Mineralogical Magazine (2010) - Commission on New Minerals

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1 Mineralogical Magazine, October 2010, Vol. 74(5), pp. 919927 Alunite supergroup: recommended nomenclature P. BAYLISS1,*, U. KOLITSCH2, E. H. NICKEL3,{ AND A. PRING4 1 Mineralogy Department, Australian Museum, 6 College Street, Sydney, NSW 2010, Australia 2 Mineralogisch-Petrographische Abteilung, Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Burgring 7, A-1010 Wien, Austria 3 Exploration and Mining, CSIRO, Private Bag 5, Wembley, WA 6913, Australia 4 Mineralogy, South Australian Museum, North Terrace, Adelaide, 5000, Australia [Received 30 August 2010; Accepted 27 October 2010] ABSTR ACT Minamiite has been discredited and renamed natroalunite-2c to show a double unit-cell structure and natroalunite can be designated as natroalunite-1c to show a single unit-cell structure. Kintoreite can be designated as kintoreite-1c to show the same single unit-cell structure, and IMA 1993-039 is a new superstructure of kintoreite and can be designated as kintoreite-2c to show a double unit-cell structure. Beaverite has been renamed beaverite-(Cu). The Zn-bearing beaverite of Sato et al. (2008) has been named beaverite-(Zn), but data for the mineral have not been approved by the CNMNC. Orpheite has been discredited as P-rich hinsdalite. Proposal 07-D was approved by the CNMNC. K EY WORDS : nomenclature, alunite, natroalunite, kintoreite, beaverite, orpheite, minamiite Introduction the oxidation zone of polymetallic sulphide MINERAL species within the alunite supergroup deposits. Phosphate minerals of the alunite have the general chemical formulae of supergroup are mostly formed by weathering of DG3(TX4)2X6 using the symbolism proposed by phosphate minerals such as apatite or rocks such Smith et al. (1998), where D is a tetravalent, as carbonatites. Extensive reviews of the occur- trivalent, divalent, monovalent cation or partial rences are given by Dutrizac and Jambor (2000) vacancy; G is a trivalent cation and minor and Stoffregen et al. (2000). divalent cations; T is a hexavalent, pentavalent The parent structure-type has space group R3m cation and minor Si4+; and X/X is O, (OH), minor (no. 166) with very few reported exceptions, all in F and possibly H2O as shown in Table 1. They need of independent conrmation. The crystal have been identied and described over the last structure and crystal chemistry of the alunite two centuries. They are listed in Table 2. Mineral supergroup have recently been reviewed and species named after the locality, where the discussed by Botinelly (1976), Kashkay (1976), mineral was rst discovered include beaverite, Lengauer et al. (1994), Kolitsch and Pring (2001), corkite, hinsdalite, kemmlitzite, osarizawaite, and Sato et al. (2009) and Stoffregen et al. (2000), all weilerite. Mineral species have been named after of whom focused on sulphates. Unusual structures persons including F.S. Beudant, A.E. Minami, have been reported by Grey et al. (2008, 2009) L.F. Svanberg and C.D. Woodhouse; orpheite was and Mills et al. (2008). The nomenclature has named after a mythical singer. been discussed by Scott (1987), Novak et al. Sulphate and arsenate minerals of the alunite (1994), Jambor (1995, 1996, 1999, 2000) and supergroup are mostly formed by weathering in Scott (2000). Difculties with nomenclature of the alunite supergroup are as follows: * E-mail: [email protected] (1) The main problem concerning the classi- { deceased 18 July 2009 cation is how to deal with the presence of DOI: 10.1180/minmag.2010.074.5.919 divalent and trivalent anionic TX4 units in the # 2010 The Mineralogical Society

2 P. BAYLISS ET AL. TABLE 1. Chemical elements and vacancies that may occur in the D, G, T and X crystal-structure sites of mineral species in the alunite supergroup, DG3(TX4)2X6 are listed in order of decreasing valency. D: Th; Ce, La, Nd, Bi; Ca, Sr, Ba, Pb, Hg; Na, K, Rb, Ag, Tl, NH4, H3O; &. G: Sn4+; Al, Fe3+, V3+, Cr3+, Ga; Cu2+, Zn2+, Mg. T: S, Cr+6; P, As, Sb; Si. X: O; (OH), F; (H2O). one crystal structure site: should the end- dened on the basis of one divalent and one members be dened on the basis of only one trivalent anionic TX4 unit to maintain electro- type of anionic TX4 unit, or could some end- static balance? members (particularly those in the phosphate- Each ternary diagram of SO4-AsX4-PX4 in the sulphate and arsenate-sulphate groups) be current CNMMN-approved classication of Scott TABLE 2. Minerals of the alunite supergroup with theoretical end-member chemical formulae given. The last column shows the approved status of these minerals on the basis of this report. Group nomenclature based on Mills et al. (2009), but with -1c (single unit cell) and -2c (double unit cell) structures are separated for clarity. Alunite group with -1c: Schlossmacherite (H3O)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6 Retained Alunite KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6 Retained Natroalunite-1c NaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6 Retained Ammonioalunite (NH4)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6 Retained Osarizawaite Pb(Al2Cu2+)(SO4)2(OH)6 Retained Argentojarosite AgFe3(SO4)2(OH)6 Retained Hydroniumjarosite (H3O)Fe3(SO4)2(OH)6 Retained Jarosite KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6 Retained Natrojarosite NaFe3(SO4)2(OH)6 Retained Ammoniojarosite (NH4)Fe3(SO4)2(OH)6 Retained Beaverite-(Cu) Pb(Fe2Cu2+)(SO4)2(OH)6 Renamed Beaverite-(Zn) Pb(Fe2Zn)(SO4)2(OH)6 Potentially new* Dorallcharite TlFe3(SO4)2(OH)6 Retained Plumbogummite group with -1c: Gorceixite BaAl3(PO3.5(OH)0.5)2(OH)6 Retained Waylandite BiAl3(PO4)2(OH)6 Retained Crandallite CaAl3(PO3.5(OH)0.5)2(OH)6 Retained Florencite-(Ce) CeAl3(PO4)2(OH)6 Retained Florencite-(La) LaAl3(PO4)2(OH)6 Retained Florencite-(Nd) NdAl3(PO4)2(OH)6 Retained Plumbogummite PbAl3(PO3.5(OH)0.5)2(OH)6 Retained Goyazite SrAl3(PO3.5(OH)0.5)2(OH)6 Retained Eylettersite Th0.75Al3(PO4)2(OH)6 Retained Zarite BiFe3(PO4)2(OH)6 Retained Benauite SrFe3(PO3.5(OH)0.5)2(OH)6 Retained Kintoreite-1c PbFe3(PO3.5(OH)0.5)2(OH)6 Retained Springcreekite BaV3(PO3.5(OH)0.5)2(OH)6 Retained 920

3 ALUNITE SUPERGROUP: RECOMMENDED NOMENCLATURE (1987) incorporates ve composition elds with made by the CNMMN. Recently, the 50% rule some divisions at 25% and 75%. Novak et al. has been renamed the dominant-constituent rule (1994) suggested six compositional elds. The (Hatert and Burke, 2008) and has been extended unapproved classication of Jambor (1999) based by a dominant-valency rule for certain groups of upon the 50% rule (Nickel, 1992) has three minerals. Therefore, the ve composition elds of composition elds. Scott (2000) suggested that Scott (1987) remain the approved nomenclature the currently approved system is more informa- of the CNMNC. The ternary system has thus been tive about the substitutions occurring in the rejected for the alunite supergroup. The accepted minerals of the alunite supergroup and that it scheme has the advantages that the end-members should be retained despite the slightly greater have their own names and it does not proliferate number of mineral names. In reply, Jambor names unduly in the supergroup. (2000) responded that the classication should (2) In order to maintain electrostatic balance, a be consistent with the CNMMN rules and that coupled substitution of the chemical elements as Regardless of the different opinions, it is listed in Table 1 may occur within and between suggested that some decisions will have to be the D, G, T and X crystal-structure sites. Table 2 (contd.) Dussertite group with 1c: Arsenogorceixite BaAl3(AsO3.5(OH)0.5)2(OH)6 Retained Arsenowaylandite BiAl3(AsO4)2(OH)6 Questionable Arsenocrandallite CaAl3(AsO3.5(OH)0.5)2(OH)6 Retained Arsenoflorencite-(Ce) CeAl3(AsO4)2(OH)6 Retained Arsenoflorencite-(La) LaAl3(AsO4)2(OH)6 New Arsenoflorencite-(Nd) NdAl3(AsO4)2(OH)6 Questionable Philipsbornite PbAl3(AsO3.5(OH)0.5)2(OH)6 Retained Arsenogoyazite SrAl3(AsO3.5(OH)0.5)2(OH)6 Retained Dussertite BaFe3(AsO3.5(OH)0.5)2(OH)6 Retained Graulichite-(Ce) CeFe3(AsO4)2(OH)6 Retained Segnitite PbFe3(AsO3.5(OH)0.5)2(OH)6 Retained Beudantite group with 1c: Woodhouseite CaAl3(P0.5S0.5O4)2(OH)6 Retained Hinsdalite PbAl3(P0.5S0.5O4)2(OH)6 Retained Orpheite PbAl3(P0.5S0.5O4)2(OH)6 Discredited Svanbergite SrAl3(P0.5S0.5O4)2(OH)6 Retained Corkite PbFe3(P0.5S0.5O4)2(OH)6 Retained Weilerite BaAl3(As0.5S0.5O4)2(OH)6 Retained Hidalgoite PbAl3(As0.5S0.5O4)2(OH)6 Retained Kemmlitzite SrAl3(As0.5S0.5O4)2(OH)6 Retained Beudantite PbFe3(As0.5S0.5O4)2(OH)6 Retained Gallobeudantite PbGa3(As0.5S0.5O4)(SO4)(OH)6 Retained Alunite group with -2c: Plumbojarosite Pb0.5Fe3(SO4)2(OH)6 Retained Walthierite Ba0.5Al3(SO4)2(OH)6 Retained Huangite Ca0.5Al3(SO4)2(OH)6 Retained Natroalunite-2c NaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6 Renamed Plumbogummite group with -2c: Kintoreite-2c PbFe3(PO3.5H0.5)2(OH)6 New * Subject to approval by the CNMNC. 921

4 P. BAYLISS ET AL. Chemical varieties should use the chemical- that they may order within the T crystal structure element adjectival modier as dened by site at a low temperature of formation. For Bayliss et al. (2005). instance, the (AsO4) and (SO4) anionic units are (3) The space group of alunite R3m (no. 166) reported to be ordered in gallobeudantite, R3m has only one D, one G and one T crystal site with (no. 160), with R = 7.8% (Jambor et al., 1996). multiplicites of 3, 9 and 6 respectively. The This R factor is high compared to disordered As space group aspect R** (nos. 166, 160, 155) and S in beudantite, R3m (no. 166), with R = indicates that a crystal structure analysis is 2.6% (Giuseppetti and Tadini, 1989) and R = needed to check if As and S-P are ordered 3.7% (Szymanski, 1988), and the assignment to within the T crystal-structure site. If such the lower space-group symmetry lacks convin- ordering occurs then an intermediate end- cing evidence. Therefore, when no crystal- member chemical composition in the series is structure renement is available, the anions are established so that a mineral species name is assumed to be disordered within the T crystal- warranted. Space-group R3m (no. 166) indicates structure site. that As-S-P are disordered over the T crystal The crystal structures of crandallite (Blount, structure site, whereas assignment to the lower 1974) and gorceixite (Dzikowski et al., 2006) space-group symmetry of R3m (no. 160) indicate that the extra H to maintain electrostatic indicates the T crystal structure site is divided balance partially occupies the X site in TX4. The into two so that As and S-P are ordered. G crystal-structure sites in osarizawaite are As P and S are next to each other in the occupied by (Al2Cu). The crystal structure periodic table with similar atomic radii and described by Giuseppetti and Tadini (1980) weights, they are very unlikely to order within showed that Al and Cu are disordered. The the T crystal structure site. The crystal structure crystal-structure sites in beaverite are occupied of woodhouseite reported by Kato (1977) and the by (Fe 2 Cu). In synthetic plumbojarosite crystal structure of svanbergite described by Kato beaverite, Jambor and Dutrizac (1985) found and Miura (1977) showed that the P and S are that Cu2+ substitutes for Fe3+ over the range of disordered. Giuseppetti and Tadini (1987) Cu:Fe = 0:100 to Cu:Fe = 33:100. The crystal reported ordering of PO34 and SO24 in corkite structure described by Breidenstein et al. (1992) and rened the structure in the non-centrosym- showed that Fe and Cu are disordered. metric space group R3m (no. 160). The latter (4) Structural variants have the same root result has been questioned (Szymanski, 1988; name with a hyphenated sufx that species the Kharisun et al., 1997; Kolitsch et al., 1999). In number and direction of the unit cells. The fact, the given anisotropic displacement factors crystal structure may be one rhombohedral unit for P and S (Giuseppetti and Tadini, 1987) cell with symbol 1c (a & 7 A and c & 17 A) or suggest that P has the shape of a very at disk two rhombohedral unit cells with symbol -2c (a while the S ellipsoid is twice as long as it is wide. & 7 A and c & 34 A, e.g. plumbojarosite with Application of the signicance test of Hamilton an ordered arrangement of Pb atoms and (1965) demonstrates: 309 independent reections vacancies on the D site along the c axis). A with 89 variables (12 atoms69 parameters 21 complete list of lattice parameters is published in xed parameters + scale + secondary extinction) the Mineral Powder Diffraction File (Bayliss et rened to 3.6% from 3.7% with 49 variables al., 2001). (7 atoms69 parameters 16 xed parameters + (5) Weilerite of Walenta (1966) was discre- scale + secondary extinction). R = 3.7/3.6 = 1.03; dited by the CNMMN (Hey 1967; Nickel and R40,220,0.5 = 1.08 with m n = 89 49, b = Mandarino 1987) and then reinstated by Scott 309 89. Therefore, the hypothesis of a lower (1987). Both major sulphate and arsenate are symmetry is rejected. A crystal-structure determi- present in weilerite, but the AsO4:SO4 ratio has nation of corkite from Dernbach has P and S not been determined. Kemmlitzite of Hak et al. disordered in R3m (no. 166) with R = 2.4% (1969) is REE-P-rich. The chemical analysis of (Kolitsch, unpublished results). Crystal-structure the type specimen of kemmlitzite does not plot in renements of several other corkites from the area for kemmlitzite. Re-examination of the different localities all conrm the space group holotype specimen by Novak et al. (1994) R3m (no. 166). showed that kemmlitzite is zoned and inhomo- On the other hand, the As and S-P pair have geneous. Beudantite was described by Levy signicant atomic radii and weight differences so (1826). The chemical analysis quoted by 922

5 TABLE 3. Discredited, obsolete and other unapproved mineral names in the alunite supergroup. Mineral names are based on Bayliss (2000); however, numerous additions and amendments have been made. almeriita = natroalunite-1c Karphosiderit = hydroniumjarosite alum-de-Rome, alumen de Tolpa = alunite kauaiite = ne-grained Na-rich alunite alumian, alumianite = natroalunite-1c K-jarosite = jarosite aluminian lusungite = kintoreite koivinite = orencite aluminilite, alumite, Aluminit (Doelter), alum rock, Kolosorukit = Fe3+-poor jarosite alumstone, alun de Rome, = alunite lead jarosite = plumbojarosite alunte = alunite Lemnian earth = halloysite-10 A V alunite ammonium alunite = ammonioalunite leucanterite = jarosite? antunezite = jarosite lime-wavellite = crandallite apatelite = hydroniumjarosite loevigite, loewigite, Lowigit, lowigite = alunite Arsenobismit = preisingerite + atelestite + segnitite or Lossenit = scorodite + beudantite beudantite lusungite = goyazite arsenoorencite-(Nd). Questionable; inadequate data metalunite = dehydrated alunite arsenowaylandite. Questionable; inadequate data minamiite, minamite = natroalunite-2c bariohitchcockite, barium-hamlinite = gorceixite Modumit (Weisbach) = natrojarosite beaverite = beaverite-(Cu) moronolite (Shepard) = jarosite beaudantite = beudantite newtonite (Brackett and Williams) = alunite V kaolinite bieirosite, bleirosite = corkite Na-alunite = natroalunite-1c Bischot (Fischer) = plumbogummite NH4-alunite = ammonioalunite borgstromite, borgstroemite , Borgstromit = jarosite orpheite = P-rich hinsdalite boromanite, bowmanite, bowmannite = goyazite osazrizawaite = osarizawaite calafatita = alunite Pastrerit = jarosite calciowavellite, calcowavellite = crandallite Phosphor-Beudantit = corkite calcium-jarosite = Ca-rich hydroniumjarosite Plagiocitrit = Na-rich alunite camposite = gorceixite planoferrite = hydroniumjarosite candallite = crandallite plomb gomme = plumbogummite carphosiderite = hydroniumjarosite plumboalunite = hypothetical Pb0.5Al3(SO4)2(OH)6 cherokine = plumbogummite plumbo-argentojarosite = Ag-rich plumbojarosite V ciprusita = natrojarosite argentojarosite cymolite = alunite + halloysite-7 A plumboresinite = plumbogummite cyprusite = natrojarosite plumbosvanbergite = Pb-rich svanbergite davisonite, dennisonite = crandallite + CO2-rich potassium alunite = alunite hydroxylapatite pseudo-apatelite = Al-rich hydroniumjarosite deltaite = crandallite + hydroxylapatite Pseudobeudantit = corkite dernbachite = corkite pseudowavellite, Pseudowavellit = crandallite edgarite (Morris) = osarizawaite Raimondit = hydroniumjarosite erusibite = jarosite? sausalite = orencite-(Nd) ferrazite = gorceixite Schadeit = colloidal plumbogummite ferrian-hidalgoit = Fe3+-rich hidalgoite selenojarocite = Se-rich jarosite ferroalunite = Fe3+-rich alunite siprusiet = hydroniumjarosite orensite = orencite-(Ce) soda-alunite, sodium alunite = natroalunite-1c galafatite = alunite sodium-jarosite = natrojarosite Ge-beudantite = Ge-rich beudantite soda-killinite = alunite + jadeite + halloysite-10 A + georceixite, geraesite, gorceite, gorceixcita, gosseixite = illite goreixite sokolovite = goyazite goiata, goiasite, goyasita, goyzaite = goyazite steipelmannite = orencite-(Ce) gum lead = plumbogummite stibiaferrrite = bindheimite + jarosite hamlinite = goyazite strontiohicheockite , strontiohitchcockite = goyazite Harttit = Ca-rich svanbergite sulfatfreier Beudantit = segnitite hinsdaleite = hinsdalite sulphate-free weilerite = arsenogorceixite hitchcockite = plumbogummite Th-crandallite = Th-rich crandallite hydronatrojarosite = natrojarosite tikhvinite = svanbergite hydroniojarosite = hydroniumjarosite timsoko = alunite ignaefte, ignatiefte, ignatievite, Ignatiewit = alunite? trudelite, trudellite = chloraluminite + natroalunite-1c jarosites kalicus = jarosite utahite (Arzruni & Damour) = natrojarosite Kalkwavellit = crandallite vegasite = plumbojarosite kalialuminite, kalialunite, kalioalunite, K-alunite = viseite = Si-bearing crandallite alunite woodhousite = woodhouseite

6 P. BAYLISS ET AL. Doelter (1914) from a chemical analysis reported because of inadequate data. The mineral and in 1850 is unsatisfactory due to excess Fe and the mineral name are questionable until properly authenticity of the specimen is questionable. proposed and approved by the CNMNC. Cotterell and Todhunter (2007) suggest that Arsenoorencite-(La) was noted by Scharm et orpheite is a variety of hinsdalite. al. (1991) to exist only as compositional zones (6) The classication used in Table 2 is taken and rims within complex zoned crystals. The from Mills et al. (2009). The alternative mineral existing data were inadequate to establish the classications are the crystallographic-chemical mineral to species level and Scharm et al. (1991) classication used in the Powder Diffraction File did not submit the mineral to the CNMNC for (Bayliss et al., 2001), chemical-crystallographic approval before publication. Subsequently, classication of Strunz and Nickel (2001), and the arsenoorencite-(La) has been approved (IMA chemical classication of Clark (1993). 2009-078) and published (Mills et al., 2010). Arsenoorencite-(Nd) was also noted by Scharm et al. (1991) as only compositional Recommended nomenclature zones and rims within complex zoned crystals. Minamiite of Ossaka et al. (1982) is discredited The existing data were inadequate to establish the and renamed natroalunite-2c, as the mineral is a mineral to species level and Scharm et al. (1991) double unit-cell structure that may be caused by did not submit the mineral to the CNMNC for ordering in the D crystallographic site with a approval before publication. The mineral and similar chemical composition to natroalunite, mineral name are questionable until properly which has historical priority. Natroalunite can be proposed and approved by the CNMNC. designated as natroalunite-1c to show a single Orpheite of Kolkovski (1971) has been unit-cell structure. Rather than 2cR of Jambor discredited and should be called P-rich hinsdalite (1999), 2c was chosen because 2c indicates a (Larsen and Schaller, 1911), which has historical double c axis unit-cell like baumhauerite-2a with priority. Originally, orpheite was not considered a double a axis, whereas the symbol R may be to belong to the alunite supergroup because the confused with a polytype nomenclature. chemical analysis did not t the alunite structure; The unnamed rhombohedral mineral however, the powder diffraction pattern was Pb0.90Fe2.91(PO4)1.91(SO4)0.09(OH,H2O)5.92, from indexed on a 1c unit cell in PDF 29-765 by the Schone Aussicht Mine, Dernbach, Rhineland- Bayliss (1989) to prove that orpheite belongs to Palatinate, Germany, which was withdrawn as a the alunite supergroup. A chemical-analytical and new mineral due to the similarity with single-crystal structure renement of type kintoreite-1c (IMA 1993-039), and recorded in orpheite conrmed that orpheite is identical to a table 7 of Jambor (1999), is called kintoreite-2c, P-rich hinsdalite (Mladenova and Kolitsch, as the mineral is a double unit-cell structure unpublished data). caused by ordering in the D crystallographic site Discredited, obsolete and other unapproved with a similar chemical composition to that of mineral names in the alunite supergroup are kintoreite-1c of Pring et al. (1995). Kintoreite can listed in Table 3. Mineral names are based on be designated as kintoreite-1c to show a single Bayliss (2000); however, numerous additions and unit-cell structure. amendments have been made. The Z n-bearing beaverite Pb(Fe 2 Z n) (SO4)(OH)6 of Sato et al. (2008) with Fe and Acknowledgements Zn disordered requires a mineral-species name based on the dominant-constituent rule. This The authors acknowledge the helpful assistance of mineral has been given the name William Birch, past secretary of the Commission beaverite-(Zn); however, the mineral data on New Minerals, Nomenclature and have not been submitted and approved by the Classication of the International Mineralogical CNMNC. In order to be consistent, beaverite Association, in establishing the present working (Butler and Schaller, 1911) is renamed beaverite- group on nomenclature. We appreciate the (Cu). The advantages of the chemical-element constructive comments on both the original and sufx nomenclature were stated by Bayliss revised 07-D proposal by members of the (2007). Commission. Arsenowaylandite was not submitted to the CNMMN for approval by Scharm et al. (1994) 924

7 ALUNITE SUPERGROUP: RECOMMENDED NOMENCLATURE References hedral site disordering and scattered Pb distribution. Neues Jahrbuch fur Mineralogie Monatshefte, 1989, Bayliss, P. (1989) Orpheite. Powder Diffraction File, 27 33. 29-765. Grey, I.E., Mumme, W.G., Bordet, P. and Mills, S.J. Bayliss, P. (2000) Glossary of Obsolete Mineral Names. (2008) A new crystal chemical variation of the Mineralogical Record, Tucson, Arizona, USA. alunite-type structure in monoclinic PbZn0.5Fe3 Bayliss, P. (2007) Cesium kupletskite renamed kuplets- (AsO4)2(OH)6. The Canadian Mineralogist, 46, kite-(Cs). Mineralogical Magazine 71, 365 367. 1355 1364. Bayliss, P., Kaesz, H.D. and Nickel, E.H. (2005) The use Grey, I.E., Mumme, W.G., Mills, S.J., Birch, W.D. and of chemical-element adjectival modiers in mineral Wilson, N.C. (2009) The crystal chemical role of Zn nomenclature. The Canadian Mineralogist, 43, in alunite-type minerals: structure renements for 1429 1433. Bayliss, P., Bernstein, L.R., McDonald, A.M., Roberts, kintoreite and zincian kintoreite. American A.C, Sabina, A.P. and Smith, D.K. (2001) Mineral Mineralogist, 94, 676 683. Powder Diffraction File. ICDD, Newtown Square, Hak, J., Johan, Z., Kvacek, M. and Liebscher, W. (1969) Pennsylvania , USA. Kemmlitzite, a new mineral of the woodhouseite Blount, A. (1974) The crystal structure of crandallite. group. Neues Jahrbuch fur Mineralogie Monatshefte, American Mineralogist, 59, 41 47. 1969, 201 212. Botinelly, T. (1976) A review of the minerals of the Hamilton, W.C. (1965) Signicance tests on the alunite-jarosite, beudantite, and plumbogummite crystallographic R factor. Acta Crystallographica, groups. Journal of Research of the U.S. Geological 18, 502 510. Survey, 4, 213 216. Hatert, F. and Burke, E.A.J. (2008) The IMA-CNMNC Breidenstein, B., Schluter, J. and Gebhard, G. (1992) On dominant-constituent rule revisited and extended. beaverite: new occurrence, chemical data and crystal The Canadian Mineralogist, 46, 717 728. structure. Neues Jahrbuch fur Mineralogie Hey, M. (1967) International Mineralogical Association: Monatshefte, 1992, 213 220. Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names. Butler, R.S. and Schaller, W.T. (1911) Beaverite. Mineralogical Magazine, 36, 131 136. Journal of the Washington Academy of Science, 1, Jambor, J.L. (1995) Alunite-jarosite. American 26. American Journal of Science, series 4, 32, 418. Mineralogist, 80, 633 634. [Dana 7th edition, II, 568 (1951)]. Jambor, J.L. (1996) Arsenogorceixite. American Clark, A.M. (1993) Heys Mineral Index. Chapman & Mineralogist, 81, 249. Hall, London. Jambor, J.L. (1999) Nomenclature of the alunite Cotterell, T.F. and Todhunter, P.K. (2007) Corkite and supergroup. The Canadian Mineralogist, 37, hinsdalite from Frongoch Mine, Devils Bridge, 1323 1341. Ceredigion, Wales, including evidence to suggest Jambor, J.L. (2000) Nomenclature of the alunite that orpheite is a variety of hinsdalite. Journal of the supergroup: reply. The Canadian Mineralogist, 38, Russell Society, 10, 57 64. 1298 1303. Doelter, C. (1914) Beudantit (Blei-Ferri-Sulfophosphat). Jambor, J.L. and Dutrizac, J.E. (1985) The synthesis of Handbuch der Mineralchemie, III.1, 588 590. beaverite. The Canadian Mineralogist, 23, 47 51. Dutrizac, J.E. and Jambor, J.L. (2000) Jarosites and their Jambor, J.L., Owens, D.R., Grice, J.D. and Feinglos, application in hydrometallurgy. Reviews in M.N. (1996) Gallobeudantite, PbGa 3 [(AsO 4 ), Mineralogy & Geochemistry, 40, 405 452. (SO4)]2(OH)6, a new mineral species from Tsumeb, Dzikowski, T.J., Groat, L.A. and Jambor, J.L. (2006) Namibia and associated new gallium analogues of The symmetry and crystal structure of gorceixite, the alunite-jarosite family. The Canadian BaAl3[PO3(O,OH)]2(OH)6, a member of the alunite Mineralogist, 34, 1305 1315. supergroup. The Canadian Mineralogist, 44, Kashkay, Ch.M. (1976) Crystallochemical and thermo- 951 958. dynamic aspects of the relationships among minerals Giuseppetti, G. and Tadini, C. (1980) The crystal of the alunite group and their structural analogues. structure of osarizawaite. Neues Jahrbuch fur Geokhimiya, Mineralogiya i Petrologiya, 5, 84 92 Mineralogie Monatshefte, 1980, 401 407. (in Russian). Giuseppetti, G. and Tadini, C. (1987) Corkite, Kato, T. (1977) Further renement of the woodhouseite PbFe3(SO4)(PO4)(OH)6, its crystal structure and structure. Neues Jahrbuch fur Mineralogie ordered arrangement of the tetrahedral cations. Monatshefte, 1977, 54 58. Neues Jahrbuch fur Mineralogie Monatshefte, Kato, T. and Miura, Y. (1977) The crystal structures of 1987, 71 81. jarosite and svanbergite. Mineralogical Journal Giuseppetti, G. and Tadini, C. (1989) Beudantite: (Japan), 8, 419 430. PbFe3(SO4)(AsO4)(OH)6, its crystal structure, tetra- Kharisun, Taylor, M.R., Bevan, D.J.M. and Pring, A. 925

8 P. BAYLISS ET AL. (1997) The crystal structure of kintoreite, Ossaka, J., Hirabayashi, J.-I., Okada, K., Kobayashi, R. PbFe3(PO4)2(OH,H2O)6. Mineralogical Magazine, and Hayashi, T. (1982) Crystal structure of 61, 123 129. minamiite, a new mineral of the alunite group. Kolitsch, U. and Pring, A. (2001) Crystal chemistry of American Mineralogist, 67, 114 119. the crandallite, beudantite and alunite groups: a Pring, A., Birch, W.D., Dawe, J., Taylor, M., Deliens, review and evaluation of the suitability as storage M. and Walenta, K. (1995) Kintoreite, materials for toxic metals. Journal of Mineralogical PbFe3(PO4)2(OH,H2O)6, a new mineral of the and Petrological Sciences, 96, 67 78. jarosite-alunite family, and lusungite discredited. Kolitsch, U., Tiekink, E.R.T., Slade, P.G., Taylor, M.R. Mineralogical Magazine, 59, 143 148. and Pring, A. (1999) Hinsdalite and plumbogum- Sato, E., Nakai, I., Terada, Y., Tsutsumi, Y., Yokoyama, mite, their atomic arrangements and disordered lead K., Miyawaki, R., and Matsubara, S. (2008) Study of sites. European Journal Mineralogy, 11, 513 520. Zn-bearing beaverite Pb(Fe2Zn)(SO4)2(OH)6 ob- Kolkovski, B. (1971) Orpheite, a new mineral from the tained from Mikawa mine, Niigata Prefecture, Madjarovo deposit, eastern Rhodopes Mountain, Japan. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Bulgaria. Annuales Universita Soa, Faculty Sciences, 103, 141 144. Geologie Geographia, 64, 107 130. [American Sato, E., Nakai, I., Miyawaki, R. and Matsubara, S. Mineralogist, 61, 176 (1976)]. (2009) Crystal structures of alunite family minerals: Larsen Jr., E.S. and Schaller, W.T. (1911) Hinsdalite. beaverite, corkite, alunite, natroalunite, jarosite, Journal of the Washington Academy of Science, 1, svanbergite, and woodhouseite. Neues Jahrbuch fur 25. American Journal Science, series 4, 32, 251. Mineralogie Abhandlungen, 185, 313 322. [Dana 7th edition, II, 1004 (1951)]. Scharm, B., Scharmova, M., Sulovsky, P. and Kuhn, P. Lengauer, C.L., Giester, G. and Irran, E. (1994) (1991) Philipsbornite, arsenoorencite-(La), and KCr3(SO4)2(OH)6: synthesis, characterization, pow- arsenoorencite-(Nd) from the uranium district in der diffraction data, and structure renement by the northern Bohemia, Czechoslovakia. Casopis pro Rietveld technique and a compilation of alunite-type Mineralogii a Geologii, 36, 103 113. [American compounds. Powder Diffraction, 9, 265 271. Mineralogist, 78, 672 (1993)]. Levy, A. (1826) Beudantite. Annals of Philosophy, 11, Scharm, B., Scharmova, M. and Kundrat, M. (1994) 194. [Dana 7th edition, II, 1001, (1951)]. Crandallite group minerals in the uranium district of Mills, S.J., Grey, I.E., Mumme, W.G., Miyawaki, R., northern Bohemia (Czech Republic). Vesnk Ceskeho Matsubara, S., Border, P., Birch, W.D. and geol. stavu, 69(1), 79 85. [American Mineralogist, Raudsepp, M. (2008) Kolitschite, Pb[Zn0.5,&0.5] 80, 184 (1995)]. Fe3(AsO4)2(OH)6, a new mineral from the Kintore Scott, K.M. (1987) Solid solution in, and classication opencut, Broken Hill, New South Wales. Australian of, gossan-derived members of the alunite-jarosite Journal of Mineralogy, 14, 63 67. family, northwest Queensland, Australia. American Mills, S.J., Hatert, F., Nickel, E.H. and Ferraris, G. Mineralogist, 72, 178 187. (2009) The standardisation of mineral group Scott, K.M. (2000) Nomenclature of the alunite super- hierarchies: application to recent nomenclature group: discussion. The Canadian Mineralogist, 38, proposals. European Journal of Mineralogy, 21, 1295 1297. 1073 1080. Smith, D.K., Roberts, A.C., Bayliss, P. and Liebau, F. Mills, S.J., Kartashov, P.M., Kampf, A.R. and (1998) A systematic approach to general and Raudsepp, M. (2010) Arsenoorencite-(La), a new structure-type formulas for minerals and other mineral from the Komi Republic, Russian inorganic phases. American Mineralogist, 83, Federation: description and crystal structure. 126 132. European Journal of Mineralogy, 22, 613 621. Stoffregen, R.E., Alpers, C.N. and Jambor, J.L. (2000) Nickel, E.H. (1992) Solid solutions in mineral Alunite-jarosite crystallography, thermodynamics, nomenclature. The Canadian Mineralogist, 30, and geochronology. Pp. 453 479 in: Reviews in 231 234. Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 40, The Nickel, E.H. and Mandarino, J. (1987) Procedures Mineralogical Society of America, Washington, involving the IMA Commission on New Minerals D.C. and the Geochemical Society, St Louis, and Mineral Names and guidelines on mineral Missouri, USA. nomenclature. American Mineralogist, 72, Strunz, H. and Nickel, E.H. (2001) Strunz Mineralogical 1031 1042. Tables. E. Schweizerbartsche Verlagsbuch- Novak, F., Jansa, J. and Prachar, I. (1994) Classication handlung, Stuttgart. and nomenclature of alunite-jarosite and related Szymanski, J. (1988) The crystal structure of beudantite, mineral groups. Vestnk Ceskeho geol. stava, 69, Pb(Fe,Al) 3 [(As,S)O 4 ] 2 (OH) 6 . The Canadian 51 57. Mineralogist, 26, 923 932. 926

9 ALUNITE SUPERGROUP: RECOMMENDED NOMENCLATURE Walenta, K. (1966) Beitrage zur Kentniss seltener Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilung, 11, Arsenatmineralien unter besonderer Berucksichtung 121 164. von Vorkommen des Schwarzwaldes. Tschermaks 927

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