.com. registered trademark of F+W Media. 6 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE October 2010 06-7_1010_PWM_ContMast.indd 6 7/22/10 9:48:59 AM

10 MBTU!DIBODF;!TJHO!VQ!UP!MFBSO!GSPN!UPEBZT!CFTU!XPPEXPSLFST" October 2010 1 to 3, 2010 Djodjoobuj-!Pijp The Ultimate Skill-Building Weekend Tibsqfo!zpvs!iboe.!boe!qpxfs.uppm!tljmmt!bu!iboet.po! dmbttft!xjui!Spz!Voefsijmm-!Gsbol!Lmbvt{-!Disjtupqifs! Tdixbs{!boe!puifst" Dpnqbsf!uppmt!boe!usz!cfgpsf!zpv!cvz!bu!uif!Fyijcjupst!! Nbslfuqmbdf-!qbdlfe!xjui!61,!upq.ujfs!uppmnblfst!ibqqz!up!! botxfs!zpvs!rvftujpot" Dmbttft!bsf!mmjoh!vq!gbtu/!Sfhjtufs!opx!bu xxx/xppexpsljohjobnfsjdb/dpn Cspvhiu!up!zpv!cz; 06-7_1010_PWM_ContMast.indd 7 7/22/10 9:49:16 AM

11 O N T H E L E V E L BY CHRISTOPHER SCHWARZ, EDITOR Customer Service How can I contact customer service with questions regarding my subscription, including a lost or damaged issue? Visit popularwoodworking.com/customerservice. Or write to Popular Woodworking Magazine, P.O. Box 420235, Palm Coast, How You Can FL 32142-0235. Or, if you prefer the telephone, call 386-246-3369 and a customer service representative will be happy to help you. When does my subscription expire? The date of your subscription expiration appears on your magazine mailing label, above your name. The date indicates the Save Woodworking last issue in your subscription. Can I get back issues of Popular Woodworking and Woodworking Magazine? Back issues are available while supplies last. Visit popularwood working.com/backissues. Or if you know the exact month and year of the issue you want, call our customer service department toll-free at 800-258-0929 to order. What if I want more information about the projects and tools I read about in Popular Woodworking Magazine? A For all editorial questions, please write to Popular Woodworking lmost every week I get a message from ferent techniques, materials and nishes. Magazine, 4700 E. Galbraith Road, Cincinnati, OH 45236. Or a woodworker who is terried that we And I think they will nd not just how e-mail [email protected] Does Popular Woodworking Magazine offer group are the last generation of people who will to build those shelves, but they will dis- discounts? build furniture in our home workshops. cover why they should build those shelves Group discounts are available by special arrangement with the publisher. For more details, send an e-mail to Debbie Paolello at Im not nearly as apocalyptic, but I do instead of buying them from some store [email protected] or call 513-531-2690 x11296. get queasy when I hear about the shut- that sells prefabricated termite barf. Our Privacy Promise to You tering of another high-school shop class. After writing a blog for more than ve We make portions of our customer list available to carefully screened companies that offer products and services we believe Or when I see people buying disposable years (blog.woodworking-magazine. you may enjoy. If you do not want to receive offers and/or information, please let us know by contacting us at: furniture that might last two years. And com/blog/), I have already started seeing List Manager, F+W Media, Inc. 4700 E. Galbraith Rd. to top things off, we all my prophecy come true. Cincinnati, OH 45236 w i nce d whe n Nor m And I also know that the Safety Note Abram announced he words of the past can Safety is your responsibility. Manufacturers place safety devices on their equipment for a reason. In many photos you see in wasnt making any new inspire future genera- Popular Woodworking Magazine, these have been removed episodes of The New tions. For proof, I carry to provide clarity. In some cases well use an awkward body position so you can better see whats being demonstrated. Dont Yankee Workshop. the below quotation with copy us. Think about each procedure youre going to perform beforehand. It does make you won- me in my wallet. der: How will we inspire young people to take up I think that if I did not the tools of our craft? work with wood, my life Highly Recommended I think the solution is would be a hollow empti- Like most woodworkers, I have some simple, something you ness. If I did not form and great old Stanley planes with knobs can do now and that is shape and build, what and totes that look like dogmeat. Sure I free. Here it is: Start a would I have done to leave could make some replacement knobs, woodworking blog that chronicles what my mark in this world? My eyes have been but there is a faster solution. you build and how you work. lled with the endlessly changing patterns Bill Rittner of Manchester, Conn., now makes shapely Stanley knobs and Blogging is a painless form of writing a of the grains. I have felt the warmth of a totes that have the look and feel of the diary, really. Blogging requires no techni- thousand suns in my hands every day. I have 1870s handles. The knob has a bead at cal skills if you can write an e-mail you smelled the rich, tangy odors of the freshly the base. And the tote is just perfect. can write a blog. And, like I said, it costs hewn chips. These are the things that have There are no at spots like on mod- nothing to start or maintain (I recommend made my life so ne. These are the most pre- ern Stanleys. And the t and nish of Rittners work is superb. These look as you visit wordpress.com to get started). cious things I can leave for you, my son. good as the original rosewood knobs. How will this inspire future genera- Jonas Wainwright A set costs about $40. Contact him via tions? Easy. Everything you write about master carpenter e-mail at [email protected] woodworking is recorded by robots that from a letter to his son, 1832 Christopher Schwarz index the Internet. In other words, every- thing in your blog will almost certainly be If you do start a blog and keep at it, preserved forever in a form that is search- send us a note we just might link to it able by future generations. and make you famous. PWM So when some young homeowner is searching the Internet in 100 years because he or she wants to build some bookshelves to go next to a replace, there will be a wealth of information waiting there. Dif- 8 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE October 2010 PHOTO BY CHRISTOPHER SCHWARZ 08-9_1010_PWM_OTL.indd 8 7/22/10 9:50:18 AM

12 For more information, go to PWFREEINFO.COM. 08-9_1010_PWM_OTL.indd 9 7/22/10 9:50:41 AM

13 L E T T E R S FROM OUR READERS Eric, Cutting Beads This issue comes up more often than you might think. The problem is that the shellac, when cleaned in alcohol, is diluted with each cleaning. At the end of the job, when you feel the brush is In the June 2010 issue (#183), the White Aaron, clean, small amounts of highly thinned shel- Water Shaker table article showed a sim- When it comes to beading planes vs. beaders lac remain embedded in the bristles. Heres ple bead being cut by a moulding plane. (the spokeshave-style you mention), there is a great tip I picked up from Bob Flexner. For Most of the tools Ive seen commercially one major difference: The planes are slicing the best results, clean your shellac brushes available these days are spokeshave-like the wood and the beaders are scraping them. in a 50-50 mixture of water and household beading tools. Im sure youre familiar What that means from a practical standpoint ammonia, followed by a nal cleaning with with the Lie-Nielsen and Veritas ver- is that the planes will result in better details dish soap and water. sions that allow you to change the blade when the iron is sharp and the tool is wielded I rinse my brushes a number of times with for different proles, etc. correctly. But mistakes are costly. clean alcohol, then I follow Bobs advice. I was wondering how you felt about With the scraping tools, you cant go too The next day, my brushes are soft and ready different beading tools, and any par- wrong, but you cant go for perfection, either. to use. ticular favorites you have. The mould- Scraped proles are always a little more rus- Glen D. Huey, senior editor ing plane in your article looks like a tic-looking in my experience. pleasure to use from the crisp edges So I am not sure how to advise you. I use and length of the tool (though its a lit- moulding planes whenever I can, but when Frank Klauszs Method to tle hard to see from the photo). On the faced with an odd prole, I will use a scratch other hand, youd need a lot of moulding stock or beader. Flatten Scraper Plane Soles I read with great interest the June 2010 planes with different proles to match Christopher Schwarz, editor issue of Popular Woodworking Magazine the versatility of one spokeshave-style P.S. Good new moulding planes are avail- (#183). David Charlesworths article is an beading tool. Again, pros/cons in your able from Clarke & Williams and M.S. excellent instruction on how to sharpen a opinion would be appreciated, but Bickford. scraper plane blade; I do it the same way. where to buy good moulding planes But I disagree on how to make the would be equally helpful. planes sole at. In four decades, Ive tuned Aaron Moore a lot of tools. Most of the bottoms need Fairport, NewYork very little straightening. Do not use rough grits as he describes. I recommend to try #400-grit wet/dry sandpaper lubricated with WD-40. Most of the time you need only a few minutes sanding and you are done. If needed, you can go to #220 grit then back to #400 grit. Finish with wax- ing the sole, or buff it with a bufng wheel and WR1-White Rouge. You can see this method in use on my Hand Tools DVD. Frank Klausz Pluckemin, New Jersey Should I Fit My Doors & Drawers In SketchUp? How to Clean Shellac Brushes used to apply the shellac), but the brushes Thank you for your new SketchUp video I continue to use at every opportunity always are stiff after they dry, as compared series (available in the Shop Class sec- Senior Editor Glen D. Hueys nishing with those cleaned in mineral spirits. Can tion at woodworkersbookshop.com). recipe: stain, shellac, glaze, shellac and you suggest any remedies? I am new to woodworking and have topcoat. This means, of course, several Eric Bolen what is probably a simple question but cleanings of brushes in alcohol (those Wilmington, North Carolina one that I just cant seem to let go. CONTINUED ON PAGE 12 10 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE October 2010 ILLUSTRATIONS BY MARY JANE FAVORITE 10-13_1010_PWM_Letters.indd 10 7/22/10 10:14:49 AM

14 Forrest sets the standard for excellence with these new top-quality blades: Woodworker II 48-Tooth Blade for general-purpose applications. Features a 20 face hook, a 25 bevel, and sharp points for clean cross-grain slicing and quiet, smooth cutting. Signature Line Chop Master for quiet, precise cutting and less splintering. Features 90 teeth, a -5 hook to control the feed rate, and re-designed angles with 10 or 12 diameters and 5/8 or 1 center holes. 2-Piece & 4-Piece Finger Joint Sets with reversible, interlocking 8 Our blades are U.S.A-manufactured and blades. Ideal for rabbets and grooves. have a 30-day, money-back guarantee. Blades have 24 teeth and standard 5/8 Custom sizes available. Order from bore. Reversible for 3/16 and 5/16 cuts Forrest dealers or retailers, by going or 1/4 and 3/8 cuts. online, or by calling us directly. Thin Kerf Dados for clean cutting of 3/16 to 1/4 grooves in thin plywood and man-made materials. Available in two-piece and three-piece sets for table or radial arm saws. www.ForrestBlades.com 1-800-733-7111 (In NJ, call 973-473-5236) 2010 Forrest Manufacturing Code PW For more information, go to PWFREEINFO.COM. For more information, go to PWFREEINFO.COM. (OR/DQ PhotoLaser Plus Systems starting at $7,995! MADEiNUSA Weve combined Epilog Lasers unbeatable engraving quality with CADlinks powerful laser photo processing software, PhotoLaser Plus. View an online demonstration of PhotoLaser Plus and see how it will provide stunning photo engraving results at www.epiloglaser.com/popwood.htm. O=HAOALEHKCH=OAN?KI For more information, go to PWFREEINFO.COM. 10-13_1010_PWM_Letters.indd 11 7/22/10 10:15:06 AM

15 L E T T E R S CONTINUED FROM PAGE 10 How do you adjust for real-world However, I order more than the required workable tolerances of wood, clearances amount so that I have enough to pick and choose for hinges, drawer openings etc? One of boards for grain matches, and to have enough the take home messages throughout on hand in case I make a mistake. For this the SketchUp series is to limit drawing piece, I would order 70 -75 bf. You should have and use existing parts of the drawing to material left over but thats always good for make other parts so that they are exactly small boxes or other projects. sized. This exact sizing does not seem Glen D. Huey, senior editor practical in the real world. My concern comes from when I go and replicate indi- vidual components from the plans made The Future of Table Saws in SketchUp only to have things be a little I read with interest your editorial on the too big. Ideas? Thoughts? future of table saws (Issue #184). While Drew Sanderson I completely agree that the operator is Rush, New York A Simpler Circ Saw Solution responsible for his or her safe operation Drew, In response to the winning Trick of the Trade of a tool and am shocked by the court ver- Good question. My rst thought is that a little from the August issue (#184), several readers dict, I have to say that I rid myself of my too big is a good thing. It is certainly easier suggested an alternate method for making long table saw about a year ago. to deal with than a little too small. We dis- straight cuts with a circular saw. I found the table saw noisy, dusty, a cussed this at some length in the Autumn 2008 In fact, the jig suggested is the one we use in chore to maintain and the highest safety Woodworking Magazine (Issue 11). our shop but it does take up more space than risk in my shop. I did a six-month trial and My preference is to make drawer fronts and Sam Smiths solution. stopped using it, relying on my band saw, doors the exact size of the opening, then adjust Rip a straightedge from a piece of solid stock sliding compound miter saw, router and them to t the gaps I want. The exact size of and attach it to a 1 4"-thick piece of plywood circular saw to do the things I had done on the gaps will vary depending on several factors that is slightly wider than the sum of the width the table saw. After becoming convinced I including the species and cut of wood, season of the straightedge and the saws baseplate. Now could live without the table saw, I loaned of the year and sizes of the parts. I aim for the place the saws baseplate against the straight- it to my father-in-law with no intention of smallest workable gap that is consistent around edge and make a cut. That cut results in a jig getting it back. I have not missed it. In fact, the perimeter of the opening. By starting with a that matches the saw perfectly. I enjoy doing the majority of my cuts on too-tight exact t, I have built forgiveness into To use the jig, place the cut edge of the ply- the band saw. I feel more in control of the the project if my openings arent a perfect size wood on your cutline, clamp the jig in place, wood I am cutting, and its much safer than and shape. Taking a bit off doesnt take long, then make the cut. pushing a piece into a table saw. PWM and no one will know or care if my door stiles Megan Fitzpatrick, managing editor Keith Beyer are 215 16" instead of 3". La Crosse, Wisconsin It is possible (and there are people who work this way) to gure the size of the gaps before the Lumber Purchase Advice fact and shoot for perfection. While I think this I need guidance on purchasing lumber for u Go Online FOR MORE takes too much time and introduces too many your Chester County Chest (Fine Furni- risks, you can easily do this in SketchUp by ture for a Lifetime). Roughly how many Letters and Comments making use of the offset or scale tools. Make board feet of primary wood do I need? Sec- At popularwoodworking.com/letters youll a rectangle the exact size of the opening as a ondary wood is no problem. I can calculate nd reader questions and comments, as well as our editors responses. reference, then make another one set in all from nished dimensions but how much around. This will, of course, take more time, waste do you normally factor in. We want to hear from you. and it also makes dimensioning and reading Eric Watson Popular Woodworking Magazine welcomes the nished drawings more difcult. Huntsville, Texas comments from readers. Published corre- spondence may be edited for length or style. Robert Lang, executive editor Eric, All correspondence becomes the property Take the overall dimensions for the sides, top of Popular Woodworking Magazine. and front in this case the sides are 23" x 60" Send your questions and comments via (x2), the top is 23" x 42" and the front is 42" x e-mail to [email protected], or by 60". Add those results, increase the amount by mail to: Never write a letter while Letters, Popular Woodworking Magazine 25 percent and divide the total by 144. Thats a 4700 E. Galbraith Rd. you are angry. very rough estimate of primary wood; in this Cincinnati, OH 45236 Chinese proverb case, 54 board feet. 12 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE October 2010 10-13_1010_PWM_Letters.indd 12 7/22/10 10:15:22 AM

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17 T R I C K S O F T H E T R A D E EDITED BY KARI HULTMAN Plane Blade Cambering Jig THE WINNER: Heres an easy way to grind a camber on Handsaw Tenon Jig a slotted plane iron. Attach the metal bar, screw and knob that come with most man- ufactured featherboards to the bevel side of the iron, making sure the bar is cen- T his simple jig enables you to cut accurate tenons and slice very thin pieces. I use a ush-cut saw because it This produces a perfectly centered and parallel tenon. The jig and card shims give you pre- tered. These bars are designed to expand in a miter slot, so as you tighten the screw, has no set to its teeth and, therefore, cise control over the thickness of the the center of the bar will bow slightly. The wont damage the jig. Plus it leaves a offcut. So, you can cut very thin pieces more you tighten, the more it will bow. Use smooth surface. for: bookmatching pieces for a small lid; this as a guide against the bottom edge of The only requirements for building shimming a loose joint; cutting key slots your grinders tool rest. the jig are a at baseboard, such as Bal- in mitered corners; making Dutchman You can make your own jig from a scrap tic birch plywood, and guide blocks of patches; and creating small projects of hardwood, measuring 3 4" x 1" x 6". equal thickness that are screwed to the such as bookmarks, wooden cards and Drill a countersunk hole in the middle baseboard at a 90 angle. I use playing Christmas ornaments. of the scrap, and two holes 1" from both cards to adjust the height of the work- You can cut longer slices if you add a ends, so the wood doesnt split. Cut a cen- piece. guide block on the opposite side of the ter slot that connects all three holes. Use Slide your workpiece against the 90 workpiece. Then, you have your own a machine screw that ts snugly in the guide blocks, lay a separate guide block custom micro veneer mill! center hole and attach it to the plane iron on top of the workpiece, align it with Steve Branam with a washer and knob or wing nut. As the shoulder mark, then clamp it to the Ayer, Massachusetts you tighten the screw, the wood will arc jig. Saw the cheek and shoulder, flip closegrain.com in the middle. The more you tighten, the the piece over, and cut the other side. bigger the camber. Lay the saw at on If you want a repeatable camber, use a Clamp a guide block the guide blocks to band saw to cut an arc on a piece of wood, Hold-down cut the cheeks sand it smooth, then attach it to the iron. to the workpiece to saw the shoulders Chad Bennett Workpiece Mission Viejo, California Use the miter bar, Place card screw and knob shims under that come with a workpiece manufactured to adjust featherboard the height After sawing the shoulder and cheek on one side Drill two holes, Flush-cut Bench dog 1" from each end, and of your workpiece, saw ip it over and saw one countersunk hole in Make the jig Guide blocks are screwed the middle of the hardwood the other side from a 34" x 1" to a plywood base at a 90 angle x 6" piece of hardwood Saw a slot that Slotted connects the Straightedge with a Grip three holes plane iron When using my 3' straightedge for cut- It still has a good grip and doesnt leave ting templates, cardboard, matboard or residue on workpieces. veneer, the unruly beast had a tendency If youve ever ruined expensive veneer to slip. To resolve this problem, I added a or matboard due to a slipped straightedge, strip of high-friction tape to the back of my youll want to try this. Attach plane blade with a straightedge (Lee Valley #99K34.01). Craig Bentzley screw, wing nut and washer; I applied the tape about four years ago. Chalfont, Pennsylvania tightening wing nut makes the hardwood arc 14 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE October 2010 ILLUSTRATIONS BY MARY JANE FAVORITE 14-15_1010_PWM_Tricks.indd 14 7/21/10 5:57:01 PM

18 Spring-loaded Stop Block Machine screw, compression Commercial stop blocks for miter saws spring, washer and nut Round over shoulders are located on the left side of the blade, 12"-34" for clearance which makes it difcult to cut identical, short pieces. To overcome this, I made a spring- 2"-3" loaded stop block that can be placed on depending Stationary either side of the blade. It consists of two on height of block Swing block (moves miter saw forward or backward) parts: a stationary block that is clamped fence 6"-7" to the miter saw fence and a swing block Recess for nger makes it easy that can be ipped up to prevent binding to move the swing lock 12" when the stock is cut. 116" The swing block is attached to the sta- clearance tionary block with a machine screw, com- pression spring, washer and nut. lift the swing block out of the way so the When the nut is tightened, the com- offcut doesnt bind. pression spring holds the swing block This jig can also be used with a crosscut u Go Online FOR MORE securely in the up and down positions. sled on a table saw. Youll nd links to all these online extras at: Clamp the jig in place according to the Charles Mak u popularwoodworking.com/oct10 length of piece you need. Before you cut, Calgary, Alberta VIDEO: Tricks-in-Action shows you a free video of one of this issues tricks in use. Watch the Plane Blade Cambering Jig, lmed by Tricks Editor Kari Hultman in her shop. Easy-mix Epoxy Treat it like Icing WEB SITE: Visit the new Tricks of the Trade I often use epoxy in woodworking and mixed. Then, I cut a tiny piece off the cor- page online. making repairs. In the past, I mixed the ner of the bag with a pair of scissors to BLOG: Tricks editor Kari Hultman writes components in a paper cup or on a piece make a small pastry bag. about woodworking on her blog, The Village Carpenter. of cardboard, then applied the epoxy with By gently squeezing the material IN OUR STORE: Get 601 Woodshop Tips & a mixing stick or putty knife. Frequently, through the hole, the desired amount of Tricks, by Graham McCulloch. the epoxy ended up in unintended places, epoxy can be applied exactly where I want including on my clothes and hands. it. It works great for lling cracks, splits All of our products are available online at: u WoodworkersBookShop.com I was watching the chef on a cooking and knotholes in recycled lumber. I place show use a pastry bag, and came up with the tip of the bag right into the crack or Cash and prizes a better way to mix epoxy with a clear split and ll the hole from the bottom up. for your tricks and tips! plastic sandwich bag. The surrounding area (and my ngers!) Each issue we publish useful woodworking I pour the two components (and ller stays clean, and I simply throw the bag tips from our readers. Next issues winner or dye) into a sandwich bag and twist the away when I am done. receives a $250 gift certicate from Lee Val- bag loosely until the material is conned Tom Hargrove ley Tools, good for any item in the catalog or to one corner. I knead the bubble of com- Palatine, Illinois on the web site (leevalley.com). (The tools pictured below are for illustration only and ponents with my ngers until completely are not part of the prize.) Runners-up each receive a check for $50 to $100. When submitting a trick, include your On Your Mark mailing address and phone number. If your I have always had problems cutting accu- trick is selected, an editor will need to contact Table saw fence you. All entries become the property of Popular rately to a line with my table saw. The Woodworking Magazine. Send your trick by The straightedge must touch cutline is on top of the wood, making it teeth at the back and front e-mail to [email protected], or difficult to line up with the saw blades of the saw blade mail it to Tricks of the Trade, Popular Wood- teeth. My solution is simple. Lay a 3 4" x working Magazine, 4700 E. Galbraith Rd., 3 4" x 17" piece of high-quality plywood or Cincinnati, OH 45236. hardwood along the teeth of the saw and across the workpiece. Shift the board and Cutline table saw fence until the cutline is aligned with the straightedge. To work properly, the straightedge must touch the blades teeth at both the back and front the blade. Now, table saw cuts are a piece of cake. Dan Urban Make an accurate straightedge from Glen Ellyn, Illinois quality plywood or other material popularwoodworking.com 15 14-15_1010_PWM_Tricks.indd 15 7/21/10 5:57:17 PM

19 T O O L T E S T BY THE EDITORS Affordable HVLP Improve your game with a low-cost spray nishing system from Earlex. F inishing is often the make it, or break it part of a project. To improve your nishing abilities, its time to stop relying on wipe-on and brush-on nishes and get busy spraying. When it comes to spray nishing, HVLP is king. Earlex has made High-Volume Low- The whole nine yards. The Earlex HV5000 Spray Pressure spraying affordable for most Station is ready to use right out of the box. The woodworkers. At less than $300, money setup includes a two-stage turbine, a spray gun should no longer be a barrier. The Earlex and a 13' length of hose. Theres nothing to add HV5000 Spray Station has a two-stage but the nish. turbine, and the system works. If youve studied HVLP, you know that the more stages in your system, the better turbine is on, air blows. Supplied with the the power and the better the atomization gun is a 1-quart Teon-coated cup and a of your product. However, each stage adds 0.08"-diameter uid tip and needle. (Addi- Adjustment at your ngertips. You can adjust to your out-of-pocket expense, so how tional tips and needles 0.04", 0.06" and the Earlex 5000 spray gun for fan width, fan many stages do you really need? Besides, 0.10" are available.) The spray gun has direction and uid delivery theres little else you can increase your atomization and lay all the adjustments found with higher-cost you need to manipulate. down a smoother coat of nish by slightly systems, except the ability to control the thinning your shellac, varnish or lacquer airow its either on or its off. dye and stain are already thin enough. You can dial in the amount of uid com- To make this system easy to use, Ear- The spray gun included with the Earlex ing into the tip by turning the knob at the lex included onboard storage for the cord system is a bleeder-type gun; whenever the back of the handle. The fan spray, adjust- and hose; the cord is 51 2' in length and able from 1" to 12" in width by turning the wraps around the base of the unit, while air cap ring, was a bit dry near the middle the hose is 13' long and stores just behind of the spray pattern when I rst used the the blue plastic housing. Theres also an Earlex HV5000 Spray Station Earlex system, so I adjusted my lapping area on top of the turbine to hold the gun Earlex Earlex.com or 888-783-2612 pattern by tightening the overlap area. when its not in use. Street price $299 And like the spray patterns found on most The Earlex HV5000 system is perfect u For more information on HVLP, visit HVLP systems, Earlex HV5000 can adjust for the woodworker who wants to nish popularwoodworking.com/oct10. to vertical and horizontal fans, or you can using HVLP but doesnt want the cost of Price correct at time of publication. select a round jet-spray pattern that is use- entry to get out of hand. ful for getting into tight spaces. Glen D. Huey CONTINUED ON PAGE 18 16 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE October 2010 PHOTOS BY AL PARRISH 16-19_1010_PWM_ToolTest.indd 16 7/22/10 10:17:19 AM

20 10 YEARS of Popular Woodworking in One Small Package BUILD IT With 69 issues of Popular Wood- working, this CD is packed with thousands of pages of pure wood- TOUGH. working information but its easy to zero in on what you need with the simple-to-use search function or browse through individual issues. Youll nd a huge range of project plans from contemporary to period classics expert ISBN: 978-1-4403-0220-0 #Z6070 technique instruction, tool reviews, shop tips and tricks and more. 35+ designs for bookcases and storage $ 10 9 .9 5 R 400+ pages of plans, step-by-step instructions and drawings Chec E TAI L f k O n Essential technique instruction or Lim line i And much more 5,500+ pages in all! SPECted-time PRICIAL Order Popular Woodworking 2000-2009 now E visit WoodworkersBookShop.com and search 2000-2009 or call 800-258-0929. A Decades Worth of Pure Woodworking Information STEVE WALL LUMBER CO. OLIVER MACHINERY DEALER Quality Hardwoods and Woodworking machinery For The Craftsman and Educational Institutions HARDWOOD PLYWOOD CUSTOM RAISED PANEL DOORS Ash .............................. 4/4 Select $ 2.60 ........................................ $ 94.00 CUSTOM PLANK HRDWD FLOORING Basswood ................... 4/4 Select $ 1.95 ........................................ $ 80.00 UPS THIN CRAFTWOOD Birch ............................ 4/4 Select $ 3.55 ........................................ $ 108.00 Butternut ..................... 4/4 1C $ 2.95 ........................................ $ 88.00 EXOTIC LUMBER Cherry ......................... 4/4 Hickory - Pecan .......... 4/4 Select Select $ 4.90 $ 3.00 Specials ........................................ $ 117.00 ........................................ $ 100.00 Mahogany (Genuine) .. 4/4 Select $ 4.70 ........................................ $ 112.00 STEVE H. WALL Maple (Hard) ............... 4/4 Select $ 3.45 ........................................ $ 108.00 LUMBER CO. Maple (Soft) ................ 4/4 Select $ 2.50 ........................................ $ 88.00 R BOX 287 Poplar ......................... 4/4 Select $ 1.80 O U N $$ 78.00 ........................................ SEE LOG O Red Oak ...................... 4/4 Select $ 2.70 ........................................ 96.00 MAYODAN, N.C. 27027 Walnut ......................... 4/4 Select $ 4.90 ........................................ $ 115.00 White Oak ................... 4/4 Select $ 2.70 T A W E B ! $ 96.00 ........................................ A 336-427-0637 C 1-800-633-4062 THE Cedar (Aromatic Red) . 4/4 1C+Btr. $ 1.80 ........................................ $ 78.00 Cypress ....................... 4/4 Select $ 2.60 ........................................ $ 90.00 FAX 336-427-7588 White Pine ................... 4/4 F.G. $ 1.25 ........................................ $ 70.00 Email: [email protected] Yellow Pine ................. 4/4 Clear $ 2.30 ........................................ $ 82.00 Website: www.walllumber.com Above prices are for 100' quantities of kilndried rough Above prices are 20 bd. ft. bundles of clear lumber sold by the Bd. Ft. FOB Mayodan, NC. Call for kilndriedlumber 3"-10" wide 3'-5' long (Random quantity discounts. Other sizes and grades available. widths & lengths) Surfaced 2 sides or rough. Send $1.00 For Lumber Catalog Delivered UPS prepaid in the Continental U.S. Prices Subject to Change Without Notice For more information, go to PWFREEINFO.COM. High strength with a shorter clamp time along with no dyes for a natural nish makes Gorilla Wood Glue ideal for your woodworking and building projects. FOR THE TOUGHEST JOBS ON PLANET EARTH 1-800-966-3458 Made in U.S.A. 2010 Gorilla Glue Company For more information, go to PWFREEINFO.COM. For more information, go to PWFREEINFO.COM. 16-19_1010_PWM_ToolTest.indd 17 7/22/10 10:17:31 AM

21 T O O L T E S T CONTINUED FROM PAGE 16 Karl Holteys No. 982 Smoothing Plane Since the 1980s, planemaker Karl Holtey iron pitched at 55. The adjuster is a new has been an innovator in the world of tool- design of Holteys, and it is the most pre- making. He has set the bar for the level of cise Norris-style adjuster I have ever used. t and nish a tool can achieve. And his Plus the plane has more mass, which I nd No. 98 plane sparked the revolution in a benet in a smoothing plane. bevel-up planes. I have used a fair number of Holtey So when I was offered the opportunity planes during the last 10 years, yet I am to borrow his follow-up to the No. 98 the always surprised at how perfect all the No. 982 I jumped at the chance. details of his tools are. They are often com- The No. 982 looks a lot like his No. 98, pared to jewelry, though I nd that a bit but there are major functional differences. inaccurate because these are real tools The No. 982 is a bevel-down tool with the and not just for decoration. During my time with the No. 982 I rode it hard building several pieces of furniture, then spent a day simply using it on the Karl Holtey No. 982 nastiest pieces of wood I could nd. and two examples of the No. 98, I found Holtey Classic Handplanes No plane is infallible, but the No. 982 their totes would come loose in time. holteyplanes.com or 44 [0]1549 402500 performed as well or better than every Few can afford a supertool such as this, Street price 6,800 (base price) other plane in our shop (including a few yet we all benet from Holteys inuence u Read our test-drive of many supertools other high-priced loaners). as a toolmaker. His planes are the pinnacle from 2008 at popularwoodworking.com/ oct10. If the No. 982 has one weak point, its of craftsmanship in my opinion some- the way the rear tote is attached a single thing we and toolmakers should aspire to. Price correct at time of publication. fastener from below. When using this tool Christopher Schwarz Not Just for the Jobsite Our shop sound system was on its last leg designs. Also, if you lose power, chuck when the Bosch Power Box 360S (PB360S) either of the battery designs into the Power arrived. We pulled the sound system from Box, and youre up and running again. its box and red it up. Its impressive. The built-in four-way power outlet is The ve speakers and lone subwoofer killer. Plug in and operate small tools or pump out great sound, but we quickly other battery chargers. (Bosch 12v batter- realized that other Power Box features ies dont play nice with the Power Box, but make this tool a shop necessity. plug your charger into one of the onboard With the PB360S plugged into a stan- outlets and you can charge them, too.) dard 110-volt electrical outlet, the tunes The PB360S has a weather-sealed dig- play on as the system itself acts as a charger ital media bay. (Big deal, its inside the for Bosch 14.4v or 18v Lithium-ion batter- shop.) The bay, however, is also a dust-free ies, including all SlimPack and FatPack zone, and that means your digital media player or SD memory cards and USB drives that hold your digital media les, all of Power Box 360S which have connections in the bay, gather Bosch boschtools.com or 877-267-2499 no dust. In the woodshop, thats gold. The Power Box, with an onboard 12v An upgraded Power Box (PB360D) has Street price $209 DC (car charger) outlet, is great for charg- all the features of its little brother, plus its u See the Power Box survive being tossed ing cell phones as youre working in the outlets are ground-fault circuits (GFCI), onto a parking lot at popularwoodworking. com/oct10. shop. And an aluminum and rubber roll and the system has satellite radio capa- Price correct at time of publication. cage thats almost indestructible encases bilities. Of course, these extras come at and protects the unit. an increased price. PWM GH 18 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE October 2010 16-19_1010_PWM_ToolTest.indd 18 7/22/10 10:17:44 AM

22 Do Your Tools Cut It? Your Long-Term Solution for Carving, Shaping, Cutting & Sanding. Custom Woodworking Furniture & Railings DIY Projects Carvings Large or Small For more information, go to PWFREEINFO.COM. Shop Kutzall Direct Walking the talk. www.KutzallDirect.com Reduce Your Work by 80% or More! Easy to control, remarkable durability, DQGUVWFODVVSHUIRUPDQFH Let the tools do the work while you take the credit.....in far less time. Hand tools for the serious woodworker [email protected] 800.426.4613 32 33rd St. Brooklyn, NY 11232 www.toolsforworkingwood.com Phone: (810) 765-1000 For more information, go to PWFREEINFO.COM. For more information, go to PWFREEINFO.COM. For A Free Catalog Or To Find Your Local Woodcraft Store, Visit woodcraft.com Or Call 800-225-1153. 0UT0OWER)N)TS0LACE7ITH!3AFETY'ATE0ROFESSIONAL With a SafetyGate Professional, you wont need to worry about a dangerous restart after a power interruption. 3AFETY'ATE0ROFESSIONAL s0ATENTED4ECHNOLOGYh3ENSESv4HAT!4OOL)S3TILLh/Nv s9ELLOW,%$,IGHT'IVES6ISUAL7ARNING s3AFETY'ATE3TOPS%LECTRICITY&LOW4O4OOL s4URNTOOLh/FFv

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24 D E S I G N M A T T E R S B Y G E O R G E R. W A L K E R Brooke Smith A visit to the shop of a designer & craftsman. reativity is a slippery thing. A lucky C few are born with a creative streak that seems to ower without effort. Others (most of us) have to work at it to unlock our creative potential. Rarest of all is that bird that combines generous natural gifts and hard work. Words like artist and master come to mind when describing furniture builder Brooke Smith of Columbus, Ohio. His small one-man studio turns out exquisite furniture that spans a broad range. I liken Brooke to a classically trained violinist whos comfortable playing Bach, rock or bluegrass. His work encompasses corpo- rate boardroom tables, high-style period reproductions and one-off modern studio Sheraton-inspired. Brooke Smiths masterful interpretation of a pieces. Craftsmanship and attention to traditional form expresses classic design features in a new way. detail are rst-rate, but the thing that most stands out is his talented designers eye. A Wide Array of Outstanding Work showing a mastery working in a tradi- Take a look at a sampling of Brookes tional style. work. This Sheraton chest (above) is his answer for a client who wanted a tradi- Recipe for a Talented Builder tional piece but elevated up off the oor. If Brooke shared with me his creative jour- you didnt know better you might call it a ney. It took some unusual twists that Federal highboy (there was no such form). combined to make him the accomplished Its inspired by a chest from the shop of artisan he is today. Although he had some Thomas Seymour, an early 19th-century generational woodworking family lore, Boston cabinetmaker; one senses that Brookes rst impulses drew him down Thomas would nod in approval. The din- an artistic path. ing table shown at right is a nice example He attended the Columbus College of of Brookes work in a modern style with Art and Design and earned a bachelors restrained inlays accentuating each cor- degree in illustrative design. Shortly after ner. The walnut secretary, shown at above graduating, he found work at a museum right, is a wonderful display of Brookes working with an exhibition designer, where carving talent. This is his own interpre- he learned how to showcase ne art. tation built around a traditional form, His creative journey took a fortunate Reeds. Here, Smith carves reeds on a turned leg. incorporating classically carved elements twist when he found work at a framing 20 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE October 2010 SMITH CARVING PHOTO BY THE AUTHOR; SECRETARY PHOTOS BY STEPHEN WEBSTER; REMAINING FURNITURE PHOTOS BY CAROLINA CHOROCO 20-21_1010_PWM_DesignMatters.ind20 20 7/21/10 5:55:47 PM

25 studio specializing in high-end frames the piece alive. He nds it helps them pic- for the fine art market. There he had a ture the nished work. This seemingly chance to try his hand at wood carving and small detail can help cement a decision found a new, exciting medium to explore and allow work to go forward. in addition to his love of painting. These After seeing his drawings, I immedi- were expensive, sometimes heavily carved ately dropped by an art-supply store and frames, often overlaid with gold leaf. He picked up an assortment of markers in spent four years as a professional carver, earth tones, burnt sienna, raw umber, becoming uent in creating the classical amber and mahogany. Regardless of ornament associated with carved mould- whether your client is a discerning art Traditional design. This walnut secretary is a tour ings and frames. At one point Brooke was de force showcasing Brookes skill as an artisan collector or your better half, this is a great called on to carve a pair of massive mahog- and his mastery of working in a traditional design tip to help sort through the creative pro- any frames to house murals for the state- language. Notice the gured wood in the carved cess and nalize a design. house. Not your average picture frame, columns in the detail of the walnut desk interior. I nished my interview asking this tal- they measured 101 2' by 131 2' and weighed Carved rosettes and nials grace the pediment. ented builder a few quick questions: Favor- in at more than 450 pounds each. ite wood? Walnut. Favorite nish? Shellac, The desire to go beyond carving frames brushed on and rubbed out. Favorite tools? and begin building furniture led Brooke often visiting them at their homes numer- Without hesitation and spoken like a true to enroll in the furniture-making program ous times while working up a design. More designer, he held up his hands and said, at the University of Rio Grande. Here he than collecting functional requirements, These hands and eyes. PWM learned solid construction skills to provide the visits are about getting a feeling for a base for his creative energy. Today Brooke the personality of the interior setting and George is the author of the DVDs Unlocking the Secrets of Traditional Design and Unlocking the Secrets of builds furniture for an eclectic group of about building a relationship with the Design: Moldings both from Lie-Nielsen Toolworks loyal clients in the Columbus area. clients. One can sense that Brooke really (lie-nielsen.com). considers clients as friends and views Bringing Creativity to the Client building something to grace their homes We spent time in his crowded but efcient a privilege. u Go Online FOR MORE shop discussing the creative process. Rough sketches are taken from the Youll nd links to all these online extras at: Brooke works closely with customers, initial visit and developed into a series u popularwoodworking.com/oct10 of drawings, often four or ve, to present BLOG: George R. Walker writes three times a a number of options to the client. Work- week on the Design Matters blog. ing through a series of design ideas helps WEB SITE: See more of Smiths work at his both Brooke and his client nd what they web site. are after. These preliminary draw- IN OUR STORE: George R. Walkers DVDs. ings helps him gain a better idea of All of our products are available online at: what they like and dislike, paving u WoodworkersBookShop.com the way to a nal design. About This Column A Tip from Brookes Notebook If you have a thirst to hone your creative skills, Design Matters dives into the basics of Once hes close to a final concept, proportions, forms, contrast and composition Brooke takes an extra step to help to give you the skill to Restrained beauty. This the client visualize how the piece tackle furniture design table shows a playful yet restrained use of orna- will look. He uses watercolors to challenges with con- ment to highlight the legs color in the pencil drawing and give dence. and top. a sense of how the wood tones will bring popularwoodworking.com 21 20-21_1010_PWM_DesignMatters.ind21 21 7/21/10 5:56:01 PM

26 A R T S & M Y S T E R I E S BY PETER FOLLANSBEE Three-legged Turned Chair Panel seat requires beefy tenons for support. eventeenth-century chairs come in S many styles: plain turned chairs with woven seats, carved joined chairs of oak or walnut, upholstered chairs in leather or wool, and one particular type of chair Seventeenth-century that is a little unusual these days the seating. This period example of a three- turned chair with a board (really a panel) legged turned chair is for a seat. either Dutch or English, These chairs come in both four-legged and is now on display and three-legged versions, from fairly aus- at Plimoth Plantation, tere to extremely complex and decorative. in Plymouth, Mass. They can be made of ash, beech, fruit- woods and yew. Typically they are made with large-scale components, resulting The woven seat easily masks this height opposite shoulder, I just turn a scribe line in a massive appearance. The four-legged differential. to delineate where the rectangular tenons variety was made in New England during shoulders will be cut. the 17th century, and, although there are Hefty Seat Support Once the rails are off the lathe, I lay out many examples of three-legged ones sur- A paneled seat requires a different a rectangular tenon by scribing a center- viving in England, there is no evidence of approach. Because the panel fits in a line on the end grain of the turned piece one being made in New England. I usu- groove in the inner edges of the seat rails, and scribing the width from that. Cutting ally use ash for the turned parts, and any the tenons are made to intersect inside the the tenon is pretty simple; I saw the shoul- hardwood board for the seat panel. Oak posts. First of all, this means the posts ders and split the cheeks. Paring with a is my rst choice; Ive also used elm or need to be beeer than they are in a ber- broad chisel brings the tenon down to its cherry. seated chair. Second, the seat rails are also nal thickness. I often make the three-legged version; beefed-up, both because of the intersect- I cut the grooves with a plow plane. it is challenging and fun to make, and it ing tenons and the groove. Once I have the rails made (the front rail always gets a lot of attention. The geometry In many examples, the seat rails have is longer than the side rails), its time to involved is a little more severe than with different tenons on each end one end lay out and cut the joinery in the posts. I four-legged chairs, but not all that differ- is rectangular and the other is a turned use through-mortises for both the rectan- ent. The distinctive element in these chairs tenon. I turn the seat rails to about 13 4" gular and turned components; this seems is the joinery at the seat-rail height. in diameter, and turn down one end to a to be the most common approach for the The joinery in three-legged chairs with slightly oversized 3 4" tenon. I make this three-legged chairs. Some period pieces board seats differs from four-legged chairs tenon 1 2" longer than the post is thick. For have blind bored mortises intersecting with woven seats. On a ber-seat chair, the my chairs, that usually means a tenon of through rectangular mortises. seat rails are at staggered heights; thus the slightly more than 3" in length that will Centerlines are used again to lay out tenons do not interfere inside the posts. go all the way through a 23 4" post. At the the rectangular through-mortise. I chop 22 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE October 2010 LEAD PHOTO COURTESY OF PLIMOTH PLANTATION; STEP PHOTOS BY THE AUTHOR 22-23_1010_PWM_A&M.indd 22 7/21/10 5:54:38 PM

27 or other surface large enough to get it full- heights; these are staggered so the tenons scale. From this full-scale drawing I set do not interfere with one another. So dur- an adjustable bevel to the angle between ing assembly of the chairs frame, there are the front seat rail and the side seat rail that six things happening pretty much at the locks its tenon in. Then I x the post to the same time blow by blow plus you have workbench and tilt the seat rail over until to have the beveled seat panel hovering in the bevel reads plumb for the positioning the air until the chair frame is driven home of the brace and bit. Now bore through the around it. I did one once, got the joints post and the rectangular tenon. pounded home pretty much all the way, These steps get repeated for the other when my co-worker at the time nudged two posts and seat rails. There is a lot of me and said, You forgot the seat! There Tenons squared. Here, you can see the square test-assembly involved. The real assembly was no glue in these joints, so I knocked tenon as it comes through the leg as well as the is even hairier. them back open enough to get the seat unseated round tenon on the adjacent seat rail. panel in place then started driving it all Each rail has one square and one round tenon. A Complicated Test back again. It starts with the three posts, each with its I tend to use the format with one rect- seat rail fully engaged in its rectangular angular and one turned tenon on each seat a little more than halfway in from one mortise. The stretchers have shorter ten- rail, but there are many variations. Often side, then turn the post 180 on the bench ons (about 1-11 4") that t in blind mortises the turned tenons are not through-tenons, and chop from the other side. Any devia- bored in the posts. Next up is to begin set- but I nd it easier if they are. I saw one tion is compensated for within the post. ting the seat rails turned tenons in their chair in England that had a front rail with Chop one through-mortise on each of the dedicated mortises. I just start these, rectangular tenons on both ends, one side three posts. then have to remember to slip the bev- rail had two turned tenons, and the other eled seat panel in place, then begin driving side rail had one of each. Sometimes you Dedicated Tenons the turned tenons home. You cant drive see a large turned tenon penetrated by a Now the pieces begin to become dedi- one turned tenon all the way through its smaller turned tenon. One advantage of cated. I test-t the rectangular tenon on rectangular tenon; you have to work them the rectangular tenon is that it prevents the front seat rail to a front post, then do each in turn, driving the whole triangle bit the seat rail from spinning if it comes loose the same with the two remaining seat rails by bit. While driving these, hold the seat somehow. and posts. I drive the tenon all the way board in place and watch for the stretch- And thats just to get the frame of the home and trim the protruding end a bit, ers, which come in a few beats after the chair. The braces, crest rail and arms are leaving it a tad long. I scribe the plan of the seat rails. To complicate matters further, no walk in the park either. There are lots seat either on the benchtop or on a board the stretchers happen at three different of acute angles and tricky tting to nish this thing off. But its the seat rail joinery and tting that really provide the most fun if you want to call it that. PWM Peter is the joiner at Plimoth Plantation in Plymouth, Mass., a non-prot museum at which visitors can learn about the experiences of the Wampanoag people and the Colonial English community of the 1600s. u Go Online FOR MORE Youll nd links to all these online extras at: u popularwoodworking.com/oct10 WEB SITE: See more of Peters work and read his blog. WEB SITE: Discover more about Plimoth Plantation. BLOG: Read Adam Cherubinis Arts & Mysteries blog. IN OUR STORE: We featured a three-legged Chinese stool in the Winter 2009 issue of Test-t. Each rectangular tenon is fully seated in Staggering. While the seat rails are all on the Woodworking Magazine. its mortise. Here, Im holding the seat in place in same plane, the stretchers are not. So tting both its grooves as I pound home the round tenons for the top and bottom of the chair simultaneously All of our products are available online at: a dry-t. can be a challenge (and dont forget to hold the u WoodworkersBookShop.com seat panel in place, too). popularwoodworking.com 23 22-23_1010_PWM_A&M.indd 23 7/21/10 5:54:52 PM

28 I C A N D O T H A T BY DREW DEPENNING Factory Cart Coffee Table This reproduction of an industrial workhorse will Century-old chic. Inspired by re-purposed give you years of use factory carts, this coffee table is a modern design solution for supporting your favorite books and in your living room. the occasional pair of feet. loading dock) and pry off more boards holes at each end of both end pieces on the than you think youll need. inside faces of these boards. Do the same t the turn-of-the-century, no factory Sand down a spot on each board to help for the center brace. A existed without several industrial carts (also known as trucks) at its dis- you select wood of consistent color. Dont forget to wear a dust mask your lungs On your bench, slide the side piece against a square block of scrap and use this posal. From hauling lumber to carrying and sinuses will thank you. setup to hold your end pieces at 90 while crankshafts to serving city ice, these work- Now, using your jigsaw (the cut will you drive home the 21 2" pocket screws. horses served many functions. result in pleasing irregularity), trim or Once the outside frame is completed, Today, many of these antique carts cut the top boards to 27" in length. (If you cut two pieces of scrap to 101 4". Use these have been restored for another purpose want a perfect 27" and square cut on all the scraps to act as a shelf while you screw the furniture. boards, set up a stop on your miter saw). center brace in place. But if you dont have several hundred dollars (or more) to spend on a restored Build the Box Distressed to Impress antique cart, you can build one that will The base frame of the table is built from 2x6 If youre using pallet wood for the top, serve for years in your living room. dimensional lumber. Two 2x6 x 8' boards heres where youll spend the extra time: should suffice for this project. bringing these boards back to life. Reclaimed Timber Because I want the tabletop to overhang To give my table the look of 100 years of the base by 1" on all sides, Ill cut the length use, I built the top with the most distressed of the side pieces to 42". wood I could nd boards from shipping If youre using random-width pallet pallets that were in our storeroom. wood for the top, arrange the boards how Let me warn you: Bringing these boards you like, then adjust the length of your back from the brink of the dumpster is side pieces as necessary to accommodate more time-consuming than you might a longer or shorter overall cart length. think. For that reason, the measurements After your sides are measured and cut found in this article are based on a clean with your miter saw, cut two 22"-long end top built with 1x6 dimensional lumber. pieces from your second 2x6. The goal is to have a top 27" deep and To determine the length of the cen- 44" wide. Two 1x6 x 10' boards of No. 2 ter brace, arrange the sides and ends in a pine will be enough lumber for the top rectangle on the oor, then measure up (and its easy to nd at the home center). the middle. Thats the length to cut for the But if you prefer a more rustic look, ask center brace. at your local grocery store if you can grab a After setting your pocket screw jig to Scraps for a shelf. Use two 1014" scraps to keep few pallets (or check outside by your ofce work with 11 2" stock, drill three pocket your brace centered and level. 24 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE October 2010 LEAD PHOTO BY AL PARRISH; STEP PHOTOS BY THE AUTHOR; ILLUSTRATION BY ROBERT W. LANG 24-25_1010_PWM_ICDT.indd 24 7/21/10 5:53:37 PM

29 44" Factory Cart Coffee Table 27" NO. ITEM DIMENSIONS (INCHES) MATERIAL T W L 2 Sides 112 512 42 SPF* 2 Ends 112 512 22 SPF 512" 34" 1 Center brace 112 512 39 SPF 8 Top boards 3 4 512 27 No. 2 Pine 112" 8 Corner braces 112 512 4 No. 2 Pine * Spruce, pine or r HARDWARE 42" 4 Casters, 6" wheel diameter 25" 16 Lag screws, 14" x 1" 3-D VIEW 16 Washers, 14" 18 Coarse pocket screws, 212" Using #100-grit abrasive in your ran- Here, you can use nish nails or even To attach the casters, rst drill pilot dom-orbit sander, begin to remove the regular framing nails for an industrial holes, then slip washers on your lag screws layer of grime. To expedite the process, look. (If you use cut nails, dont forget to and use a wrench to drive the screws. you might want to use something more rst drill pilot holes.) Finally, prop up your feet and enjoy aggressive, such as a belt sander. With this piece as your reference, your piece of custom furniture. And dont Again, dont forget your dust mask. If square and nail the remaining boards. forget to use a coaster! PWM you dont use one, dont be surprised when Before you attach the casters, nail two your facial tissues look like cleanup rags blocks of 2x6 scraps at each of the inside Drew is the associate editor for the web for this magazine. Contact him at [email protected] from an oil spill. corners of the frame. This will give the Clean up the boards, but be sure to casters support on all four corners. leave some of the nicks and saw marks I purchased the steel casters for my this is the character you want to keep. project online from one of many industrial u Go Online FOR MORE If youre using new dimensional lum- supply companies. At your home center, ber, smacking it with a set of old keys is a youll probably nd 6" casters with rubber Youll nd links to all these online extras at: u popularwoodworking.com/oct10 great way to apply dings to the top to give wheels. They may not look old-fashioned, it distressed character. but they wont mark your oors, either. BLOG: Read more about the inspiration for Take your top boards to some rough this project and nd additional tips on our Editors Blog. concrete (a sidewalk works great) and PLAN: Download the free SketchUp model bang up the corners and sides. This will for the Factory Cart Coffee Table. make the top look as if its seen plenty of ARTICLES: All the "I Can Do That" articles industrial action. are free online. Finally, use a #120-grit disc on your Download the complete I Can Do That random-orbit sander to knock down all the manual for free: corners and smooth down the dents. u popularwoodworking.com/icandothat All of our products are available online at: Finish with Charm u WoodworkersBookShop.com Original carts often had the name of a company or city printed on the side. You About This Column can add that touch by using stencils and Our I Can Do That column features proj- black spray paint. Use plenty of blue tape ects that can be completed by any wood- to avoid over-spray. worker with a modest (but decent) kit of Use a hair dryer to set the paint, then tools in less than two days of shop time, and using raw materials that are available at any rough up the label with your sander. home center. We offer a free online manual Finish the frame and top boards with a in PDF format that explains all the tools and few coats of amber shellac before nailing shows you how to per- the top boards in place. form the basic operations With the frame on the oor, place one in a step-by-step format. Visit ICanD oThatExtras. top board at the end of the frame. Use a Dust protection. The dust from pallet lumber com to download the free combination square to square up the 1" is nasty stuff. Wear a dust mask to spare your manual. overhang then nail the board in place. sinuses and lungs. popularwoodworking .com 25 24-25_1010_PWM_ICDT.indd 25 7/21/10 5:53:49 PM

30 Arts & Crafts Buffet B Y R O B E R T W. L A N G Recipe for successful design: Steal your ideas from the best. I designed this buffet cabinet a cou- ple years ago for a weekend seminar on Arts & Crafts joinery. After the class I added a 3-D model to the Popular Woodworking Magazine online SketchUp collection. It was an easy way to provide detailed plans for those in attendance. As time passed, the model rose to the top of the collection, based on popularity. My goal in designing it was to combine several classic elements from the early 20th century, without building a repro- duction of any one piece in particular. I was looking to design a piece with a con- temporary feel, but that was grounded in traditional Arts & Crafts period ele- ments. Apparently I swiped the right details from the right sources to make a successful piece. The wide overhanging top with bread- board ends, the nger-jointed drawer and the sculpted handles were all borrowed from the designs of Charles and Henry Greene. The proportions of the door stiles and rails were lifted right from the Gustav Stickley stylebook, and the double-tapered Classic combination. This buffet has a contemporary feel, but it is a combination of classic design legs are a Harvey Ellis element turned elements of the American Arts & Crafts period of the early 20th century. upside down. Equally important are the overall pro- portions and the rounded edges that ease Skinny Legs & All The legs are also key elements in the the transitions where there is a change of The legs are important visually; the structure. Each leg is a corner for two dif- direction or a change in plane. The light upward taper leads the eye to the top, and ferent frames. There is a lot of joinery in color of the soft maple keeps the cabinet the wide portion near the bottom makes each, and to help keep track of the leg loca- from looking too formal or too masculine. the base appear substantial. Combined tions, I laid out the tapers after resawing Absent are the elements often seen in new with the wide rails on the bottom of the the legs from 8/4 stock. My local supplier pieces based on old designs. Corbels and doors, the case sits on a rm visual foun- didnt have material available simply to spindles were banished to the land of over- dation, and it looks larger and heavier mill the legs to the 11 4" finished dimension, used and misapplied design features. than it really is. so I bought thicker than I needed, resawed 26 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE October 2010 LEAD PHOTO BY AL PARRISH; STEP PHOTOS & ILLUSTRATIONS BY THE AUTHOR 26-33_1010_PWM_Arts&CraftsBuffet26 26 7/21/10 5:39:39 PM

31 the boards to 13 8" and saved the thin off- cuts for the bottom of the drawer. My method is to work out all the joinery rst, then cut pieces to shape and round the edges just before nal assembly. I cut the 3 8"-wide stopped grooves for the side and back panels first, using a plunge router. I then lowered the depth setting and cut the mortises in the wide faces of the legs with the same router. There isnt enough of a at area on the narrow sides of the legs to support the Better than numbers. Setting the marking gauge Knowledge is power. Measuring with calipers directly to the edge of the mortise ensures exact reveals the exact thickness of the tenon and how router, so I moved to the hollow-chisel alignment of the rail and leg. far to set the depth of the router bit. mortiser to add the mortises for the front and back rails. Then I cut the tenons on the ends of the top and bottom side rails. I used a backsaw for the shoulder cuts, then cut the cheeks on the band saw. I dry-t the side rails to the legs, form- ing side sub-assemblies without panels. Then I made the joints for the front and back rails. In the back, the mortises fall within the grooves for the back panel. In the front of the case, the mortises are the only joinery. To keep the backs of the front and back rails ush with the back of the legs, I set my marking gauge directly to the edge When to stop. When a corner can be forced into Where it belongs. Marking the tenons directly of a mortise. Then I used that setting to the mortise, the thickness is close. Then its time from the mortises is faster and far more accurate mark out the tenons. I cut the tenon shoul- to cut the edges of the tenons. than measuring. ders with my backsaw and the cheeks on the band saw. After tting these joints, I did another dry run, connecting the two I drilled out the bulk of the waste with a side assemblies with the front and back Forstner bit at the drill press, then cleaned rails. up the mortises with chisels and a oat. The rst step in making the tenons was Come Together to cut a wide rabbet on both the top and With a complex piece such as this, the best bottom of the shelf. I clamped a straight- way to ensure that everything ts together edge on the shoulder line and used a router is to make careful dry runs, then pull the with a straight bit and a top-mounted ush actual dimensions for the next piece to be guide bearing. fabricated from the subassembly. With the I made a cut on both ends on the top legs connected side to side and front to side, then I clamped the straightedge on back, I made sure the carcase was square the bottom. I carefully made a cut, then before making the bottom. measured the thickness of the tenon, The bottom ts between the front and comparing it to the height of the mortise. back rails, and at the ends there is a pair When I could force a corner of the bottom of through-tenons. The critical distance into the mortise, I knew I was as close as I is from shoulder to shoulder on these ten- wanted to come with the router. ons. After ripping the bottom to width, I I held the backside of the rail against held the bottom in place below the rails the end of the cabinet bottom and marked on the carcase and marked the shoulder the ends of the tenons from the mortises. locations directly. I cut the ends of the tenons with my back- Then it all came back apart to cut the saw, then turned the bottom 90 and used through-mortises in the bottom side rails. the same tool to make the two end cuts. Easier by hand. These cuts could be made at the These pieces are too short to clamp to the I used a jigsaw to remove the material table saw, but that would be an awkward opera- bench and have room for the plunge router, between the tenons and stayed about 1 8" tion. Cutting the tenons by hand allows me to see and too wide to t easily in the mortiser. away from the shoulders edge. what is going on. popularwoodworking.com 27 26-33_1010_PWM_Arts&CraftsBuffet27 27 7/21/10 5:39:53 PM

32 There is just enough material from the rst router cut that denes the shoulder to guide the bearing of a ush-trim router bit. That took care of making a straight edge between the tenons, except for a small quarter circle in the corners. A little chisel work removed that extra material, and I was ready to test the t. With a chisel, I cut a small chamfer around the back edges of the mortises, and I used my block plane to chamfer the ends of the tenons. A few taps with a mal- let revealed the tight spots on the tenons. Some work with a shoulder plane and oat brought the tenons down to size, and after achieving a good t with both rails on the ends of the bottom, I was ready to dry-t the rest of the case. Shapes of Things After another test-t and a bit of tweak- ing, I was ready for a break from joinery, so I cut the tapers on the legs at the band saw. I cleaned up the saw marks with a light pass across the jointer, then began smoothing surfaces and rounding edges. I began smoothing all the at surfaces with a plane to remove mill marks and evidence of beatings from my test assemblies. I took my cue for the edge treatment from Greene & Greene. Instead of run- ning a roundover bit in a router around the Dry-t now, panels later. The only way to know if things will really t is to put the carcase together. The edges, I used my block plane to hand-form panels will be added the next time around. a radius on all the exposed edges. This doesnt take as long as you might think, and this method allows for variation of open wide the mouth of my block plane the cut, then make ne nishing cuts to the edge radius. and skew the blade as far as I can. remove the arrises and form a nice curve. The radius on the legs is larger at the With the blade cocked, the plane takes Shifting the position of the plane laterally bottom than at the top. This follows the a big bite on one side and a ne cut on the allows it to do coarse, medium and ne taper of the legs and adds a subtlety to other. By shifting the position of the plane work without ddling with the tool. the edges that a router couldnt provide. as I tilt it on the edge of the board, I can I also cut the arches at the bottom edge My method for doing this efciently is to remove a large chamfered edge to begin of the front and side rails at the band saw, Why this slides. Opening the mouth of the block Big mouth, quick work. This side of the plane Fine on this side. The other side of the plane plane provides room to skew the iron. will take a coarse cut, removing a lot of material takes a small nishing cut. The amount of mate- in a hurry. rial removed and the quality of cut is controlled by moving the plane laterally. 28 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE October 2010 26-33_1010_PWM_Arts&CraftsBuffet28 28 7/21/10 5:40:14 PM

33 and used a series of rasps to refine the curves and round the edges. I made 5 8"- Arts & Crafts Buffet NO. ITEM DIMENSIONS (INCHES) MATERIAL COMMENTS thick panels for the sides, making a rabbet T W L around the perimeter to form a tongue on the 4 Legs 114 334 3034 Maple panel that fits in the grooves of the legs. 78 2 Upper side rails 3 1338 Maple 34" TBE* Then I made 3 8"-thick shiplapped panels 78 2 Lower side rails 414 1338 Maple 34" TBE for the back before turning to the last bit of 58 2 Side panels 1258 2312 Maple joinery for the case. A simple web frame 78 1 Cabinet bottom 1178 3014 Maple 114" TBE supports the drawer, and two rails (one at 3 8 6 Back panels 478 2312 Maple Shiplap edges the front and one at the back behind the 78 1 Upper back rail 3 27 Maple 114" TBE visible rails) support the top. 2 Lower front/back rails 78 414 27 Maple 114" TBE The web frame is mortise-and-tenon 78 78 1 Top front rail 27 Maple 114" TBE construction; I assembled and fit this 78 1 Front drawer rail 114 27 Maple 114" TBE frame with the cabinet dry-assembled. I 3 4 2 Inner top rails 3 2912 Maple DTBE** put the cabinet together and took it apart 3 4 2 Web frame rails 214 2334 Poplar 114" TBE several times to t parts as the joinery pro- 3 4 2 Web frame stiles 314 1178 Poplar gressed to ensure that the complex assem- 12 2 Hinge strips 1 1878 Maple bly would all t together. And it served as 78 2 Door hinge stiles 358 1878 Maple good practice for the nal glue-up. 78 2 Door lock stiles 278 1878 Maple I cut the two top rails to the outside 78 2 Door top rails 338 734 Maple 114" TBE width of the case and marked the inside 78 2 Door bottom rails 458 734 Maple 114" TBE edges to the top side rails. I made a 1 4"- 58 2 Door panels 6 1158 Maple 1 Top 3 4 1578 4612 Maple 114" TBE 2 Breadboard ends 78 214 1618 Maple A new form of expression never 2 Drawer sides 3 4 434 13 Maple 1 Drawer front 3 4 434 2412 Maple develops from the top, and nothing 1 Drawer back 3 4 414 2412 Maple permanent is ever built upon 1 Drawer bottom 14 12 2312 Maple 1 Drawer handle 114 112 16 Maple tradition. 2 Door handles 114 134 5 Maple Gustav Stickley (1856 - 1942) *TBE = Tenon both ends; **DTBE = Dovetail both ends furniture maker 481/2" 21/4" 1618" 3" 241/2" 3/4" 7/8" 1578" 78" 3/4" 7/8" 3" 43/4" 11/4" 434" 1" 11/4" 114" 33/8" 338" 303/4" 30" 187/8" 1878" 45/8" 1316" 458" 33/4" 41/4" 414" 358" 3/4" 34" 1" 35/8" 27/8" 113/4" 114" 1178" 3" ELEVATION PROFILE SECTION popularwoodworking.com 29 26-33_1010_PWM_Arts&CraftsBuffet29 29 7/21/10 5:40:29 PM

34 wide rabbet on the bottom of the ends, plied the nal assembly by reducing the then cut a dovetail on both ends of each number of parts. rail. With the rails in position, I marked The obvious tricky part of putting the top side rails to cut the sockets. things together for real is down low. The I used a wheel marking gauge to mark through-tenons for the cabinet bottoms the bottom of the dovetail sockets in the need to slide through the mortises in the rails and a knife to mark the vertical cuts. rail at the same time the tenons in the front After sawing the outside edges with my and back rails go into the legs. I put the dovetail saw, I used a chisel to remove the entire cabinet together without any glue waste (vertical saw cuts into the waste may to practice my technique and to avoid any make waste removal easier). On a small trauma during the real thing. joint such as this, the marking gauge can The other tricky part is that, with the be used as a small router, providing a at legs tapered, there isnt a good surface to bottom for the socket. place any clamps. Fortunately one of my bad habits was ready to provide a solution. Tighten Up I rarely throw anything away, so I found Fighting off the urge to glue the entire box the tapered offcuts from the legs over by together, I went over all the parts with a the band saw. Good old blue painters tape card scraper then ne sandpaper. Then held these to the legs, providing a at place I put the side panels in place and glued to put the clamps. the rails between the legs, then let these I put one of the side assemblies on my No-spread zone. A single through-dovetail on subassemblies dry overnight. This sim- bench with the inside of the case facing each of the top rails locks the sides of the case up, applied glue to the mortises and put together and adds an attractive detail. the rails in place. I started the tenons on the end of the bottom into the side rail mortises, then brushed glue on the inner portion of the tenons. This kept the glue off the exposed ends of the tenons. That was the easy end. I slid the shiplapped back panels into position, then brushed glue on the tenons in the rails before I started the through- tenons into the mortises in the lower side rail. At the same time, I lined up the other tenons with their matching mor- tises. I tapped down on the rail until all but about 1 2" of the through-tenon was visible between the tenon shoulder and the rail. I reached in to brush more glue on the tenons, then tapped on the outside of the side subassembly to close the joints. I tried to tap directly over each tenon on the legs E pluribus unum. Subassemblies minimize the number of pieces to contend with during the nal assem- as the second side of the cabinet moved bly. After clamping, check to see that they are square. into place. When the side was about 1 8" away from closing, I put down the mallet and picked up my cabinet clamps. I tightened the clamps and went on a hunt for glue squeeze-out near the joints. I try to control squeeze-out by applying just enough glue to the joint. The goal is to apply the glue so that it almost squeezes out. The last step in the carcase assembly was to jockey the web frame into position and glue the long edge to the rail below Where bottom and side collide. This isnt as hard Tape for the tapers. Offcuts from tapering the the drawer opening. At the back, a couple as it looks; the side will be one piece, and trial legs are taped in place to provide a at surface pocket screws from below attach the back runs ensure that everything ts. for the clamps. of the frame to the back legs. 30 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE October 2010 26-33_1010_PWM_Arts&CraftsBuffet30 30 7/21/10 5:40:51 PM

35 Sliding home. Start all the mortises and get the parts close with a rubber mallet. A few clamps close the Simple x. A pocket screw at each end attaches joints side to side. the drawer frame to the inside of the back legs. I had a little glue bead appear here and there, and those were scraped off with the back of a sharp, wide chisel before the glue had time to dry. I keep a wet rag handy to keep the chisel clean and dont wipe the wood unless I have to. Feeling Groovy The doors are standard frame-and-panel construction; 1 4"-wide grooves run along the inside edges, and haunched tenons Balancing act. After cutting the rst set of ngers, in the rails t mortises in the stiles. The place the end of a side on the drawer front to elements of the doors are all wider than mark the matching parts of the joint. L of a solution. A simple jig attached to the table they need to be. This enhances the overall saws miter gauge supports the work and indi- appearance of the doors in the opening; cates the exact line of the cut. there is a better balance in the middle, and of the blade to match the marked depth of the wide lower rails reinforce the sense the cut between the ngers. I placed the of visual weight toward the bottom of the The drawer is joined at the front with two drawer sides together and aligned the cabinet. Greene & Greene-style nger joints. The pencil marks on the wood with the saw The combined width of the doors is 1" ngers are graduated in width, and they cut in the xture. less than the width of the opening; thin extend about 1 8" past the drawer front. When the sides were in position, I strips are glued inside the legs to carry the I made a simple L-shaped fixture and clamped the stacked sides to the back of hinges. This detail allows the doors to be attached it to the table saws miter gauge to the xture. I cut the ends of each nger set back from the front edges of the rails assist in cutting the joints. After attaching before removing the waste material in while still able to swing freely past the the xture, I ran it through the saw blade between. When the sides were nished, inside edges of the legs. These features are to cut a slot in the lower portion. I placed them on each end of the drawer common in Gustav Stickley designs. The I laid out the fingers on one of the front to transfer the cutlines. variation of planes adds visual interest to drawer sides, making sure to clearly mark After marking the waste area in the the unadorned surfaces. the waste area. Then I adjusted the height drawer front joints, I lowered the height popularwoodworking.com 31 26-33_1010_PWM_Arts&CraftsBuffet31 31 7/21/10 5:41:21 PM

36 on the bottom edge of the guide allowed me to reach in with a block plane to tweak the t. Speaking in Tongues The breadboard ends have a 1 4"-wide, 1 2"- deep groove along each inside edge. I made each groove with a straight bit in a small plunge router, stopping the groove about 1" in from the ends. I located the matching tongue on the top by clamping a plywood straightedge to the line, and made the cut Easy now. The two parts should with a ush-trim bit in the router. slide together easily but without The tongue is 11 4" long; the extra 3 4" Hold the line. Place the pencil line next to the kerf in the guide any slop. If its too tight, le the fat was used to make three tenons to hold the to cut just inside the line. ngers. breadboard in place. The tenons are about 2" wide; the outer tenons end about 1 8" in from the end of the groove. After cut- of the saw blade to leave the ends of the began to transform the faceted edges to a ting the tenons, I marked their locations drawer front barely proud of the drawer gentle curve. When I got close to the lines, on the breadboard and cut the mortises sides. I then cut the ngers in the drawer I switched to a piece of #180-grit Abranet with the hollow chisel mortiser. front in the same way that I cut the mating to remove the rasp marks. The middle mortise fits the tenon ends of the drawer sides. I didnt want any glue to squeeze out tightly in width, but the end two were When I was happy with the joints at the when I assembled the drawer, so I carefully cut wider to give the top some room to front of the drawer, I cut grooves with a applied glue to the recesses between the move. These joints are pinned with square small plunge router in the sides and front ngers with an acid brush. I began with walnut plugs that go completely through for the drawer bottom. The grooves in the end-grain surfaces, let the glue soak in the breadboard and the tenons. The square the sides stop at the front to match the for a few minutes, then applied glue to all holes for the 1 4" and 5 16" plugs we made depth of the groove in the drawer front. the mating surfaces. I clamped the drawer with punches developed by Darrell Peart. The groove falls within the rst nger, box together at the front, placing small These punches work in conjunction with so it can run from end to end through the blocks of scrap between the ngers to pro- a drill bit, so it was simple to start from the drawer front. vide a bearing surface for the clamps. show side, punch the square and drill the The back of the drawer is narrower I planed the bottom edge of the drawer holes through the assembled joint. than the sides. It comes down from the front before assembly to keep the edge of After drilling, I took the joint apart and top of the drawer and ends at the top of the front 1 16" above the bottom edge of the placed the drill bit in each hole, then used the groove, allowing the drawer bottom sides. When I t the drawer in the open- the punch to square the sides. I elongated to be slid into place after the drawer is ing, I was able to plane the sides to get a the holes in the two outer tenons so they assembled. The drawer bottom is one good t and keep a slight gap between the could move in the mortises as the seasons solid panel, glued up from the leg left- drawer front and the case rails. Drawer change. On nal assembly of the top, I overs and planed to 1 4" thickness. The guides are glued on to the web frame to applied glue to the center tenon only. The back and sides of the drawer are joined keep the drawer sliding straight. A rabbet outer joints are held in place with pegs. with through-dovetails. Roundabout Like the cabinet it lives in, the drawer was put together and taken back apart several times. With the sides in place, I marked the front edge of the drawer front on the ngers of the drawer sides. This provided a target for rounding the edges of the n- gers. I clamped the sides in my vise and went to work with a small rasp. As with the other radiused edges, I began by cutting a 45 chamfer, working in the direction of the grain. When the Cutting corners. Mark where the end of the Room to move. Elongate the sides of the holes edge of the chamfer reached about two- drawer side intersects the ngers on the drawer that pass through the tenons. This will allow the thirds of the distance from the end to the front. Round over the edges to the pencil line. top to expand and contract against the bread- pencil line, I removed the sharp edges and board ends. 32 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE October 2010 26-33_1010_PWM_Arts&CraftsBuffet32 32 7/21/10 5:41:37 PM

37 of the pegs to make it easier to start them in the holes. After the pegs were sanded, Supplies I treated them with a solution of vinegar Lee Valley in which Id soaked iron, then cut them to leevalley.com or 800-871-8158 length. This solution reacts with the tan- 1 set u square hole punches nic acid in the walnut and turns the wood #50K59.20, $24.50-$26.50 each, black. (Brian Boggs explains an alternative $129 for set of six ebonizing process in the June 2009 issue 2 u ball catches of Popular Woodworking (#176).) #00W12.00, $1.50 each I used an artists brush to coat the inside Prices correct at time of publication. Adjustable guide. The drawer guides are glued of each hole with glue, inserted a peg and to the web frame. The short length and rabbeted tapped it in place with a brass hammer. bottom edge provide room to adjust the width The smooth hard surface of the hammer with a block plane. burnished the faces of the pegs. glued the strips to the inside of the legs, Because the doors hang on strips glued with the back of the strips ush with the to the inside of the door opening, mortis- back of the legs. Maxwells Silver Hammer ing the hinges was simple. I trimmed the I glued a small block of wood behind I also added decorative pegs (3 16", 1 4" and doors to 3 32" less than the height of the the rail of the face frame above the doors to 5 16") to the joint locations on the front opening and cut the strips to an exact t. provide a place to mount brass ball catches legs, the door stiles and the drawer front. I put a door (hinge stile up) in my vise to keep the doors shut. The handles were Recesses of about 1 4" deep for the plugs and placed a strip along the edge, using shaped at the band saw, then the edges were made with the square punches. The a dime to space the top of the strip with were rounded with a block plane and plugs were ripped from some quartersawn the top of the door. rasps. I made relief cuts on the back of walnut. I cut square strips on the table saw, Then I marked the locations of the the handles with a carving gouge to pro- about 1 32" larger than the recesses. hinges. I cut the hinge mortises in the vide a nger grip. Those cuts were rened I smoothed the long edges of these doors with a small plunge router equipped with a gooseneck scraper. strips with my block plane, and I measured with a fence. I put a block of wood behind The rst coat of nish is clear shellac. I the width and thickness with calipers the door and adjusted the position of the used the canned stuff from the hardware until they were close in size, but still a bit door in the vise so that the edge of the door store and thinned it about 30 percent. This larger than the holes. I dropped the end was ush with the top of the block. This left the color a bit cold to my eye, so I added extension of the calipers into the holes to kept the base of the router at on the thin about 25 percent amber shellac to the mix nd the correct length for the pegs, then edge without any danger of tipping. for the second, third and fourth coats. used the jaws of the calipers to transfer The mortises in the hinge strips were After letting the shellac dry, I buffed the this measurement to the strips. cut with the strips clamped flat to the surface with a nylon abrasive pad, then I rounded one end of each strip with a benchtop. After routing, I squared the applied a coat of paste wax. PWM coarse le, followed by sandpaper, before corners of the mortises then screwed the cutting the pegs to length. After cutting, hinges in position on the doors and on the Bob is executive editor of Popular Woodworking I used a chisel to chamfer the back edges strips. Then I removed the hinges, and Magazine. He can be reached at [email protected] u Go Online FOR MORE Youll nd links to all these online extras at: u popularwoodworking.com/aug10 VIDEO: Watch Bobs table saw techniques for cutting the drawer nger joints. PLAN: Download a free 3-D model of this project in SketchUp format. WEB SITE: Bob has written several books about Arts & Crafts furniture; theyre all available from his web site. BLOG: Read Pearts Punches for Perfect Square Holes. IN OUR STORE: Greene & Greene Furniture: Poems of Wood of Light. One-two punch. Locate the punch and smack Waste removal: Follow with a drill through the All of our products are available online at: it a couple times with a hammer. This cuts sharp hole in the punch body. This removes the waste u WoodworkersBookShop.com corners and straight sides for the plug hole. within the square recess. popularwoodworking.com 33 26-33_1010_PWM_Arts&CraftsBuffet33 33 7/21/10 5:41:51 PM

38 Understand & Use a Bowsaw B Y M I C H A E L D U N BA R These traditional tools are woefully misunderstood by modern craftsmen. Heres a primer. I n the 1970s when I was the young, innocent and naive chairmaker at Strawbery Banke, a museum in Ports- mouth, N.H., 50,000 tourists passed through my shop each summer. It never failed that when I was cutting out a chair seat with a bowsaw some wag would quip loudly, You need a band saw! While these comics guffawed at their own cleverness I was puzzled by the com- ments inanity. I knew I was doing just ne and didnt need a band saw. I did my work quickly and efciently with two dif- ferent sized bowsaws large and small. The saws did all the work I required. I cut out two chair seats a week and four scrolled hands. If the chair had a crest, I cut that too. The saws had cost very little, relative to a band saw. When I was done, I hung them on the wall, where they took up no floor space in my cramped shop. I was perfectly happy working this way. After I had grown up and started Bowsaws for the bench. Many modern woodworkers avoid bowsaws because they dont understand demonstrating at woodworking shows, I when or how to use them in the shop. continued to get the same comment from woodworkers who, carried away with their own wittiness, could not stop themselves great 18th-century furniture masterpieces wheelwrights cut out sections for wooden from blurting, You need a band saw! It we go to museums to admire. wheels (fellows) with a fellow saw. Today, was then that I realized everyone thought we use far fewer bowsaws, but these share I should have a band saw because they Meet the Bowsaw, Moderner in common a number of features with didnt know about bowsaws. It was their In the history of woodworking there were all their ancestors. First is a thin blade loss. They missed out on the enjoyment many types of bowsaws, some developed that conserved on steel and allowed the of using a very efcient tool that has been by tradesmen to meet their own particular bowsaw to change directions more easily around since the Bronze Age and was used needs. For example, inlay makers cut out than would be permitted by a at-bladed in Europe and America to produce the very small pieces with a fret saw, while handsaw. Second is a wooden frame that 34 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE October 2010 PHOTO S BY CHRISTOPHER SCHWARZ 34-37_1010_PWM_Bowsaws.indd 34 7/21/10 5:43:17 PM

39 secures the blade. Third are the handles, Because I need the blade to be stiff and not which provide the user with something ex, I use a .035"-thick blade rather than to hold, and which can be turned to adjust the more common .025". You may not be the direction of cut. Finally, every bowsaw able to buy this blade in your local wood- has some method that tensions the blade working store, but you can nd it on the that is, stretches it tight. Internet and order online. The blade on my For general woodworking the sort of small bowsaw is a 16 ppi, 14" saw blade. things most of us do you need only two If you make your own blades, you will bowsaws. A large saw with about a 25"- have to drill holes for the pins that pass long blade is great for ripping or cutting through the handle rods. The saw steel shapes out of heavy stock. A smaller saw How to avoid the crack. A toggle such as this is too hard to drill, so soften the ends by with about a 12" blade is better for cutting allows you to adjust the frames tension by half- heating them with a propane torch. turns, which is better for the saw. out smaller parts. Because most commercial bowsaws The biggest obstacle you face in add- are inadequate, you are faced with either ing bowsaws to your repertoire of wood- making your own or buying one from a working skills is obtaining a saw. A lot of like wire that is tightened with a nut. This craftsman/maker. I obtained my saws woodworking catalogs and web sites sell mechanism is not as effective. For string, from Woodjoy Tools (woodjoytools.com). bowsaws, but beware: Most of these saws I recommend waxed cobblers twine. It This site also sells parts and materials for are cheaply made, lightweight and inad- holds up well to years of use and does saws. Because a bowsaw requires only equate for woodworking. The same rule not stretch. several small pieces of hardwood, it is a that applies to the lathe and workbench Most saws use a simple stick as a tog- good project for using up some cutoffs applies to the bowsaw. Flimsy equals gle for twisting and tightening the twine. or scrap. worthless. Overlapping the toggle on the center strut Why? Sawing requires force. The rea- keeps the twine from unwinding. How- Bench or Horizontal Sawing son my large bowsaw is so efcient is that ever, the tighter you twist the twine, the With the Large Saw I can put a lot of weight and muscle behind tighter it becomes on the toggle. At some The large bowsaw cuts on the down, or it without the saw flexing or the frame point the toggle will not slide at all and you push stroke, and the blade is mounted in wiggling. If either of these happens, the can no longer tension the saw by full turns. this direction. The teeth are turned so they cutting action is less effective and the saw This can be a problem, because over tight- are at a right angle to the frame. A bowsaw is harder to direct. My prejudice against ening can break the frame. The answer is is a turning saw, which means the blade commercial bowsaws is well founded. I the yoke with a sliding toggle as shown in can be turned so it is at a setting other have had one fall apart in my hands while the picture above. than 90 to the frame, but I nd I seldom cutting a chair seat. The grooved yoke ts into the twisted do this. If you do need to turn the blade, rope, allowing the slotted toggle to slide loosen the toggle and turn the upper and Heres a Good Bowsaw freely. You can make full or half turns lower handles at the same time. If you These are the criteria to look for in a saw. without any fuss. turn them separately, you risk twisting You want a rigid hardwood frame, which or breaking the blade. will give the saw serious heft. The strut And the Right Blades The large saw cuts with the stock should attach to the ends with mortise- The type of blade you choose to mount in secured to the benchtop, so your bench and-tenon joints. These should be deep and your saw is determined by your intended needs to be the right height for sawing. well t, with no play or slop. You want the use for the tool. I use my large bowsaw most Most modern benches are too high for handle rods to be metal (usually brass). The frequently for cutting out chair seats. This most hand tools, and certainly for the large rods should have a tight friction t where means I am driving it through nearly 2" of bowsaw. My test for proper bench height they pass through the frame and secure pine. I want my blade to be aggressive and is to stand erect next to the bench with the blade, so the blade cannot turn while fast. I dont care if the cut leaves a coarse your arm straight and rigid at your side. in use. In other words, adjusting the saw surface. When I am done, I will shape the Bend you hand at the wrist so it is paral- should require effort. The blade should be edge of the seat and remove all evidence of lel to the floor. The palm of your hand secured to the rods by a slot pierced by a the sawing. I use a length of 6 points per establishes the best height for your bench. metal pin. All these parts should be robust inch (ppi) 38" band saw blade in the saw. If your bench is too high for the bowsaw, enough not to wear or break. The strut and handles should be designed for comfort and have smooth relieved corners that will not raise blisters. I particularly like It is far better to work with one plane, one saw, one chisel and a few the octagonal handles on my saws. You have to be able to tension or stretch accessories, all of them good, honest steel, properly sharpened, than it is to the blade so it does not ex or twist. Most have a cellar full of inadequate devices. saws are tensioned by twisting a hank How to Work With Tools and Wood of string with a wooden toggle. I do not (1942) from Stanley Tools popularwoodworking.com 35 34-37_1010_PWM_Bowsaws.indd 35 7/21/10 5:43:30 PM

40 either trim the legs or stand on a platform A bowsaw has limitations. Like a band when sawing. saw, its throat is only so wide. The maxi- Secure the work to the bench with mum for my big saw is 6 1 2". This means clamps that are heavy and strong enough the saw works best for ripping narrow to hold it fast. How you position the stock lengths and is useless when it comes to on the bench depends on the work. To cutting plywood panels. be as efcient as possible, here are a cou- With the work secured, you are ready ple things to consider before beginning. to use the saw. Grip it in the manner I am With the big saw you travel along with about to describe. Hold the strut near the the tool. Make sure you can move your top with your dominant hand (Im right- body freely. handed) and grip the upper handle with It tracks tightly. While the surface from a bow- You do not want to stop and reposition your other hand. Stand facing the direc- saw might be rough, I nd a bowsaw is easier to your stock any more than is necessary. If tion of cut, so the saw is in front of you. keep from drifting off line than a band saw. you are ripping, clamp the stock to the Any hand-driven saw works best with a bench so the kerf is close to the edge. This smooth stroke that uses almost the entire reduces any chance of the stock exing. length of the blade. The same applies to To prepare for the down stroke raise Short pieces and round shapes such as a bowsaw. Also, any saw works best and the saw until the lower end of the blade is chair seats are easiest to cut with the stock requires the least effort if you use it prop- engaged on the line. As the saw descends clamped to a corner, although you will erly. With a large bowsaw, the best advan- use the entire length of the blade almost have to reposition the seat blank at least tage comes from using your entire body to the upper end. On the down stroke, once. If in cutting a shape you have to cut rather than your arms. Sawing is an aero- come up slightly on your toes. Your heels around corners with a radius longer than bic exercise, and if done correctly you will will come off the oor. Flex your knees your saws throat, trim the corners rst. not become fatigued or winded. and bend slightly at the waist. This action, rather than your arms, is what moves the saw. While you cannot avoid some move- ment of your shoulders, it is surprising how little your arms are involved. Mostly, your arms and shoulders hold the saw in the cutting position while your body moves it. Raise the blade not with your arms, but by straightening your body and rocking your feet back at on the oor. You can understand the efciency in this motion. Rather than trying to drive the saw with your arms and shoulders, you are putting the weight of your torso behind the blade. At the end of the down stroke, pull the saw blade back slightly in the kerf. This accomplishes several things. First, the end of the kerf is tighter, so withdrawing the blade slightly makes it easier to lift the saw. Withdrawing the blade also clears trapped sawdust out of the kerf, especially at the end where you are cutting. Finally, withdrawing the blade makes sawing more accurate. Heres why. As you start the next down stroke you reposition the blade on the line. Repeat this with every stroke. While this continuous cor- rection will create a more ragged edge than that left by a band saw, an experienced bowsawyer has less trouble with drifting off line. When you are done and exam- ine the sawn edge, you can see where you Get a grip. When ripping, grasp the strut with Use your whole body. When using the large saw one hand and the handle with the other. Begin like this, dont use only your arms. Use the mass started each stroke. your kerf with the lower part of the blade of your body to help bring the saw down. Flex The key to using the bowsaw efciently engaged in the wood. your knees and bend slightly at the waist. is to make the movement repetitive and 36 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE October 2010 34-37_1010_PWM_Bowsaws.indd 36 7/21/10 5:43:47 PM

41 uid. Any halting or jerkiness indicates Vertical or Vise Sawing reaches over the work, it cannot be secured you are doing something wrong. Once The small saw is intended for detail work horizontally on a benchtop. Instead, the you have achieved skill with the tool, you and for cutting out small parts. It simply work is held vertically in a vise. With the will be amazed at how efcient and fast does not have the heft to cut heavy stock. small saw you generally have to stop and a bowsaw is. As with the big saw, I generally position adjust the work to give the saw access to When ripping with the large bowsaw, the blade at a right angle to the frame. Like more of the pattern, but this is a lot faster hold the saw so the frame is tilted away a coping saw this tool, too, cuts on the pull and easier than adjusting clamps. from you. Because its on a diagonal, more stroke rather than on the push. Once again, the saws action needs to of the blade is in the kerf, and it is easier The pull-stroke grip requires holding be smooth and use as much of the blade to stay on the line. The kerfs leading edge the saw by both handles. Because your arm length as practical. In use, the small below the surface is angled and still saws stroke is fast. Imagine yourself as a aligned with the line you are following. human scroll saw. Each pull stroke cuts As you cut a curve, bring the frame and advances the kerf. On the back stroke, into vertical, so it is cutting in the same lift the blade slightly and reset it on the manner as a band saw. If you tilt the frame line before the next cut. as you do when ripping, the cut around Operating the small saw is the opposite the curve will be beveled, rather than at of the larger. While the big saw uses your a right angle to the surface. entire body but not your arms, the small saw uses just your arms and shoulders but not your body. Plant your feet and bend your knees to bring your shoulders down to the height of the work. Retain this posi- tion. Lock your wrists and move the saw with your elbows and shoulders. Storage is Simple When you are nished with a bowsaw, release the tension on the blade. Turn- ing the toggle backward one turn is suf- cient. You dont want to loosen the frame so much that it falls apart. I store my saws by hanging them on the wall. However, bowsaws lie at and can be stored in a tool box. If you do this, nd a way to protect the blade from other tools, and to protect you from it. PWM Rip away. When you are ripping with the large Straight through the curves. When you turn a saw, tilt the frame away from you slightly to help corner, bring the frame up until its vertical, which stay on your line. prevents the edge from becoming beveled. Michael Dunbar runs The Windsor Institute in Hampton, N.H. (thewindsorinstitute.com), the premier school for Windsor chairmaking. u Go Online FOR MORE Youll nd links to all these online extras at: u popularwoodworking.com/oct10 VIDEO: See a video of Michael Dunbar using a large and a small bowsaw. ARTICLE: Read Frank Klauszs article on the bowsaws in his shop. WEB SITE: Visit the web site of The Windsor Institute. TO BUY: Purchase bowsaws and accessories from WoodJoy Tools. IN OUR STORE: Handtool Essentials teaches you critical hand skills. All of our products are available online at: Armed with a small saw. When using the small bowsaw, move your arms in a reciprocating fashion. u WoodworkersBookShop.com Keep your torso steady. popularwoodworking.com 37 34-37_1010_PWM_Bowsaws.indd 37 7/21/10 5:44:01 PM

42 Veneer is the Future: Part 1 B Y M A R C A DA M S We make the case that the material used on the nest furniture of the past should be in your future. I work with veneers! There I said it this must be what it feels like to come out of the closet. I cut my teeth as a woodworker when veneering furniture was frowned upon. And often I had to educate my clients on why veneered furniture is as worthy as solid-wood furniture. More dazzling than difcult. Veneer can allow you to do things you cannot accomplish with solid Wood veneer is a remarkable material wood. And it is more straightforward than you think. This table was built by the authors daughter, that has been used for centuries. It is cost- Markee Adams. efcient, easy to work, comes in a variety of colors and textures, can be purchased in sequential order and matched together local materials. Because wood was so read- Veneers Black Eye architecturally, can be used decoratively, ily available and easy to work, it became Although veneer slicing machines were is easy to repair and can even increase the the standard for how furniture was to be rst introduced in America in the early value of your work. Thats right increase made. Because traditional furniture was 1800s, early factory furniture during that the value of your work. handmade with solid wood, its perceived century was sometimes crudely produced The truth is that the majority of the as more durable and, probably because it with disastrous results adding to the priceless furniture pieces made during is heavier, far more substantial. For this eventual black eye of veneer. The straw the Renaissance are covered with veneer. reason, the mindset is that solid wood that broke the camels back happened after In fact, working with veneer goes back means better quality. World War II, when servicemen were tak- centuries before the Renaissance. Egyp- ing advantage of the GI Bill. The demand tians imported cedar, cypress and ebony for schools, hospitals, new businesses from Syria and Africa. These logs were and homes was driving a need to produce cut into veneers to adorn the furniture of furniture and cabinets at a fevered pitch. the Pharaohs. So the question is, if veneer Never be afraid to try something new. The real problem was the failure of the was so highly regarded throughout antiq- Remember: Noah had never built core material that the veneer was glued to. uity, then why would using it in modern Early particleboard was not the same prod- America be so objectionable? an ark, but it was a large group of uct that it is today, and MDF didnt exist. I guess it boils down to two reasons: professionals that built the Titanic. Early particleboard was brittle, reacted resources and production. When the Mike Moncrief horribly to water, had no structural abil- rst settlers came to this land, trees were Mayor of Ft. Worth, Texas ity and physically stank. abundant and the furniture built by the 2010 commencement address at Nearly all the furniture produced from Colonists was made with simple tools and Texas Christian University 1945 to the early 70s was veneered on 38 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE October 2010 PHOTOS ON THIS SPREAD BY THE AUTHOR 38-45_1010_PWM_Veneer.indd 38 7/21/10 5:47:32 PM

43 this inferior product, and, when the par- square-foot size to lumber at a board-foot From a nancial standpoint, if the aver- ticleboard core failed, the veneer on the size, but these numbers are pretty close.) age price of a select and better piece of 4/4 surface took the rap. Strike two! As we become more aware of efciently cherry is $7 a board foot; that would give Fortunately, veneer is persistent and using our natural resources, stretching a that entire log a value of $742. If the aver- has rebounded well during the last 20 board truly is possible with veneer. age price of a piece of select cherry veneer years. Americans are more willing to is $1.80 per square foot, then that same log accept veneered furniture as an equal, if could generate close to $7,500 around 10 not better, to furniture made from solid times as much as lumber. Which way do wood. This transformation has happened you think the wood market is headed? for several reasons. So unless you are timbering your own trees, working with solid wood in the Why Veneer Survives & Thrives future might not be a good choice. Dont First, technology has improved. Core get me wrong hardwood will always materials have improved tremendously, exist because in America, according to including the introduction of MDF. Space- the HPVA (Hardwood Plywood & Veneer- age glues and vacuum technology have ing Association), we plant 5.4 million trees simplied the pressing process. Second, a day. But you can bet that of those trees veneer as a material is green by design its that reach maturity, veneer is the goal (or durable, renewable and sustainable. should I say gold). Today most exotic woods can be purchased only in veneer form, and in The Slicing Process the future I wouldnt be surprised if all Veneer-quality trees are the Holy Grail imported lumber will be available only as of timber logs and are typically higher in veneer. And we cant overlook the different quality than logs for solid lumber. Domes- ways veneer can be cut: rotary, sliced and tic veneer logs are usually free of visible half-round. These cuts create sequenced defects and have a clean, cylindrical shape veneers that offer incredible gure, color, with parallel sides. Once the log makes it texture and variety. to the veneer mill it will be sorted, graded Third, veneer is easy to ship, handle, and stacked into parcels. Logs are kept cut, seam, atten, shade and repair. Veneer Slice of heaven. This wardrobe by the author wet during the summer months in order shows how veneers can be combined with an bends well and can be used for panels, attractive form to produce work that exceeds to keep the bugs out and prevent fungus bandings, edging and inlays. And last, what is possible in solid wood alone. a correctly balanced veneered plywood panel is far stronger than solid wood of the same thickness, which means furniture can be made with a savings in material, weight and cost. Solid-wood construction has some lim- itations; it is subject to shrinkage, warp- ing, splitting, twisting, and insect and fungal attack. Veneer will not warp, twist or split and will not suffer from stresses or strains. There is no doubt that todays craftsman with modern techniques and processes can produce veneered furniture that is far more durable and every bit as attractive as the solid wooden furniture it has surpassed. Veneer vs. Solid Wood Costs In America today the average hardwood tree taken to the mill is around 9' to 10' long by around 17" in diameter. This typi- cal tree will yield about 106 board feet of 4/4 lumber (according to the Doyle scale). That same size log will yield around 4,200 square feet of clipped veneer. (It is always A dream in wood. Using veneer allows you to create almost any effect you can dream up and to disre- hard to accurately compare veneer at a gard many of the rules of wood movement. This bed was designed and built by the author. popularwoodworking.com 39 38-45_1010_PWM_Veneer.indd 39 7/21/10 5:47:44 PM

44 from developing, which could affect the area by an overhead crane where it is either just over a week or so. Hardwood lumber, color. But most important, the wetter the fastened to a machine with dog-like clamps on the other hand, could take up to a year log is, the less the ends will check. Once or held in place by a vacuum system. to be ready to use. the log has been called into service it will The secured flitch is held at a slight rst go to a machine that de-barks and skew to a knife that runs horizontal. The The Thickness of Veneer de-butts the log (this cleans off the bark, itch then moves up and down in a shear- I have a friend who sticks out his chest dirt and gravel as well as makes the log ing motion, which cuts the veneer into the with pride as he tells people, I work only more cylindrical). After the debarking pre-set thickness. With every stroke of the with solid wood. Actually, veneer is a process the log is X-rayed to make sure machine, the itch moves forward by the solid wood its just really thin. its free from metal that could destroy the same thickness of the veneer being cut at Today in America, depending on spe- slicing knives. the rate of 80 to 100 cuts per minute. Each cies, veneer is cut somewhere between 1 42" Once the log is put into motion, a deci- individual piece of veneer cut from the (0.6mm) to 1 50" (0.5mm) thick. Currently, sion is made as to how it will be sliced: itch becomes known as a leaf. 1 42" is typical. What this means is, that plain or at, quarter or half-round. The Each leaf cut from the itch is kept in for every board foot of wood, we can get sawyer then cuts the log into halves or sequential order and stacked as it was cut 42 pieces of veneer enough to cover the quarters; then it becomes known as a from the log. What is amazing about this face of a sheet of plywood plus one-third itch. A large log can produce several process is that, if the itch was 12" thick in of its back side. itches. A better denition of a itch is a solid form before cutting, the sequentially The cut of veneer just gets thinner and section of veneer log that is cut to yield stacked veneer after cutting will still be thinner. Not too long ago veneer was cut the best gure. The freshly sawn itch is 12" thick. There is no thickness lost. 1 28" thick, then the standards changed to then placed in a vat of hot water. This hot The sliced veneer is then sent one leaf 1 32", then 1 40". Today in Europe they cut bath softens the lignin, which will make at a time through a drier. It takes about veneer between 1 54" to 1 60" thick, and Ive it easier to slice (and to a small degree the 45 seconds for each leaf to pass through heard some Asian countries cut to 1 120". soaking process helps balance the sap and the oven, but once through, the veneer is The thickness of raw veneer varies from heartwood to a closer color). dry (normally around 6 to 8 percent mois- 0.019" to more than 0.025". Veneer thick- After a few days to a few weeks, depend- ture content) and ready for market. The ness can vary within the same log. ing on the species, size, hardness or thick- remarkable thing about this process is that Domestic species are sometimes cut ness, the itch will be ready to cut. The from the day a tree is cut in the woods to to different thicknesses, so maple might flitch is typically brought to the slicing the day it is ready to use as veneer could be not be cut the same as walnut, not to men- Ground to round. Within about a minute, this machine can strip the bark off a full-size log and get it Primordial pool. These deep pools of hot water ready for slicing on an enormous band saw mill. soak the logs to soften the wood for slicing. The smell is surprisingly powerful, like a primeval swamp. 40 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE October 2010 PHOTOS ON THIS SPREAD BY AL PARRISH; ILLUSTRATION BY MARY JANE FAVORITE 38-45_1010_PWM_Veneer.indd 40 7/21/10 5:47:57 PM

45 tion that each veneer mill cuts to different the majority of stock panels produced in thicknesses. Exotics or imports are differ- North America and yields the most veneer ent in thickness than domestic veneers. per log. The log is mounted in a super- What this means is, that as you match sized lathe and turned against a stationary one veneer to another, you will more than knife. The veneer comes off the blade like likely have some variances. For the most unrolling a roll of toilet paper. Because part this will not be an issue. After press- rotary cutting follows the annual growth Knife Rotary ing and sanding, those differences seem rings it creates a very broad grain pattern to go away. that doesnt look like plain or quarter-cut Keep in mind that the thinner the wood. Rotary-cut veneer is generally less veneer is cut the more fragile it will be and expensive than sliced veneer. there are risks of glue squeezing through Plain or Flat Sliced: Plain slicing (some- the thin pores. In some cases with light times referred to as at slicing) is the cut- colored wood that is quite thin, the dark ting method most often used to produce Knife Plain slicing color of the coreboard could show through veneers for quality architectural wood- the face veneer. working. Slicing is done parallel to a line through the center of the log. This cut Types of Veneer Cuts produces a combination of cathedral and The way veneer is cut can greatly affect its straight grain patterns. This is the com- appearance. Two logs of the same species mon way veneer is cut for creating both can look entirely different even though book- and slip-matching. their colors and grains are similar. In Half-rounding: Half-round cutting is a Knife Half-round slicing veneer manufacturing there are several variation of rotary cutting that produces ways veneer can be cut. The three most more of a plain-sliced cut. The itch is VENEER CUTS common ways are rotary, plain or flat mounted off-center in the lathe. The lathe sliced and half-rounding. rotates with the itch brushing against Rotary: Rotary cutting is the only cut- the stationary knife. The resulting cut best way to enhance characteristics such ting method that is capable of produc- is somewhat similar to both rotary and as birds eye and curly wood. Burls are TE ing whole-piece faces. Rotary is used in plain-sliced veneers. Half rounding is the commonly cut by half-rounding. CA SID Too fast to see. The blur on the left is a log being Almost done. Employees at Danzer Veneer in Edinburgh, Ind., inspect the leaves as they travel from the moved rapidly up and down in front of a sta- slicer to the be dried. tionary knife that is slicing off perfect leaves of veneer. popularwoodworking.com 41 38-45_1010_PWM_Veneer.indd 41 7/21/10 5:48:11 PM

46 Unique Veneers still have well over a thousand square feet ity of each itch depending on the over- Veneer has natural characteristics that of veneer. all size, natural defects, milling defects, are sometimes considered aws but when Also remember that a itch is shaped color, demand and overall appearance. cut and sequenced together create some like a half of a log, so you will be buying The manufacturer can pretty much give beautiful and unique effects. veneer where each leaf will be a little wider each flitch any grade value they deem A common fallacy is to refer to the word than the one next to it. Fortunately there accurate, and it is then sold to distribu- grain as a way of describing how the are several small distributors who pur- tors or retailers. wood looks. Actually grain is the way to chase from the manufacturers and break In other words, the distributors or describe the natural arrangement of the the flitches into bundles or individual retailers can negotiate what they want to wood bers in relation to the main axis of leaves. There are a lot of these companies pay, and like a used-car salesman the manu- the tree. The correct term when trying to around and a Google search will help you facturers will nd a deal that ts their bud- identify the characteristic of the natural nd a company in your area. Probably one gets. Once a distributor or retailer buys a features of wood is to use the word gure. of the most reputable companies is Cer- itch to resell, they have the option to give Veneer is the best way to showcase specic tainly Wood in East Aurora, N.Y. any grade they want to each leaf. Grading gure considerations such as curly, spiral, Always be specic when purchasing becomes arbitrary to the seller. What hap- quilted, wavy, straight, cross, quartered, veneer. Ask for a certain size, both length pens is these guys buy specic itches and rift and diagonal. Other terms for veneers and width, and try to dene the type of g- pull out the wider pieces and give them can sometimes be confusing and need to ure and color you are looking for. Remem- one price while placing a lesser value on be better dened, including crotch, burl, ber that you always want sequenced veneer narrower or less desirable pieces. butt, mottled, birds eye, beeswing, ddle- from the same itch. Usually the leaf pack- This is why you will nd a great deal of back, blistered or quilted to name a few. ets cut from each flitch get bundled in variance from one retailer to another on It is also important to understand what groupings of 24 or 32 sheets. If you are pur- both price and quality. Always buy veneer reconstituted veneers are. chasing veneers such as burls and crotches from a company that offers complete cus- you might ask for conditioned veneer or tomer satisfaction. Remember that veneer Purchasing Veneer the attest that they have on hand. (like lumber) is a natural product with Like anything, buying in volume is the complex and varied properties. What way to go. However, the manufacturers Veneer Grading you think cherry should look like might of veneer will not sell you one leaf at a Most people assume that veneer has the be different from what the retailer has. It time. Several years ago some of the larger same grading standard as solid wood, but might be a good idea to ask your retailer manufacturers would sell veneer only by that is not the case. For example, veneer to send you a photo before you make your the container. Today buying veneer is a does not follow the normal nomenclature purchase. bit easier and some manufacturers will of lumber such as select and better, face sell a log or sometimes even an individual and better, No. 1 common and so on. Handling & Storage itch at a time. Be aware that a itch can The manufacturers decide the qual- When you get your veneers they will be shipped either at or rolled. If they come rolled up, unroll them as soon as you get them. If they remain rolled up they will take on a rolled or curved shape. This will not hurt the veneer, but it will make cut- ting and taping more of a challenge. Inspect each sheet for shipping prob- lems, natural flaws or manufacturing defects. Although veneer is lightweight it is always a good idea to have someone help you handle long pieces even if it is just one leaf. I use a piece of chalk to number each piece as they were stacked to remind me of the correct sequence. It is also a good idea to tape the ends of each individual leaf to help keep it from tearing with the grain. It is essential to handle veneer as little as possible. Each time veneer gets handled there is a risk of splitting. Veneer is best stored in a at position with some kind of weight on top. The envi- ronment should be well ventilated, con- Unroll and use. Veneer typically comes rolled up or at. If its rolled, you should unroll it as soon as you sistent in temperature and relatively dry can. Here Zane Powell (right) gives the author a hand with some walnut veneer. (around 70 percent humidity). If possible, CONTINUED ON PAGE 44 42 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE October 2010 PHOTO BY AL PARRISH 38-45_1010_PWM_Veneer.indd 42 7/21/10 5:48:24 PM

47 Common Veneer Figure Fiddleback Birds Eye Butt or Stump Fiddleback gets its name from its custom- This delightful gure is self explanatory. Birds Butt or stump wood typically comes from ary use on the back of ddles. Fiddleback eye is most commonly found in maple but the base or stump of a tree, sometimes the is typically cut from quarter-cut wood with sometimes occurs in other species. Wood area below ground level. The bers are straight grain, which helps the stripes to run with birds eye is usually rotary cut, which twisted and tend to wrinkle, which gives a nearly perpendicular to the main gure. helps distribute the birds eyes more uni- wavy or rippled marking. This gives the stripe an almost continuous formly. Birds eye is graded according to the line from one edge to the other. density of the gure in a specic area. Mottled Quilted Beeswing Mottled gure is a wrinkly and almost Quilted and blistered gure are very similar. It Beeswing is very similar to the mottled blotchy appearance. It features a great con- is commonly found in mahogany and maple effect. This gure resembles a beeswing trast of light and dark areas. It can often be and is best known for its three-dimensional and can be found in almost any species, scattered randomly and often resembles a effect. It almost looks like a plume of billow- but satinwood is one of the most common checkerboard pattern. ing smoke that is bulging out. woods for beeswing patterns. Burl Crotch Reconstituted Veneer Burls are large, wart-like growths on A crotch is the part of the tree just under a Reconstituted veneer (or composite either the lower part of the tree close to fork, branch or split where the main branch veneer) is created by rotary slicing inex- the ground or on the trunk of a tree. These joins the trunk. During growth the tree bers pensive logs from fast-growing trees, are usually caused by an injury under the begin to suffer from reaction to either com- then bleaching, dyeing and gluing slices bark, which makes the cells divide and pression or tension caused by the weight together over unique molds or shapes to grow excessively. Burls create beautiful of the limb. The result is a very distinctive create big blocks with specic shapes. wood and have the appearance of tightly ame or feather gure that is elliptical These blocks are then re-sliced, re-glued clustered dormant buds, each with a darker in outline but with a strong central plume. In and re-cut to create imitations of patterns pith. Burls really dont have grain direc- ne furniture this ame is usually inverted so from natural wood. They are remarkable in tion like typical wood, which causes them that it appears upside down from the position how close they come to the original species to ripple and distort. Most burls need to that it grew in the tree. they are intended to match. This veneer is be conditioned (attened) before they are somewhat brittle, which makes it a chal- cut. It is also typical for burls to have knots, lenge to cut. Because of the glue used in the cracks and lots of voids that will need to be manufacturing, it can resist stain, and it is patched or repaired. difcult to achieve book and slip matches. FIGURED VENEER SAMPLES COURTESY OF CERTAINLY WOOD, INC. AT WWW.CERTAINLYWOOD.COM; PHOTOS BY AMANDA DUMAS popularwoodworking.com 43 38-45_1010_PWM_Veneer.indd 43 7/21/10 5:48:35 PM

48 CONTINUED FROM PAGE 42 try to wrap your veneer with dark plastic, the conditioning process. Conditioning is clamp it overnight. It might be a good idea such as a trash bag. This will help keep the process of taking veneer that is buck- to put some paper towels between each the veneer at a constant moisture content led, wavy or overly dry and restoring it to a piece of veneer to help pull the additional while protecting it from the environment. at, smooth workable condition. There are moisture out of the veneer. Light can quickly discolor veneer, so at all two common ways to atten veneers one This a temporary way to make veneers costs keep your veneer away from win- is temporary the other is permanent. at. The attening effect will last only long dows or certain types of house lights. Method 1: For veneers that have a slight enough to get the veneer cut to size, glued wave or buckle, you can just use a spray to the core and stuck in the press. Flattening Veneer bottle with distilled water and lightly spray Method 2: For those veneers that are Just like solid wood, veneers can have at- it on both sides (do not soak the wood). brittle, buckled or cracking (typically ness issues. With solid wood the tech- You can then use an iron on a medium set- burls and crotches) a sizing solution can nique to make boards at is through the ting and iron the veneer at. Or better yet, be made and applied that will help to at- milling process; with veneer it is through just put it between two caul boards and ten and soften veneers for an indenite period of time. There are a lot of variations of this solution, but they all do basically Mix and brush. Sizing the same thing. solution helps atten My solution consists of distilled water, your veneers and keep white glue, glycerin and denatured alco- them that way. Mix the hol. Once it is mixed the solution will have ingredients (right), then brush the solution on a shelf life of a few weeks, so it might be both faces of every leaf best to throw out what you dont use and (below). mix new next time you need it. I use white glue because it adds additional strength to the veneer bers, and once the sized veneer is attened, the glue will help keep it at. White glue also dries clear, so it will not color the veneer as yellow glue and resin glues will. Glycerin is hygroscopic and will help 44 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE October 2010 PHOTOS ON THIS SPREAD BY AL PARRISH 38-45_1010_PWM_Veneer.indd 44 7/21/10 5:48:48 PM

49 soften the veneer, make it pliable and help should feel somewhat dry and quite pli- keep it from cracking. Do not use too much THE MIX able within that amount of time. If I am glycerin it ultimately can affect the glue- 4 parts distilled water attening several pieces of veneer, I will ability of the sized veneer. (Glycerin is 1 part white glue do them all at the same time. available at any pharmacy or tractor sup- The sized veneer needs to be pressed. 1 part denatured alcohol ply store that sells animal supplies.) Dis- 1 2 part glycerin However, if you put the veneer in the tilled water thins the glue and helps the press in stacks you will do an excellent solution draw into the bers of the veneer. job of gluing together a stack of veneer. Denatured alcohol acts as an emulsier (Remember the sizing solution has glue between the white glue and the glycerin. in it.) It might be a good idea to get some Denatured alcohol also helps the solution veneer with the sizing solution. It might berglass screen material and, for their dry faster. be a good idea to use clothespins and hang rst six hours in the press, sandwich each Thoroughly mix all ingredients. The the veneer to let the solution penetrate for piece of veneer in the following arrange- mixture should be used cold. Use a spray about 30 minutes. This will also help the ment: paper towel, screen, veneer, screen, bottle or brush to cover both sides of the alcohol and water begin to dry. The veneer paper towel, screen, veneer, screen, paper towel and so on. It would be a good idea to change out Press at. Layer the the paper towel in the press every two sized veneer with ber- hours. This will help draw more mois- glass screen and paper ture from the veneer and help the glue towels (right). Then use dry. After about six hours in the press, cauls and clamps to press the sandwich at remove the screens and paper but its (below). still a good idea to separate each layer of veneer with a piece of plastic. (Avoid using waxed paper because under pressure some of the wax could transfer into the pores of the veneer, which could cause gluing problems down the line.) Place the veneer back into the press and let it sit for at least 24 more hours. If after that time the veneer still feels wet, keep it in the press until it is dry to the touch. By the end of this process, your veneer will be at, smooth and ready to turn into works of art. PWM Marc is the founder of The Marc Adams School of Woodworking (marcadams.com), North Americas largest woodworking school. You can send him an e-mail at [email protected] u Go Online FOR MORE Youll nd links to all these online extras at: u popularwoodworking.com/oct10 VIDEO: Watch a video tour of our visit to the David R. Webb Veneer Mill. BLOG: Read Robert W. Langs blog entries about his visit to a veneer mill. WEB SITE: Visit the web site for the Marc Adams School of Woodworking. TO BUY: Get veneer from Certainly Wood. IN OUR STORE: The Woodworkers Guide to Veneering & Inlay. All of our products are available online at: u WoodworkersBookShop.com popularwoodworking.com 45 38-45_1010_PWM_Veneer.indd 45 7/27/10 4:50:07 PM

50 Magobeis Dining Table: Part 2 B Y T O S H I O O DAT E The fear of a sagging tabletop leads to a solution that incorporates Western joints and Japanese aesthetics. M any countries have their own woodwork i ng t r ad it ion s, which are often a combination of mythology and ideology. The Japanese are no exception, and those traditions are part of the foundation of my work. There is a temple that ancient Japanese carpenters built. Its columns, hewn from trees, are positioned as when each was a standing tree. That is, the south side of the standing tree, when used as a column, also faces the south. Though the trees south side has more knots, period Japanese carpenters believed that, if these trees had faced the sun for 1,000 years, as columns they would stand another 1,000 years if positioned the same. Joinery-palooza! By itself, the table highlights many seldom-seen joinery details. With the addition of Japanese woodworkers also try not the drawer frame and drawer joinery (including the author's unique technique for drawer dovetails and stacked mortise-and-tenon joints), this project could be used to illustrate a joinery encyclopedia. to use wood upside down, even on small objects. And the heart side of the wood should always face the inside of a carcase or object. As a result, Japanese carpenters Completing the Base did most of Part 1 of this article in the do not bookmatch material. Even for table The Magobeis table was still upside down August 2010 issue), Laure Olender, sawed legs, the core side should face the inside. on the horses with the sliding beams pro- all four ends ush with the tables edge. I follow these traditions as much as truding from the table. My assistant (who She chamfered the corners and planed possible, especially the ideology used the end grain. to indicate the two lives of a tree. Today, The dovetail joints t tightly into the when making a sculpture or cabinet, I use Problems are to the mind what top, but I noticed a hairline crack on the materials that mostly come from my sur- bottom face of the top. Laure inlaid a small roundings. There must be a strong reason exercise is to the muscles; they oak buttery across it. The top face had to make an exception. toughen and make strong. a couple wider splits, so again buttery I dont just hope I carefully construct Norman Vincent Peale (1898 - 1993) inlay was used one inlay bridged two a table to exist at least 300 years. American Protestant clergyman and writer small cracks. 46 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE October 2010 PHOTOS BY LAURE OLENDER; ILLUSTRATIONS BY ROBERT W. LANG 46-51_1010_PWM_AshTable_Pt2.indd46 46 7/21/10 5:50:01 PM

51 We sharpened the power planer blades for the nal touch up. Laure then used a palm sander and three sanding grits for the nal preparation. The table was wiped with a dry cloth before a coat of Danish oil was applied. The table was beautiful and elegant. We were satised and Laure was happy. Concern About a Design Flaw A few days later, I studied the table, and one concern came to mind. This top is Long-lasting joinery. The center dividers join the about 33" wide, 2" thick and 108" long. rails with wedged mortise-and-tenon joints. The Between the legs there is about 73". With top tenon, to be pared ush after the wedges are time, the middle might sag. But I did not installed, extends above the rail while the bottom want to add a brace. tenon is blind wedged a technical joint that is A week passed and my concern became as strong as a tree. Built for strength. Three pieces stack to make up serious. I decided to put drawers below the center rail. The top piece has twin tenons, the the top the frame would keep it from middle piece has two tenons that stack vertically sagging. At rst, Laure thought it might drawers. Here were the challenges: I did and the bottom piece has only one tenon, and destroy the tables elegance. But she real- not want destroy the elegant look; a person that single tenon is blind-wedged. ized there was not much of a choice. While should be able to sit comfortably with his her work on the table was perfect and the legs below; and the drawer frame struc- result beautiful, there was work to do. ture needed to be designed. Here were my solutions: The drawers are constructed Double-duty Added Structure with Western joints but should simulate It was difcult to design the drawer struc- traditional Japanese design; all the parts ture, as the table was not made to have should come from the exact same tree; and the drawer handles should be hand- forged in a Japanese style. I want this table to last at least 300 years. In traditional Japanese woodwork- ing, nails were used to fasten most draw- ers, even the large chest of drawers known as tansu. However, tansu were made out of paulownia, a soft wood that has Great grasp. A properly t mortise-and-tenon joint is very strong. The center-rail-to-end-rail no strength to hold metal nails. Japanese joinery has ve such joints. woodworkers used tapered wooden nails made of Japanese boxwood; rice glue held the nails in place. (One of the greatest enemies for wood is metal rust. If I have to use metal, I choose stainless steel.) For that reason, I used joinery to secure the structure of the drawer frame instead of nails or screws. Building the Frame The drawer frame is a series of multiple- piece rails connected with mortise-and- tenon joints. The two outside rails have top and bottom pieces separated with ve short dividers per rail. The center three dividers are set with the wide faces par- Old-school x. Any small hairline cracks in the allel to the rails while the end dividers tabletop are bridged with inlaid butteries. On Four-pronged support. The end rails of the are perpendicular to the rails. The center the bottom face of the tabletop, we use a match- drawer frame not only attach to the dividers with ing hardwood, but any splits in the top face are dividers have wedged through-tenons at mortise and tenons, the ends are notched to t xed with a contrasting wood. (We used purple- the top, and blind, wedged tenons at the around the top and bottom pieces and the rail is heart.) bottom. The end pieces have blind tenons tenoned into those pieces for additional support. popularwoodworking.com 47 46-51_1010_PWM_AshTable_Pt2.indd47 47 7/21/10 5:50:14 PM

52 34" 5" 314" 1" 17" 112" 34" 74" FRONT VIEW Its stronger than the rest. The design of the support is such that a portion Its an easy x. Because drawer runners receive a good deal of wear, it is actually rests on the bottom piece of the outer rail. Along with the mortise- advisable to allow for simple replacement. The runners are held to a support and-tenon joinery, this rail has added support. with stainless steel screws, no glue. at both the top and bottom that are held last, it is important to allow for the replace- tenon joints. Each support piece begins as with glue only, no wedges. ment of those runners. For that reason, a length of stock that is 2" wide and 15 8" The center rail is made from three the runners are attached with screws, and thick. The sides of the support are rab- pieces that, when assembled, form an I- if you carefully align the holes, the rst beted, leaving a 1 4" x 1 4" ledge to locate beam. The center part is attached to the x is simply to ip each runner then re- the runners. upper and lower pieces with a sliding install the screws. The photo above shows how the sup- dovetail across the length of the rail, and The runners at the end of the drawer port ts to the front-rail assembly. Each each end is t into the end rails with two frame are attached directly to the end interior support tenons into the bottom tenons. rails. The interior runners are attached piece of the outer rail, then a portion of the The upper piece of the center rail is to support pieces that t between the outer support ts on top of that rail and tight to attached to the end rail with a pair of split rails and the center rail. These supports the divider, where a small tenon ts into tenons, one on each side of the sliding- are joined to the rails with mortise-and- the divider. Each support is t to the cen- dovetail socket. The bottom rail has a sin- ter rail in the same way, except the upper gle tenon t to the end rail; blind wedges tenon slips into the center part of that rail. hold the joint secure. After the drawer runners are cut to size The two end rails are mortised to accept and attached to the supports, the entire the center rails tenons, and they have ten- drawer frame is attached to the underside ons that t into mortises in the end pieces of the tabletop with screws. of the outer rails. The end rails are also notched to t around the outer rails top On to the Drawers and bottom pieces, and tenons are formed For these drawers, I decided to use hidden on the end rails to t matching mortises dovetails. Hidden dovetail joints for din- in those pieces. Dry-t these joints, but ing table drawers? One might consider this do not yet glue them up. overkill. However, I have good reasons. First, Japanese woodworkers usually Drawer Guides With a Twist hide joints. For example, they mostly use Study ancient furniture with drawers and This looks familiar. The dovetail sockets on the blind mortises for interior work (although you will see that the drawer runners show drawer fronts begin as if the drawers were of a they would use through-mortises for an most of the wear. To help make this table lipped design. exterior door). Also, they hide intricate 48 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE October 2010 46-51_1010_PWM_AshTable_Pt2.indd48 48 7/21/10 5:50:27 PM

53 Mr. Ash People dont like to cut down a tree, especially an old one. Owners devise ways to keep the tree from falling. Even- tually, if the tree dies or becomes haz- ardous, people agree to cut it down. Small branches are chipped; thicker branches become rewood. However, most people, because of the respect for its age, size, or because the tree carries memories, want something special done with the main part of the tree. As a youth, I was taught to respect a tree as material for woodworking. Occa- sionally, people would call and say, I have just cut down a large tree. It would be a shame to cut it up for rewood. If EXPLODED VIEW you can use it, you can have it. They wish to preserve the spiritual and physi- cal richness of the old tree. I have heard the story and history of many trees and have developed an Ash Table Drawer Frame & Drawers attitude toward the aging of an old tree. I imagine their knowledge, experience, NO. ITEM DIMENSIONS (INCHES) MATERIAL COMMENTS T W L wisdom, character and dignity. Any- thing that I make from them, no matter DRAWER FRAME whether it is something large or small, is done with the greatest deliberation and 2 Outer rail bottoms 1 112 74 Ash attention. 2 Outer rail tops 3 4 2 74 Ash Some time ago, I met with a man to 6 Center dividers 1 112 434 Ash 34" TBE* look at an ash tree that had fallen during 4 End dividers 3 4 1 412 Ash 12" TBE a storm. The large ash tree was lying qui- 1 Center rail top 3 4 3 7334 Ash 58 " TBE etly, and already many kinds of bushes were blanketing its surface. The tree 1 Center rail bottom 1 2 7334 Ash 58 " TBE weighed several tons as it fell, it must 1 Center rail middle 1 378 7312 Ash 12" TBE have shaken the entire forest. When it 2 End rails 3 4 5 2712 Ash 34" TBE fell, part of the forest oor was ripped, 6 Runner supports 158 2 13 Ash 14" TBE leaving a giant scar on the ground. The 16 Drawer runners 12 3 4 1138 Ash tree appeared to have been peacefully sleeping on the forest oor for centuries. DRAWERS The bark looked very healthy; on it 8 Fronts 78 314 17 Ash 14 " x 58" RBE** many vines were clinging tightly. About 58 20' up from the roots a large branch 16 Sides 314 12 Ash 38 " x 58" ROE stretched out to the left, and almost 8 Backs 58 212 1612 Ash immediately thereafter another branch 8 Bottoms 14 1134 1612 Ash directed my eye up to the right. I call 32 Geta 14 3 4 78 Ash it a branch, but it was almost 30" in diameter. The midsection of the tree was * TBE = Tenon both ends; ** Rabbet both ends; Rabbet one end easily 5' in diameter. I estimated it was 250 years old. The lower portion of the tree was rotten and its underside had little bark. I suspected that side had no usable wood. corner joints. As a result, only a miter line viewed from the side, there is no visible I examined the tree a little longer. or shoulder line is visible. dovetail. The tails that t into the sockets Finally, I climbed on it and walked toward the end. I felt as if I were crossing Second, the outward appearance of are blind, too. It is more detailed work, but a large log bridge above a deep valley. I my new-style drawer (which I think I will the look mimics Japanese construction. could not see the ground. Overwhelmed mostly make from now on) is similar to For the drawer back, I also did not want by its mass and long life with hidden a traditional Japanese drawer it looks to use nails. I used a sliding dovetail. I knowledge and wisdom, I decided to like simple rabbet-joint construction, just notched the leading edge of the tail and name the tree Mr. Ash. I felt a strong urge to preserve all of its character and without the wooden nails. slid it into the socket from the bottom the dignity. I would make as many things as I The drawer fronts are lipped at the groove for the drawer bottom is 3 8" deep could, large and small, while celebrating ends and dovetail sockets are cut just as to allow access. The dovetail socket stops this tree with joy. The Magobeis dining you would see on Western drawers. about 1 4" from the top edge. In that way, table is from this ash tree. TO Its the drawer sides that differ. When you see only the shoulder line. popularwoodworking.com 49 46-51_1010_PWM_AshTable_Pt2.indd49 49 7/21/10 5:50:39 PM

54 The bottom panels grain is parallel to the front face of the drawer. The panel is glued into a groove in the drawer front. In the event the panel shrinks, it would do so from the back edge toward the front. I hold this panel with two screws into the drawer back, set into 3 8"-long slits to allow the panel to move. I added two geta to each drawer side to protect against wear (see Geta: A Life Extended on next page). These are Heres the difference. Take a close look at Slide & hide. The rear of the drawer is also a tapered sliding dovetails tapped in from the drawer sides. The tails of the sides are not dovetail connection, but it is a sliding joint. The the outside and glued. They are ushed through-cut, so when the sides join to the drawer dovetail on the drawer back ts into a stop-cut with the outside edge of the drawer side. By fronts, the t is ush to the edge of the fronts. socket in the drawer side. As a result, the joint sliding the geta in from the outside (with appears as a simple butt joint. the taper facing the inside), the pieces stay in place if the materials shrink. Hardware & Finish Completed After the drawers are constructed, we decide on the hardware design. The design is distinctly Japanese. The pulls feature a traditional installation method. The han- dle is centered and small holes are drilled for the cotter pin fasteners. Before I install the pulls, a coat of Danish oil was applied to the drawer fronts. With the frame and drawers assembled and ready to use, I dont worry about the top sagging. The drawer frame adds sup- port, and the drawers are useful. The table remains beautiful and elegant. PWM As an author, lecturer and teacher, Toshio has been pivotal in spreading knowledge about Japanese tools and woodworking techniques throughout the Western world. He is a sculptor, woodworker, former professor at Pratt Institute, and the author of Japanese Woodworking Tools: Their Tradition, Spirit and Use Boxes are built. Solid wood drawer bottoms adjust with the seasons. Align the grain to run side-to-side (Linden) and Making Shoji (Linden). and glue the bottom to the drawer front to force any movement toward the back. The bottom has two screws (set in slots to allow movement) to keep the bottom from sagging. u Go Online FOR MORE Youll nd links to all these online extras at: u popularwoodworking.com/oct10 VIDEO: Learn to calculate the sizes of the drawer parts needed for your project. ARTICLE: Discover how to sharpen your chisels properly from long-time sharpener and author Ron Hock. WEB SITE: Study the Tansu style and read about the history of the Japanese chest. TO BUY: Purchase a set of Japanese chisels and other woodworking tools. IN OUR STORE: Pick up The Drawer Book for information about drawer construction. All of our products are available online at: Goodbye concerns. Not only does the drawer frame reduce the potential for the large tabletop to sag, u WoodworkersBookShop.com the drawers, with the appearance of Japanese construction and Western joinery, add valuable storage. 50 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE October 2010 46-51_1010_PWM_AshTable_Pt2.indd50 50 7/21/10 5:50:51 PM

55 Geta: A Life Extended A fter studying sliding doors in Japanese furniture, I considered how to use geta small dovetailed pieces that reduce wear in door rails in drawer construction. This drawer construction technique is a new idea. The pieces are easy to make and once installed, they increase the longevity of the drawer sides through reduced wear. Drawers ride on the geta made from a denser lumber and that keeps the sides from wearing prematurely. TO 1 Custom miter box. A simple miter box makes sawing the geta quick. Clipped small brads act as feet to hold the jig in place. 2 Repetitive cuts. With the saw kerf made to the layout line, its easy to produce the needed number of geta, four per drawer. 3 Consistency is best. Set up and cut the pieces close in size. While its not neces- sary to get them exact, large variations within 4 Accuracy counts. Because the individual pieces may vary in length, its best to mark each socket using the geta that is to t the socket. 5 A second jig. Use the miter box to make a layout jig. Due to the number of lines needed, a jig increases your accuracy as you the drawer would become apparent. Square the lines across the drawer sides. transfer the lines to the drawer side faces. 6 Proper plan- ning. It is easier to saw the sockets (taper pointing toward the drawer inside) without the drawer bottom in position. However, I developed the idea after the drawer boxes were completed. I also would change the location for the drawer bottom groove to provide for a thicker geta if I were beginning the drawer construction process. 7 Opening the socket. Careful paring with your chisel opens the socket. Check the t of the geta often to achieve a snug t. 9 Installation is complete. The relationship of the geta to the drawer box is shown here. Because they are made from lum- ber that is more hard- wearing than the drawer sides, this small addition allows the drawer to function properly for a longer period of time. 8 Assembly. Add glue before seating the tight-tting geta into the drawer side. Installed from the outside face, the geta stays put even if the drawer parts shrink. popularwoodworking.com 51 46-51_1010_PWM_AshTable_Pt2.indd51 51 7/21/10 5:51:04 PM

56 Where Does the Glue Go? B Y R O B E R T W. L A N G Thirst, not starvation, leads to weak glue joints. O n my first day on the job as an apprentice cabinetmaker, my task was to glue together radiator pan- els for an ofce building. Two sticks of solid wood with tongues on one edge t into grooves on the edges of veneered MDF pan- els. Eager to show that I wasnt a complete boob, I said, The glue should squeeze out so I know I have enough, right? The cabinetmaker training me looked me up and down and said, The glue should almost squeeze out. I thought he was asking for the impossible as I set to work. There were a lot of panels to practice on, and plenty of time to think. Six weeks and 1,300 panels later, I was done. I got pretty good at laying down a bead of glue How not how much. Roughly equal amounts of glue were used in each of these joints. The difference that just barely squeezed from the joint between them is in how the glue was applied. and every now and then I hit the almost squeeze out target. Most of my motivation to apply the bility, I would put a joint together then almost always spread glue on both surfaces perfect amount of glue came from deal- take it apart to see where the glue was. If of a joint with an acid brush. ing with the consequences of too much I saw glue on both surfaces I was happy; Both Glen and I have been around long glue patches that wouldnt take stain the joint would hold and I wouldnt have enough to be set in our ways, but we each due to wiping off the excess with a wet a mess to clean up. recognize that in woodworking there are rag or chips in the veneer from scraping My methods were successful. I cant usually several acceptable ways to accom- off little beads that I allowed to dry on remember having a joint fail for want of plish any task. Glen made me wonder if the surface. glue. Most of my experience is in produc- there was an advantage to brushing glue Over the years, I applied this principle tion work, where time is money. I wasnt inside a mortise, or if he was taking more to all my joinery. I read magazine arti- wasting time brushing glue on every pos- time than necessary. cles recommending the use of copious sible surface before assembly and I wasnt Think of what he could accomplish amounts of glue to avoid starving the spending time cleaning up after. But was with the time saved by simply squirt- joint. When I worried about that possi- I doing the best work possible? ing glue in a mortise and moving on, as I did. So, I set up an experiment to prove Enter Glen the Careful Gluer him wrong. I prepared a piece of wood I share the magazine workshop with peo- with three mortises, then sliced off one Nothing is softer or more flexible ple whose work I admire, even though they face of the board and attached a piece of than water, yet nothing can resist it. use different techniques. When Senior Plexiglas. That way we could see what Lao Tzu (6th century BCE) Editor Glen D. Huey joined us, I noticed happened when the joint was glued and founder of Taoism he had a different approach to gluing. He a tenon inserted. 52 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE October 2010 LEAD PHOTO BY AL PARRISH; ILLUSTRATIONS & STEP PHOTOS BY THE AUTHOR 52-53_1010_PWM_WhereGlueGoes.ind52 52 7/21/10 5:52:16 PM

57 A Great & Noble Experiment One mortise would be glued with my method, one with Glens and we decided to apply glue to the tenon alone for the third method. We set up our still and video cameras to record what happened. I squirted a bead of glue on each edge of the rst mortise, inserted the tenon, then handed the glue bottle to Glen. Glen squirted glue in the mortise, then Saturation is the secret. Moisture in water-based glue penetrates the surface of wood. The joint at the with a brush spread the glue on the mortise left shows assembly from two dry components; the glue migrates away from the joint line. Spread glue sides and the tenon before he assembled with a brush and give it a few seconds to soak in for an effective bond, as seen in the illustration at right. the joint. I put a bead of glue on the last tenon and inserted it. This last joint was obviously not as well glued; the rim of the like sponge than stone. Water-based glues lance, and it allows the glue to distribute mortise scraped off most of the glue as the work by soaking into the surface to bond evenly when components are joined. On tenon went past, pushing it to the shoulder with the wood bers. Glue on one piece assembly, the glue on the wetted surfaces where a lot of it squeezed out. combines with those bers and with a lm combines and forms a superior bond. The other two joints looked remarkably of glue on the adjacent piece. It takes time The amount of time it takes for wetting similar; glue covered the Plexiglas thor- for the water in the glue to carry the other is only a few seconds, and the difference oughly and a small amount squeezed out at components into the wood. in the amount of glue used is small. My the shoulder. It appeared that both meth- This absorption takes place whether or glue joint wasnt starved, it was thirsty. ods worked and that brushing only added not the two surfaces are in intimate con- My method essentially spread glue on the time to the process without any added tact. It isnt clamp pressure that forces glue mortise and the tenon at the same time; benet. We went to lunch and returned into the cellular structure of the wood, its both parts were dry enough to absorb glue to see what the joints looked like after the the same process that takes place when away from the contact area. glue had dried. you throw a pile of sawdust on a puddle on For optimum glue joints, you dont need After an hour, there was an obvious the oor. The water takes the easy route, a lot of glue, but you should spread the glue difference. The brushed joint had an even soaking in where it can. evenly on both surfaces before assembly lm of dried glue visible on the entire sur- If there isnt a good lm of glue on a and clamping. You can aim for an amount face of the tenon. My joint, where the glue joints surface at the start, the glue that is of glue that will almost squeeze out. Add- had been applied as a bead, had a much present will likely migrate to the interior ing excess glue wont guarantee anything thinner lm. In some places it looked as of the wood, away from the joint. except a mess to clean up. But a few extra if the glue had disappeared entirely from Thats what happened to my mortise. seconds spent spreading glue on mating the tenons surface. A surface that looked completely covered surfaces will guarantee a better joint. lost a lot of glue and a lot of glue strength As I mentioned earlier, Ive never had Where Did the Glue Go? while we ate lunch. Brushing glue on a mortise-and-tenon joint fail, but this A piece of wood may appear solid, but at both surfaces of the other joint saturated simple test convinced me that Ive been a microscopic level, its surface is more them. This is called wetting in glue par- lucky. From now on, Ill take a little more time and brush on the glue. PWM Bob is executive editor of Popular Woodworking Magazine; he owes senior editor Glen D. Huey lunch. u Go Online FOR MORE Youll nd links to all these online extras at: u popularwoodworking.com/oct10 VIDEO: Three methods for gluing mortises compared. BLOG: Read Bound Up On the Topic of Glue. IN OUR STORE: Glue and Clamps (Missing Shop Manual). All wet. When a joint is rst assembled, the glue Moisture migration. Within moments glue is All of our products are available online at: spreads into any available space, whether it was absorbed into the surrounding wood. In this u WoodworkersBookShop.com brushed or not, as shown here in our rst of unbrushed joint the glue moves into the surface several tests. of the dry tenon. popularwoodworking.com 53 52-53_1010_PWM_WhereGlueGoes.ind53 53 7/21/10 5:52:29 PM

58 F L E X N E R O N F I N I S H I N G BY BOB FLEXNER Optimize a Spray Gun A simple test reveals ideal pressure for atomization. S pray guns can run off a compressor or a turbine. With turbines the air pressure is established by the number of stages, usually two, three or four. Each stage corresponds to about 2 pounds per square inch (PSI). This seems ineffectively low, but its made up for by Dots. One method of optimizing the air pressure to a spray gun is to increase the pressure until the dots a huge volume of air, giving rise to the name at the edges of the pattern no longer get smaller. Increasing the PSI beyond this point only increases High-Volume Low-Pressure (HVLP). bounce-back. The air pressure on the left spray burst is 20 PSI at the regulator. The air pressure on the With compressors you have an infinite right spray burst is 50 PSI. The dots at the edges of the right pattern are signicantly smaller and also range of pressures you can use, and it is up to more uniform in size than the dots at the edges of the left pattern. you to set this pressure so your spray gun is optimized for the best possible atomization. If you use too little pressure, you wont get the best atomization; youll get orange peel. If you set the pressure too high, youll waste nish or stain because of excessive bounce-back. How to Determine Ideal Pressure Some spray gun and finish manufacturers provide a suggested air pressure for their prod- ucts, and you may nd this works just ne for you. But there are many variables manufactur- ers cant take into account. These include the actual nish or stain youre using if the sug- gestion comes from a spray-gun supplier, how much thinner youve added, the length of your air hose, and a particularly critical variable for home shops temperature variations (liquids become thicker in cooler temperatures and require more pressure to atomize). In addition, manufacturer-suggested pres- Pattern. A second and often more obvious method of optimizing the air pressure to a spray gun is to sures often dont specify whether they are mea- increase the pressure until the pattern no longer gets wider. When the pattern is right, the pressure is right. This picture shows increasing the air pressure in 10-PSI increments from 20 PSI at the regulator sured at the compressors regulator, the guns to 60 PSI at the regulator. The pattern doesnt get wider from 50 PSI to 60 PSI, so spraying above 50 PSI air inlet or at the air cap. doesnt improve atomization. It just wastes nish material due to excessive bounce-back. Fifty PSI, or just In order to adjust the pressure at the air a little less, is therefore the optimum air pressure to use with this gun and nish material at these tem- inlet or air cap, you need a pressure gauge that perature conditions. CONTINUED ON PAGE 56 54 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE October 2010 PHOTOS BY THE AUTHOR 54-59_1010_PWM_Flexner.indd 54 7/22/10 10:22:16 AM

59 For more information, go to PWFREEINFO.COM. For more information, go to PWFREEINFO.COM. If you are in a woodworking business this could be the Incredibly accurate most valuable tool in your officesm. Please call 1-800-321-9841 for your 800 page catalog. Mention code pw10 FREE to woodworking businesses. visit us at pro.woodworker.com/pw10 For more information, go to PWFREEINFO.COM. For more information, go to PWFREEINFO.COM. For more information, go to PWFREEINFO.COM. For more information, go to PWFREEINFO.COM. For more information, go to PWFREEINFO.COM. 54-59_1010_PWM_Flexner.indd 55 7/22/10 10:22:28 AM

60 F L E X N E R O N F I N I S H I N G CONTINUED FROM PAGE 54 increments of 10 PSI and spraying short bursts. Each time you increase the pressure the pat- tern will get wider and the dots at the edges of the pattern will get smaller. Its important to hold the gun at the same distance from the target for each burst. The easy way to do this is to open your hand fully, placing the tip of your little nger against the target and the tip of your thumb against the air cap on the gun. Then spray each burst at this distance, which is about 8". Pressure gauges. Optimizing can also be done Regulator. Both methods of optimizing the air When you reach a pressure that doesnt using a pressure gauge attached to the air-inlet pressure to a spray gun can be done with just nipple at the bottom of the guns handle, but no widen the pattern from the previous one and a regulator, which is attached to smaller, por- advantage is gained over simply using the regula- table compressors and is mounted on the wall doesnt make the dots smaller, youve gone too tor. To determine if you are complying with the with larger, stationary compressors. This picture far. Youve achieved the best atomization, but HVLP standard of not exceeding 10 PSI at the air shows air and moisture lters along with the wall- youre now wasting material because more cap, you will need a special air cap and attached mounted regulator. than necessary is bouncing back. air pressure gauge. So reduce the air pressure to the previous setting or a little further to just before the attaches to these locations. Many spray gun pattern shrinks and the dots become larger. If you should want a wider fan pattern for manufacturers supply an inlet air gauge with This is the optimum setting for the vis- spraying large surfaces, youll need to get a their gun. But the more accurate measurement cosity of the material you are spraying in the larger uid nozzle and needle. Then go through is made at the air cap. Unlike the more generic current temperature conditions. Heres your the optimization procedure again to set the gauges that attach to the air inlet, gauges for mantra: When the pattern is right, the pres- air pressure. the air cap are specic for each gun and can sure is right. Once you have established the optimum cost several hundred dollars. As long as the viscosity and temperature pressure for the equipment youre using, you But you dont need any of these gauges, conditions remain the same, theres no reason can narrow the fan width a good bit using and you dont need to rely on manufacturers to redo the test. Simply set the air pressure at the fan-width control knob without losing suggestions. You can gure out the optimum the regulator the same each time you spray. signicant efciency. air pressure for your gun and for the nish If you change to a different nish material, Remember that this test doesnt work with youre spraying with just the regulator and or if you thin it differently, or if the temperature turbine-air supplied guns because you dont a simple test. (Portable compressors have a changes, youll need to perform the test again have the same control of air pressure. For the regulator attached. Larger compressors are to nd the optimum pressure. most part, the only adjustment you can make meant to hook up to piping and you have to But you shouldnt need to start over from a using a turbine gun is adding more or less install a regulator at the point where you want too-low pressure. You will learn quickly how thinner. PWM your air hose to attach.) to make simple adjustments, increasing the Bobs new book, Flexner on Finishing, is now available pressure a little when it is cold and decreas- at WoodworkersBookShop.com. The Test ing the pressure a little when you have added To nd the optimum air pressure, begin by more thinner. opening all the controls on your gun to their u Go Online FOR MORE maximum and turning the air pressure at the regulator down to well below where you think Youll nd links to all these online extras at: it should be for example, to 20 PSI. u popularwoodworking.com/oct10 With the regulator set to about 20 PSI, spray ARTICLES: Browse through the many a short burst onto brown paper or cardboard. stories available on our Finishing page. (The nish shows up better on a brown surface TO BUY: Bobs new book, Flexner on Fin- than on white paper.) Youll get a relatively ishing (Popular Woodworking Books), is now available through our online small, center-heavy pattern with noticeably store. The book is an indexed collection of large dots around the edges. Bobs updated and revised columns from Increase the air pressure by 10 PSI and Orange peel. When the dots at the edge of a the last 10+ years. spray burst are large, you get an especially bad spray another burst. The pattern will be a little case of orange peel as shown here. Orange peel All of our products are available online at: wider and the dots a little smaller. is so named because of the resemblance to the u WoodworkersBookShop.com Continue increasing the air pressure in texture in the peel of an orange. 56 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE October 2010 54-59_1010_PWM_Flexner.indd 56 7/22/10 10:22:44 AM

61 Build Your Ideal Workbench The Workbench Design Book is the companion book to Christopher Schwarzs Workbenches: From Design & Theory to Construction & Use. Its 256 pages are chock-full of information on designing the ideal workbench for the way you work. Youll get complete step-by-step drawings and instructions for building nine styles of workbenches, from ancient to thoroughly modern, with an in-depth critique of each: Authentic 18th-century Roubo Holtzapffel Cabinetmakers Bench LVL Workbench 21st-century Workbench Shaker Workbench The 24-hour Workbench Power Tool Workbench $230 Workbench German Patternmakers Workbench Plus, youll find information on modifying an existing workbench, workhold- ing, tool storage and more. And, Chris critiques a wide range of common work- bench designs with before and after illustrations to show what works and NEW from what hed change. Youll head to the shop armed with all the knowledge and plans you need to Christopher Schwarz & the make the perfect bench for your shop, no matter what kind of work you do. Popular Woodworking staff $34.99 Hardcover ORDER The Workbench Design Book NOW ISBN 978-1-4403-1040-9 #Y1532 at WoodworkersBookShop.com, or call 1-800-258-0929. PRINTED AND BOUND IN THE UNITED STATES (Shipping is free in the United States!) Put the Past to Work in Your Shop First printed in 1889, this book was written to educate college students in the craft and business of woodworking. The original text is reprinted in its entirety, not only to help you discover late 19th-century practices in woodworking, but to help you make the most of traditional hand tools in the modern shop. As you work through a series of 39 exercises, youll discover how to: Set up your shop and identify the tools every well-stocked hand-tool shop needs Effectively wield the most-used woodworking hand tools Use the various marking gauges like a professional cabinetmaker Sharpen your tools from plane blades to saw teeth Mark and cut the most-used joints in furniture making Use a frame saw (the quiet answer to the modern band saw) Make a door and drawer Install cabinet hardware including hinges and locks And more $17.99 Hardcover WATCH & LEARN! ISBN 978-1-4403-0926-7 #Y0639 Editor Christopher Schwarz has recorded eight companion videos PRINTED AND BOUND IN THE UNITED STATES for the exercises theyre available as single-lesson digital down- loads, or as a compilation DVD. Order Exercises in Woodworking now For more information, visit WoodworkersBookShop.com at WoodworkersBookShop.com and search for Exercises in Woodworking. or call 1-800-258-0929. 54-59_1010_PWM_Flexner.indd 57 7/22/10 10:23:05 AM

62 Everything You Need to Finish Your Projects Like a Pro No more mystery. No more marketing hype. Just the straight dope. Take control of nishing by learning how to use the many nishes available and what those products actually are. In this book, his rst since Understanding Wood Finishing, Bob Flexner delves deeper into many of the issues woodworkers struggle with and he does it with an authority that leaves no doubt. Inside, youll discover the truth about: } Wood Preparation } Choosing a Finish } Coloring Wood } Brushing & Spraying } Overcoming Finish Problems $24.99 Hardcover } Finishing Myths ISBN 978-1-4403-0887-1 #Y0006 } Repairing Finishes } And So Much More! Order Flexner on Finishing Now at WoodworkersBookShop.Com (or call 1-800-258-0929) or look for it and other Popular Woodworking books at your local retailer. 54-59_1010_PWM_Flexner.indd 58 7/22/10 10:23:28 AM

63 K_\NfibY\eZ_f]Pfli;i\Xdj Dfi\k_Xe*,d`elk\jf]jk\g$Yp$jk\gm`[\f`ejkilZk`fe :fdgc\k\[\kX`c\[gcXej K`gjfeZlkk`e^k_\af`ekjYp_Xe[ ?fnkfYl`c[XY\eZ_`]pfl[fek_Xm\XY\eZ_ =cXkk\ek_\nfibY\eZ_jkfg Kfejf][`^`kXc\okiXj Fe\f]k_\dfjk`dgfikXeknfibY\eZ_gcXej\m\iglYc`j_\[Xgg\Xi\[`e8%A%IflYfj(/k_$ Z\eklipdXjk\infibC8 ik;lD\el`j`\iK_\8ikf]k_\:iX]kjdXe %IflYfjj`dgc\Xe[ _lcb`e^nfibY\eZ_f]]\ij\m\ipk_`e^k_Xkk_\df[\ienff[nfib\ie\\[j`eXY\eZ_#n_\k_\i pfllj\_Xe[kffcj#gfn\ikffcjfiYfk_% IflYfjY\eZ_`jj`dgc\ik_XeXcdfjk\m\ipfk_\i[\j`^eflkk_\i\jf`kj\XjpkfYl`c[p\k `k\oZ\cjXkXccf]k_\nfib_fc[`e^kXjbj`eXnff[j_fg% @ek_`j;M;#GfglcXiNff[nfib`e^DX^Xq`e\

64 WOODWORKERS MARKETPLACE CraftsmanStudio.com HARDWOOD Fine Tools - Fair Prices - Fast Shipping LUMBER Bring Quality Burls to your project MORE THAN Blocks with our Tools and Supplies Authorized Lie-Nielsen and *Free Shipping Veneers Decking Flooring 100 SPECIES! For more information, go to PWFREEINFO.COM. Shapton Dealers over $75.00 Plywood 2737 Via Orange Way Ste 110 Spring Valley, CA 888-500-9093 Millwork For more information, go to PWFREEINFO.COM. Mouldings Call for a FAST, FREE QUOTE ASK FOR 250 Ferris Avenue, White Plains, NY 10603 FREE Phone: (914) 946-4111 Fax: (914) 946-3779 CATALOG! www.condonlumber.net For more information, go to PWFREEINFO.COM. Turn logs into lumber. 8 models to choose from Live life to the MAX. For more information, go to PWFREEINFO.COM. 1.800.553.0182 www.woodmizer.com Copyright 2010, Wood-Mizer Products, Inc. For more information, go to PWFREEINFO.COM. For more information, go to PWFREEINFO.COM. Hands on Instruction for All Skill Levels Mario Rodriguez - Alan Turner Stellite tip technology for Philadelphia sawing tough wood For more info on Courses: Furniture Kiln Dried 215.849.5174 Workshop Exotic Species PhiladelphiaFurnitureWorkshop.com Resawing 1.800.522.5760 www.woodmizerblades.com For more information, go to PWFREEINFO.COM. For more information, go to PWFREEINFO.COM. For more information, go to PWFREEINFO.COM. Visit Popular Woodworking Magazines WoodworkersBookShop.com EVERYDAY LOW PRICES on woodworking books, DVDs, plans, videos and more! 60 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE October 2010 60-61_1010_PWM_Classifieds.indd 60 7/22/10 10:25:34 AM

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66 G L O S S A R Y W oodworkings lexicon can be over- whelming for beginners. The fol- lowing is a list of terms used in this issue itch (n) In veneer manufacturing, a longitudi- nal section of a trunk or log that is sliced Plow plane that may be unfamiliar to you. into thin sheets (leaves). A itch (or set of leaves) is often sold as an ordered stack. acid brush (n) fruitwood (n) An inexpensive brush with a rolled or A generic term used to describe any of pressed aluminum handle and stiff black various woods that come from trees that bristles. Traditionally used for applying bear fruit, such as cherry, pear or apple. ux for plumbing joints, some woodwork- The term is also used to apply to a generic ers use it to apply glue, especially to the brown or reddish stain. moisture absorption. In veneer, leaves are inside of mortises. sized to atten them. Glue sizing refers to a thin coat of diluted glue that seals the atomization (n) The chief virtue that language surface of the wood. In spray nishing, the reduction of a liquid to tiny particles or a ne spray, achieved by can have is clearness, and nothing tansu (n) high-pressure or high-volume air breaking The Japanese word for a chest, chest of up the stream of liquid (paint, stain or n- detracts from it so much as the use of drawers or cupboard. In the West, the ish) as it exits the tip of the spray gun. unfamiliar words. term is often used to describe a modular Hippocrates (circa 460 BCE - c. 370 BCE) chest with a stepped shape. cotter pin (n) ancient Greek physician wheelwright (n) A metal fastener with a two-tined split The traditional term for a person who pin, often found on traditional hardware builds and repairs wheels. such as pulls. The pin is inserted through geta (n) a hole, then bent on the backside to secure A Japanese term for dovetail-shaped hard- wetting (n) the hardware to a drawer or door. wood shoes typically t into rails on slid- The ability of a liquid (in woodworking ing doors to reduce wear. glue) to stay in contact with a solid (wood). crest rail (n) The wetting property of a glue can help grain (n) The top rail of a chair, settee or sofa; it determine the dispersion of the adhesive Many woodworkers misuse this term. is often curved, proled and sometimes and the ultimate strength of the glue bond. Grain refers to the natural arrangement carved. Proper wetting of your joints with adhe- of the wooden bers in relation to the axis sive is key for a good bond. of the tree. Boards can have straight grain, interlocked grain or reversing grain, for white glue (n) Crest rail example. When referring to how the A solvent-based adhesive that creates a growth rings appear on the face of a board, bond as it dries. Unlike yellow glues (which the proper word is gure. are polyvinyl adhesives), white glue dries clear. White glue also has a longer open plow plane (n) time, which can be an advantage when A handplane with a fence (usually adjust- dealing with complex assemblies. How- able) used to cut grooves, to create tongues ever, it requires more time in clamps and on the ends of boards and to waste away is (according to some reports) slightly areas to make way for moulding planes. less resistant to moisture than yellow rotary-cut veneer (n) glue. PWM A common method for cutting veneer, usually for low-grade construction ply- woods. The log is spun in front of a knife, removing a continuous ribbon of veneer u Go Online FOR MORE much like unrolling toilet paper. The Youll nd links to all these online extras at: gure of rotary-cut wood is distinct and u popularwoodworking.com/oct10 unnatural to most woodworkers. BLOG: How I Use a Plow Plane, by Christopher Schwarz. sizing (or size) (n) IN OUR STORE: Our new reprint of the 1889 A substance used to partially seal a sur- book Exercises in Wood-working. face and protect it from changes due to 62 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE October 2010 CHAIR ILLUSTRATION FROM THE STORY OF A DEVELOPING FURNITURE STYLE, BY LEOPOLD STICKLEY; PLANE ILLUSTRATION FROM EXERCISES IN WOODWORKING, BY IVIN SICKELS 62-63_1010_PWM_Glossary.indd 62 7/27/10 1:56:58 PM

67 WHATS NEW in the BOOKSHOP Editors TOP PICK Exercises in Wood-working First printed in 1889, this book The Workbench Design Book was written to educate college This new book picks up where Christopher students in the craft and business of Schwarzs rst workbench book left off. woodworking. Here, the original text Youll nd plans for nine additional benches is reprinted in its entirety, not only to as well as critiques of many common bench help you discover late 19th-century styles available today. Armed with the 256 Flexner on Finishing practices in woodworking, but to pages of knowledge inside, youll know how After ve years of editing Bob Flexners col- help you make the most of traditional to build your perfect bench or modify an umns (and ve years of working in our shop), hand tools in the modern shop. existing one. I thought I knew a little something about nishing. Turns out I was right I knew a (very) little. But I recently edited Flexner on Finishing, which is a revised and updated A collection of all the columns Bob has writ- ten for Popular Woodworking Magazine (and some additional articles). Im humbled Go to Woodworking School Get the Most Out of by how much I hadnt known. What I like Without Leaving Home Woodworking! best about this book is that you can dip in just about anywhere and learn something Get top-notch video instruction on a Join the Woodworkers BookShop interesting and useful and when read as a wide variety of woodworking topics VIP program today! Your one-year with our ShopClass videos (available as paid membership includes: whole, the way various nishes and tech- digital downloads and on disc). A one-year/7-issue subscription to niques work together really sinks in. Learn SketchUp, an invaluable 3-D Popular Woodworking Magazine. Oh and theres a bonus chapter on furni- modeling program, with SketchUp for Popular Woodworkings 2004- ture repair which means Im now out of Woodworkers. 2008 Compilation CD, with 35 excuses for avoiding the veneer repair on my Get an excellent nish every time with issues on one CD. Edwardian sideboard. Thanks a lot, Bob. The 10 Commandments of Finishing. Member-only savings that let you And more! save more on every order from the Woodworkers BookShop. u Savings Up To 60% Off Retail Price u Shop Class Online Classes Why Shop at the u The Best Project Downloads u FREE USPS Shipping in the Shop Woodworkers u Books, DVDs, CDs when you spend $25! Just enter BookShop? u Printed Project Plans offer code PW10 at checkout! (Some exclusions apply.) These products and more at WoodworkersBookShop.com 62-63_1010_PWM_Glossary.indd 63 7/28/10 9:10:19 AM

68 E N D G R A I N BY JOE ASNAULT Chainsaw Massacre Premeditated cedar slaughter satises. I made the decision to murder with a tinge of remorse because I have heard more than a billion times during the last few years that we need trees to help stem global warming. But the beauty of the 75' of dead straight Western red cedar towered over me. I pulled the starter cord of my 24" bar chain saw and I cut the wedge, commit- bled sap and sawdust, and I smiled at the Home Depot? I couldnt answer him then, ted now, adrenaline pumping. I began the beauty of the cuts. I chose 3 4" for the slabs, but I can now. hinge cut, slipped in a plastic wedge for and the tree yielded approximately 72 All woodworkers, professional or avid, safety and murdered the tree. It screeched usable pieces. know there is something personal about just before it hit the forest duff, then lay The stacks of stickered pieces rested in the process of the creation of something still. I didnt see a dead body. I saw dollar peace under my cabin to air dry, then we beautiful. Every time I walk into my cabin signs, and my guilt wafted away with the planed them on site to 1 2" thick, ripped and see the walls lined with the cedar I sweet smell of the 50-to-1 gas mixture. them to 4" widths and chamfered the edges painstakingly milled, I dont see dollar The tree was alive, and didnt need to on the router table 7,000-watt generator signs; I see beauty soul-satisfying beauty die but I needed cedar lumber for the blaring, table saw buzzing, router scream- and I grin. interior siding of my mountain cabin. Go ing, planer piercing. Even the sweet smell I walk my 2.5 acres in the forest search- ahead. Call me a killer. But now Im a killer of the pieces seemed to justify the killing. ing for other victims to slake my need to with some killer 6' lengths of primo cedar I couldnt wait to show my trophies to fam- create. A deck. A table for my parents and now this woodworking project wont ily and friends. retirement present. A podium to use for kill my pocketbook. At rst, thats how I The tree spikers would damn me for my day job. And it will feel good to com- saw it as a way to save some cash. I real- my maliciousness and greed. Yet no huge mit another murder. PWM ized a different motive later. piece of machinery had to blaze through a My buddy Bill used his tractor to dump forest to drop this cedar beast. No diesel Joe is a freelance writer and avid woodworker who lives in Northern California. He and his woodworking the last 6' section of the tree, about 20" in behemoths had to transport the meat to mentor, John Shern, have built everything from rabbit diameter, into my milling area. The Gran- a mill, where endless kilowatts would be hutches to poker tables. berg MKIII Alaskan Chain Saw Lumber used. No mass-transportation system was Mill shone dully, reeking of pine and pitch needed to drive the carcases to sale. No sap from a previous killing, on the tailgate of like myself ended up paying $3 to $4 per u Go Online FOR MORE my truck, and the milling commenced. foot for it. Instead, Ive used a bit of gas, a Youll nd links to all these online extras at: In all my building and woodworking touch of oil and a cord of gumption. u popularwoodworking.com/oct10 fantasies, never did I envision the raw Five months prior, eyeing the brand- ARTICLE: Read Lusting for Lumber. butchering of a tree by hand. With two new gleaming chain saw mill on the tail- VIDEO: Is a chainsaw too delicate for you? sharp ripping chains, a ton of bar oil and gate of my truck, my poker buddy asked, Try black powder. gas, I commenced the slaughter. The wood Why dont you just buy your lumber at 64 POPULAR WOODWORKING MAGAZINE October 2010 PHOTO BY THE AUTHOR 64-c4_1010_PWM_EndGrain.indd 64 7/22/10 10:33:27 AM

69 FINEST FINISH. Introducing the NEW JET 22-44 Oscillating Drum Sander featuring: The ALL-NEW JET 22-44 ODH Oscillating Drum Sander is designed for the professional woodworker and features a Drum Head that oscillates from left to right to eliminate workpiece streaking left by linear drum sanders >> Exclusive SandSmart Innite Variable-Feed Control monitors the workpiece feed at rates from 0 to 10 feet per minute to produce the ultimate nish >> Patented Conveyor Belt TRACKERS dramatically reduce the need for manual adjustments >> Visit your local quality JET dealer for more information. Also Featuring: Innite Variable-Feed Control for the Ultimate Finish www.jettools.com QUALITY | INNOVATION | SERVICE :DOWHU0HLHU0DQXIDFWXULQJ


71 ,QF For more information, go to PWFREEINFO.COM. 64-c4_1010_PWM_EndGrain.indd c3 7/22/10 10:33:54 AM

72 THEYRE BACK NO. 4 SMOOTHING PLANE NO. 62 LOW ANGLE JACK PLANE NO. 9 -1/2 BLOCK PLANE NO. 60 -1/2 LOW ANGLE BLOCK PLANE NO. 92 SHOULDER / CHISEL PLANE Stanley Revisits A Cherished Era of Quality and Craftsmanship. Introducing the new line of Stanley premium hand planes. Their mechanical precision, simple adjustment features, and top-quality materials are once again worthy of the famous Sweetheart logo ... a distinction that professionals and serious woodworkers recognize as a coveted symbol of quality. Not only do these hand planes maintain a tradition of quality and craftsmanship, they also offer a Sweetheart stanleytools.com price as well. 2010 Stanley Black & Decker, Inc Visit a participating Stanley dealer near you to own yours today. For more information, go to PWFREEINFO.COM. 64-c4_1010_PWM_EndGrain.indd c4 7/22/10 10:34:14 AM

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