Sustainable cities - Vattenfall

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1 R&D Magazine Vattenfall Research and Development Magazine No 3, October 2010 Theme: Sustainable cities

2 R&D MAGAZINE contents 3 Welcome to the R&D Contents Magazine no 3, October 2010 The Vattenfall R&D Magazine is a magazine 03 Introduction about research and development within the 04 Environmental concern Vattenfall Group. In each edition, we want to a motive force for development provide an overview of current R&D activities, 05 A struggle to preserve the European Eel and a deeper view of one specic theme. 06 R&D, News in Brief The purpose is to keep readers up to date on advances in this particular area. 08 It's about challenging conservative thinking 10 The light source of the future The theme in this issue is Sustainable Cities. 12 Making electrity consumption visible Vattenfalls concept Sustainable Cities was launched to help cities in their transition to 14 Making use of a giant energy source a sustainable use of energy. We aim for long- deep under ground term partnerships with cities and to help them 16 Sunny times for solar power make tailor-made plans for sustainability. This 18 Renaissance for distributed generation is achieved by improving energy efciency on 20 A growing cool business all levels, as well as by deploying sustainable energy sources. In this issue, you can read 22 Another perspective: How to make Amsterdam a sustainable city more about Vattenfalls work in the Sustainable Cities programme. Lars Strmberg, Vice President of Group What does Vattenfall mean by research Research and Development and Agneta Rising, and development and why do we do it? Vice President Environment, also provide an Vattenfall pursues research and development (R&D) insight into the environmental aspects of the as part of the business development of the Group. The aim is to meet the demands of customers, to reduce the R&D processes. You can also read about the environmental impact of our operations, to improve their struggle to preserve the European eel. efciency and to contribute to our climate vision. Vattenfall as an energy company and a system builder As in previous issues, we also have the latest and operator has little or no competence in the manufac turing or production of technical equipment; instead we news brieng from several of the research dene our needs to the manufacturing market. Conse programmes within Vattenfall R&D. quently, we do not develop new hardware or software products. Our ambition is to be an excellent user of technology that is mainly developed by others, notably We hope you will enjoy reading the magazine! equipment manufacturers, to provide our customers with clean electricity. To achieve this, we often work together with different suppliers, large and small, from the labora tory stage or in demonstration or pilot projects. In these projects, we develop know-how and provide the operators Petra Sarkzi is legally responsible for the R&D Magazine. perspective on, for example, the usability and maintain ability of new systems. If you have any comments or questions about the R&D magazine, Vattenfalls Group R&D programmes are organized in please contact [email protected] different areas: If you have any questions about the Sustainable Cities Programme, Renewables please contact Programme Manager Thomas Munch-Laursen: Operational efciency [email protected] Nuclear energy Energy efciency Lars Strmberg, Vice President for Vattenfall Group R&D. Petra Sarkzi, responsible for communication of Carbon capture and storage Vattenfall Group R&D. New technologies Produced by Blomquist & Co. Cover picture Getty Images. Read more about Vattenfall R&D at www.vattenfall.com Photos by Colourbox, Getty Images and Vattenfalls photo archive.

3 4 R&D MAGAZINE Introduction Environmental concern a motive force for development Environmental aspects are an essential part of almost all R&D processes. History shows not only that environmental restrictions are fundamental for our business operations, but also that they constitute a strong motive force for development. Six Centres of Excellence have been formed on Air quality, Water protection, Soil protection, Chemical management, Sustainability and biomass, and Waste and by-products Lars Strmberg, Vice President of Group Research Agneta Rising, Vice President Environment and Development Environmental issues have partly to In our organisation, we have formed Union) and is knowledgeable regarding do with hard requirements which structures to ensure that qualified en current scientific research. provide the basis for permits for our vironmental expertise is involved from operations; these are relatively easy to the very start in all R&D processes. Another structure is our Environ measure and to clearly define. But our mental R&D Centre, which looks into licence to operate also includes soft Six Centres of Excellence have new issues to determine how Vattenfall er aspects like ideas and philosophies. been formed on Air quality, Water should work strategically with them Many groups in society have a say in protection, Soil protection, Chemi and ensure that we have the necessary the public discussion, and subjective cal management, Sustainability and competence and tools to do so. This opinions are not always in accordance biomass, and Waste and by-products centre ensures that we have channels with facts and scientific reports. Such as networks of experts from differ to experts, universities and other ex aspects are usually more difficult for ent countries and lines of business ternal parties in different countries for us to grasp and tackle successfully. throughout the Vattenfall Group, the benefit of the whole Group. It is, however, absolutely necessary for including R&D. Their task is to ensure us to investigate and compile facts so that Vattenfall stands at the forefront that we stand on solid ground when in knowledge, keeps ahead of legisla running our business. tion (particularly in the European

4 R&D MAGAZINE OUTLOOK 5 A struggle to preserve the European eel Vattenfall has started to transport eels migrating down streams with the purpose to preserve the eels. In the last 25 years, the European eel population has decreased to only 1 5 per cent of its natural number and the eel is now on the EU red list for threatened fish species. Mostly this derives from changed weather conditions and unsustainable fishing but in addition hydro power plants constitute a menace for the eels. At Vattenfall, it is therefore a high priority to save the eels. The European eels are born to travel: the turbines, working with for example after they are born in the Sargasso light, sound and vibrations, says Anna Sea off the North American coast, they stlund, who is responsible for the en follow the Gulf Stream all the way up vironment and water rights at Vattenfall to Europe and struggle upstream along Hydropower South, and at the Univer rivers to find fresh water where they sity of Karlstad studies are underway can grow up. After 520 years they on how to design the power plants to perform this trip once more, but in the prevent eels from getting stuck in the other direction: they follow the rivers released back into Gta River and intake grilles. down to the sea and then swim back to continue to the sea. Other methods to the Sargasso Sea to spawn. But the price increase the migration of eels are also In 2009, the Swedish water authorities of finding the right growing conditions under development. At several power announced their decisions on the EU is high; many eels are trapped on the plants, activities to restore the natu Water Framework Directive. For Vatten way. To some extent this is due to hydro ral migration routes for the eels have fall this entails major challenges in the power stations in the Swedish rivers. The been carried out in consultation with coming decade to promote biodiversity obstacle is the turbines. Smaller eels can the Swedish Board of Fisheries and in the rivers where power is produced. get past alive but not the larger eels. the County Administrative Boards. For At Vattenfall we take environmental The eels that reach the Swedish coast example, Vattenfall inaugurated two new issues very seriously, and this is how are only a small part of the total, says migration routes for eels in the River our hydro power operations affect the Peter Stedt, communications officer at Rolfs in spring 2010. environment, says Peter Stedt. By Vattenfall Hydropower. Many eels stay The new detour at Bosgrden power constructing our power stations we in the Mediterranean, and some in the plant in the Rolfs leads the eels away destroyed the natural routes for the fish area around Britain, and since they are from the dam and offers a safe way to so its our responsibility to compensate considered a delicacy many are caught pass the power station, Peter Stedt for this. due to fishing. But since the number explains. Other fish species, for example Together with the Swedish Board of of eels has decreased considerably, we trout, also use this route. Fisheries and a couple of other Swed decided to take actions. A couple of studies conducted by the ish power producers, Vattenfall has Board of Fisheries on when during the prepared a common action plan for the This summer, Vattenfall therefore year the eels migrate and what routes eels, including the target that, within five implemented the new method of collect they choose, research that Vattenfall has years 40 per cent of the potential eel ing full-grown eels in Lake Vnern and sponsored, have been helpful in planning production upstream the power stations simply transporting them downstream these activities. shall survive the turbines. In the future in a tank, past the power stations Olidan There is also ongoing research on this cooperation will continue the task of and Lilla Edet. After that the eels are different ways to lead the eels away from protecting the eels.

5 6 R&D MAGAZINE R&D BRIEFING R&D, News in Brief ThERMal TEChNOlOgy SUSTaINaBlE CITIES OCEaN ENERgy PROgRaMME PROgRaMME PROgRaMME Wavebob in tank testing campaign Storage of biomass Family shall test a One of Vattenfalls partners, the Irish com The storage of biomass can be associated climate-smart home pany Wavebob, has performed basin tests with problems such as heat development Vattenfall, Volvo Car Corporation and A this summer. Vattenfall participated in the with a risk of self-ignition, dry matter loss hus are cooperating to test climate-smart basin tests, which were realized in order and the reduction of fuel quality. Such living in Sweden. A family with children is to study the survivability and generating problems often lead to a loss of energy going to live in an energy-efficient house capacity of the Wavebob and learn more compared to the energy content at time for six months. The unique project is about this technological solution. of purchase. Microbial activity in the called One Tonne Life because the pur The tests were conducted in a labora material stored may also have health and pose is to see if it is possible to live so that tory environment in Wageningen in the safety consequences. the carbon dioxide emissions for one year Netherlands and Nantes in France. Two Vattenfall has just started diploma work do not exceed one tonne per person. Wavebob models were tested in the at The Swedish University of Agricultural Living on one tonne of carbon dioxide Netherlands, a simplified and scaled-down Sciences (SLU). This work will result in per person per year is a major challenge survival model and a larger production guidelines for our heat and power plants considering that the average figure in the model. The survival model was exposed to on how to store large amounts of biomass world today is about seven tonnes. The several extreme sea states in the labora in an optimal way. players in the project believe that it is pos torys test tank and various survival strat There are also plans to perform sible for the test family to approach one egies were investigated. The production full-scale storage trials of biomass at tonne of emissions without compromis model was tested in various types of wave Idbcken, Vattenfalls plant in Nykping, ing their standard of living, if the correct climate in order to measure its function Sweden. We are going to use fuels like technology, expertise and consistent ality and output. In France, a production wood chips and recycled wood chips in behaviour are used. In order to show that model was tested for a range of opera the storage trials. this sustainable living is possible, differ tional sea states. ent technologies for energy efficiency All in all, the tank tests were success Agricultural fuels come together and are tested in a real life ful and the observations increased the Vattenfall has recently finished a study of situation. understanding of the Wavebob device. the R&D activities concerning agricultural The well-insulated and energy-efficient Before the tests the expected output was fuels. The study also included the main wooden house, built by A-hus, is situated in first calculated and the tests are being important findings from the research Hsselby, outside Stockholm. Vattenfall will used to verify that the calculations are programme on agricultural fuels run by equip the house with smart technology correct. A lot of data on the power absorp Vrmeforsk between 2006 and 20 10. that will measure the familys electricity tion behaviour of the Wavebob device was Agricultural fuels such as willow or consumption in real time and offer exper recorded and further understanding will straw are becoming increasingly impor tise for efficient energy use. The product be gained during the analysis of the data. tant in Vattenfall. In Denmark, straw has Vattenfall will use to measure the familys energy consumption is called Energy Wavebobs wave power plant is a ring-shaped buoy been used for many years and is now whose centre is linked to a large vertical underwater fired in the new Fynsvrket unit 8 and Watch and will be launched on the market structure. The two units move with respect to each at Amagervrket unit 1. In Poland, there shortly. other in the swell. A hydraulic system transforms is a requirement to use agricultural fuels The family will also be provided with an these movements into electricity. in order to gain green certificates. electric vehicle, a Volvo C30, which offers Vattenfall is running a programme on Volvo a great opportunity to study how an willow plantations measuring up to 200 electric car fits in to the life patterns of a ha in the proximity of Warsaw. The co modern-day family. Vattenfall will also pro combustion of different agricultural fuels vide a charging pole to charge the electric is also taking place at both the era and car. The charging pole is connected to a Siekierki plants. In Germany, Vattenfall is charging station which can register travel now setting up plantations of up to 150 ha data and provide information about elec of poplar for later use in the Berlin plants. tricity consumption and battery status.

6 R&D MAGAZINE R&D BRIEFING 7 WIND POWER PROgRaMME E-MOBIlITy PROgRaMME CCS PROgRaMME Self-healing of cracks in concrete Experiences from real life tests of Chemical Looping Pilot plant for Vattenfall is involved in a project dealing Volvo V70 plug-in hybrids more efficient CO2 capture with the self-healing of cracks in concrete. Together with Volvo Cars, ETC (Energy A new 1 MWth Chemical Looping Combus Theoretically, cracks can be sealed by the Technology Centre) and the Swedish tion (CLC) pilot plant for the combustion substances migrating from the concrete Energy Agency, Vattenfall is developing of conventional pulverized coal has been itself, so-called self-healing takes place. and testing plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. built and is being taken into operation in In cooperation with Skanska and Lund Two prototypes of Volvo V70 plug-in Darmstadt, Germany. The commission Institute of Technology, Vattenfall is hybrids were used by 16 families in ing of the 1 MWth CLC pilot is progressing studying the effect of self-healing on the Gothenburg, Sweden from December very well and we are able to operate the chloride ingress in concrete in marine 2009 to May 2010. The families used the start-up burner from the process control environments. cars in their everyday lives over a period system, says Dr. Strhle who is techni Cracks in concrete foundations of several weeks. The test project is unique cal coordinator at the test facility of the subjected to severe environmental condi since it is one of the first times that EU-sponsored CLAIR project, in which tions, for instance marine environments, private individuals have had the possibility Vattenfall is participating together with must be injected if their width exceeds a to use a plug-in hybrid vehicle as their own Alstom, Air Liquide, C.S.I.C (Instituto de certain maximum value. The injection is private car. The purpose of the real-life Carboqumica, Spain), SINTEF, Darmstadt performed in order to obstruct the ingress test is to see how plug-in hybrid vehicles University of Technology, and Chalmers of the aggressive substances into the can work as a family car and to examine University of Technology . The pilot plant concrete and protect the reinforcement their environmental impact. The test is the first approach to demonstrating bars against corrosion. The maximum driving will continue in Gothenburg and the novel chemical looping combustion permissible crack width is regulated by Stockholm until the turn of the year principle in a complete auto-thermal the structural codes and standards and 2010/2011. reactor system. Commissioning will con is normally set to 0.2 mm, sometimes Summaries of the experience gained tinue for the rest of the year and the test even lower. The crack width in a concrete from the first test period show that the programme will start in February 2011. structure is controlled by means of rein test drivers used the electric power The purpose of the EU-funded project forcement. The narrower the cracks, the mainly in city traffic while they changed CLAIR (Emission Free Chemical Looping higher the amount of reinforcement. An to the combustion engine on the public Coal Combustion Process) is to develop increased amount of reinforcement leads highways. All in all, 39.5% of the driving CLC for coal combustion with more ef to increased construction costs. The injec distances were covered using electric ficient CO2 capture than the technologies tions also increase construction costs. power. Charging was mainly carried out at tested in pilot plants today. In the chemical The results of the project may influence home or at work. None of the test drivers looping process, the CO2 separation from the design of the concrete foundations used the charging poles in public places nitrogen is achieved without using the for wind power plants in marine environ for charging. Most of the drivers think it cryogenic air separation units necessary ments, and lead to the more economic is easy to handle charging, it becomes a in the Oxyfuel technology, or any chemical design of the structures. The project will daily routine. Many of the Volvo test driv absorption units. The CLC process may be completed in the beginning of the 2011 ers point out the positive influence on the reduce the additional fuel consumption to when we will also have the preliminary local environment; the cars are silent and approximately 6% compared to about test results. have no exhaust fumes when driving on 20 % for the Oxyfuel technology. The addi electricity. tional fuel is necessary due to the energy required for CO2 separation and compres sion. CLC aims to reduce the CO2 avoid ance cost to about 1015 /ton CO2. Vattenfall has been strongly pushing this promising technology for many years. After the tests made in the CLAIR proj ect, validation on a larger industrial scale would be needed before the technique can be introduced on a full production scale.

7 08 R&D MAGAZINE SUSTAINABLE CITIES Sustainable cities is about challenging conservative thinking Cities are becoming more and more aware of their impact on the environment and are working hard to minimize it. By gathering its collective knowledge, Vattenfall can be a partner for cities in their transition to become more sustainable and use energy more efficiently.

8 R&D MAGAZINE SUSTAINABLE CITIES 09 Urban areas are rapidly becoming the mainly divided into transports, in new main consumers of energy. At the dustries and buildings. At Vattenfall, same time, the debate about carbon issues relating to the transport sector dioxide emissions and the greenhouse are handled by the E-mobility R&D effect is becoming more intense and programme, while issues relating to many cities are working hard to reduce distribution are dealt with by the Smart their carbon footprints. As cities are Grids programme, and small-scale gen becoming increasingly aware of their eration and means of increasing energy energy consumption they strive to efficiency adapted for different kinds of minimize their impact on the climate, customers belong to Sustainable Cities. for example through reducing en Together, Vattenfall covers a citys Thomas Munch-Laursen, ergy consumption in new and existing entire energy system and enables a R&D Programme Manager Sustainable Cities buildings, making sure that the energy systematic approach when co-operating comes from sustainable sources, and with cities striving for sustainability. ensuring that the energy is produced and distributed in an efficient way. When striving to make a city sustain Energy systems could be a com able and designing for the future, it is plex puzzle to solve. Many technical essential to take into account that dif solutions are available and technical ferent buildings have different needs. development is progressing fast from a For a residential building in Madrid it city planners perspective. How to best might, for example, be beneficial to leverage the different available solu use solar panels to produce heat and tions to create an energy system that electricity, while an office building in suits the citys energy needs, balanced Berlin might be able to use district with budgetary issues, is a challenge. heating for both heat and cooling, or to pick it up from the bedrock us Anders Johnson, Vattenfalls Sustainable Cities ing a small-scale geothermal system. Head of Business Development Programme is conducted both from Ultimately, however, the best way of Programme Sustainable Cities a Research and Development (R&D) achieving sustainability is to reduce the perspective and a Business Develop waste of energy, for example by adding ment (BD) perspective in close coop additional insulation, making sure new Within the Sustainable eration. The concept was launched to buildings are constructed in an energy- Cities R&D programme work along with cities in their transition efficient way or simply by visualizing to a sustainable use of energy. Under the consumption so that everyone can all this is covered by six standing the cities need of new energy get an understanding of and direct different sub-programmes; efficient solutions, and the different feedback on their initiatives to reduce challenges each city is facing, Vattenfall energy consumption. Metering technologies, seeks to work close to the city stake Product-related energy holders and in several cases enter into Within the Sustainable Cities R&D long-term partnerships with the cities. programme all this is covered by six services, Distributed By gathering Vattenfalls collective different sub-programmes; Metering generation, District knowledge and actively seeking more technologies, Product-related energy knowledge in the areas not yet covered, services, Distributed generation, District cooling, Solar energy Vattenfall looks at the whole society cooling, Solar energy and Geothermal and Geothermal energy. and offers a systematic approach for energy. Currently, Vattenfall is running energy sustainability. The aim for the 26 different long- and short-term proj Sustainable Cities Programme is to ects within these sub-programmes. An secure that Vattenfalls offerings meet example of a long-term project is the the market needs of sustainable and evaluation of the potential for geother efficient energy solutions and improve mal energy in Vattenfall's existing mar the customer satisfaction. R&D creates kets and an example of a short-term the technical platform and gathers new project is the study of heat pumps and technologies and concepts, while BD heat storage that is being conducted in is focused on city partnerships and to Germany. develop new business opportunities in Creating a sustainable city may the emerging market place. sound technical, and it is to some ex tent, but it is primarily about challeng A citys energy system comprises ing conservative thinking and proving of different kinds of generation, both that new technologies can work in large and small-scale, distribution and existing complex energy systems. different type of customers segments,

9 10 R&D MAGAZINE SUSTAINABLE CITIES PRODUCT RElaTED ENERgy SERVICES The light source of the future Within the scope of the R&D programme Sustainable Cities, Vattenfall has begun collaborating with the research and devel op-ment company LightLab. The aim of the project is to develop the light source of the future; the next-generation eco-bulb with high energy efficiency and with no use of mercury.

10 R&D MAGAZINE SUSTAINABLE CITIES 11 Conventional light bulbs are extremely inefficient, only making the components smaller and improving the energy 5 % of the energy they use is transformed into light, and af efficiency further. The lamp is considered to have great ter a decision by the EU the use of conventional light bulbs is potential since conventional lamps are being phased out not being phased out all over Europe. The energy saving poten only in Europe but also in Australia and some states in the tial is huge; in offices and official buildings lighting alone can USA, and since the energy-saving bulbs of today are only account for almost 25 % of the total electricity consumption permitted due to an exception from the ban on using heavy and a total saving in the EU of 40 TWh is expected. However, metals. The prime competitor for the lamp is the LED-lamp, this places high demands on the development of alternatives based on light diodes and developed by Philips. But tests fulfilling high environmental standards. The most commonly have shown that the light from LightLabs lamp is more used low-energy lamps contain mercury, and are therefore pleasant due to better colour reproduction. considered by some people to be a greater environmental threat than the conventional lamps. But the company Light- Lab has developed a technology for producing lamps that use very little energy and do not contain mercury. LightLab is a Clean Tech company that develops light ing technologies with high environmental performance and energy efficiency. Their vision is to develop light sources with maximum environmental performance, combined with attractive lighting properties. The company uses a new patented technology to produce bulbs that can produce light in an energy-efficient way and without the use of mercury or other environmentally-harmful materials. This lamp will be the first product to use technology developed by the company itself. After performing a technical analysis of the technology that LightLab uses, Vattenfall became interested in support ing the company in its work to develop a commercial lamp. The purpose of the collaboration is to provide the resources needed to develop a prototype of the lamp that meets mar ket demands and customer needs. Vattenfalls role in the col laboration project will be to test the prototypes from a users perspective and to contribute knowledge about the energy market. Lars Strmberg, Vice President of Group Research and Development at Vattenfall, explains why Vattenfall is joining forces with LightLab: "Vattenfalls Research and Development wants to promote the development of energy-efficient products that meets the environmental requirements of tomorrow. LightLabs light bulbs have, in our opinion, the potential to achieve substan tial energy savings in lighting." The basic principles behind the technology are field emis sions and cathodoluminescence. Instead of using a warm cathode, LightLabs bulb contains a cold cathode which does not require the use of heavy metals. The cold cathode has more advantages; since the cathode does not have to warm up the lamp glows at full capacity from the moment the light goes on, and in addition the lamp can also be used in envi The technology: ronments where heat radiation is undesirable. a flow of electrons is generated inside a cold carbon LightLabs bulbs are produced without the use of heavy cathode in the centre of the lamp, and thereafter metals and require less energy than regular light bulbs, even emitted outwards towards a glass chimney. The lower than low-energy bulbs. They are also temperature- glass is coated with a luminescent powder and a thin independent and not sensitive to cold weather. Studies have layer of aluminium and when the electrons strike shown that the technology works, and the latest years of this surface light is produced. development have both improved the energy efficiency and the light flow. The focus is now on optimizing the lifetime,

11 12 R&D MAGAZINE SUSTAINABLE CITIES METERINg TEChNOlOgIES Making electricity consumption visible Energy management systems including visualization of energy consumption are important parts in designing the sustainable energy system of tomorrow. By visualizing energy consumption consumers will become active parts of an energy system that can contribute to a much more efficient use of resources. Traditionally, the generation of resources. Furthermore, steering and consumption data electricity has been adapted to the control of energy consumption will give from individual prevailing consumption needs. With a additional value to our customers, says electrical appliances large proportion of renewable energy Tetyana Bogdanova, manager for sub to, for example, an sources, which mostly involves intermit- programme Metering technology and Iphone or Ipod. At tent generation that varies over time, related services. Vattenfall, we are consumption in the future has to be Solutions based on smart meter- conducting labora- continuously adapted to the available ing and energy management systems tory tests and live amount of electricity. at customers premises can shift load demonstrations We develop solutions for the from peak time as well as help to reduce in order to get a visualization of consumption as well overall consumption. Remote steering deeper understand- as energy management systems and and control of electricity and heat con- ing of the concept home automation. The possibility to sumers will open further potential for visualize energy consumption - and energy efficient living, says Bogdanova. in the future also the instantaneous An example is BeAware, an EU Vattenfall will start tests in customers homes where the electricity consumption from seven electricity price - will provide a tool for project that develops equipment and major home appliances will be measured and consumers for the more efficient use of solutions to visualize real-time displayed in an Iphone.

12 R&D MAGAZINE SUSTAINABLE CITIES 13 The possibility to visualize the energy consumption will provide a tool for consumers for the more efficient use of resources. Vattenfall in Germany has installed Energie Controlling Online (ECO) to custom ers such as Citibank and Lufthansa. ECO offers solutions and services that can visualize the consumption of electricity, heat and water via for example the Internet or Iphones. and to evaluate if behaviour as well as information on The effect of energy-efficiency im this could be a suitable product for the interaction with the existing smart- provements can quickly be checked Vattenfall, explains project manager metering infrastructure and IT security with this online monitoring tool. Monica Lf. issues. Vattenfall is also further developing Other projects and project plans in In Finland, tests based on the online energy controlling solutions for clude Smart Office and Smart BeAware concept are already being commercial and industrial customers. Home concepts. The ambition is to conducted with real customers. Starting In Germany, there is already a success combine competences from Sustainable in November 2010, five households in ful commercial product called Energie Cities R&D and Business Development Stockholm will be part of another test Controlling Online (ECO) that has been programmes, while incorporating within BeAware. The electricity con delivered to, for example, Citibank and knowledge on distributed renew sumption from seven major home ap Lufthansa. ECO offers solutions and ser able energy generation, smart grids pliances will be measured and displayed vices that can visualize the consump and energy storage as well as energy either in an Iphone or projected in the tion of electricity, heat and water by management issues from throughout home with a Watt-lite Twist torch. These providing raw-data values every quarter Vattenfall. tests and live system demonstrations of an hour via the Internet, Iphones or, provide important information on user for example, mobile telephones.

13 14 R&D MAGAZINE SUSTAINABLE CITIES gEOThERMal ENERgy Making use of a giant energy source deep under ground Hidden under the Earths surface, some two to four kilometres down in the bedrock, there is a source of energy that is extensive, sustainable and clean: geothermal energy. There is great poten tial for geothermal energy in Europe and Vattenfall is now evaluating the possibili ties concerning how heat and power from the subsurface can be used in the future. Within the R&D Programme mental performance, it is renewable, One obvious obstacle is the depth. Sustainable Cities, the sub-programme the production costs are low and it To get down to water with usable Geothermal Energy started just before is well suited for base load purposes temperatures, holes of up to four the summer. The task of the sub- in an energy system due to a stable kilometres (depending on geological programme is to gain knowledge about supply and no dependency of weather conditions, temperature gradient and different geothermal technologies conditions. on what technique is used) have to be and the possibilities for Vattenfall to Geothermal energy is energy in the drilled. Vast geological studies have to utilize and apply geothermal energy to form of existing heat below the Earths be conducted to determine areas suit city environments and new or existing surface that can be used to either able for geothermal operations. This district heating systems. The interest warm up, cool down or generate elec- means large initial costs when building in geothermal energy is slowly but tricity. Despite its benefits, however, geothermal sites. This in turn means steadily awakening, one reason being there are a number of obstacles to that, with few exceptions, geothermal that if utilized in the right way, it could overcome before geothermal energy energy and electricity generation bring lots of advantages. can become a commercial reality and in Europe is currently not economi The benefits of this energy source contribute to European energy supply cally viable. In Germany, government are several, says Peter Wiln, manag- to a larger extent. subsidies make the energy source er of the Geothermal Energy sub-pro- commercially interesting. For a wider gramme. Apart from a great environ- use of deep geothermal energy, the

14 R&D MAGAZINE SUSTAINABLE CITIES 15 Hot water geysers show the immense amount of geothermal energy stored under ground. EGS-technology, (Engineered or heat source and cooling source. Shallow and Vattenfall is currently utilizing the Enhanced Geothermal Systems) is systems are commercial viable in many joint competencies and skills within the promising. By using fracture technolo countries today but the heating and company to find ways of of applying gy, heat sources can be utilized at depth cooling applications needs to be further geothermal energy in the new district less dependent of natural flow condi developed and promoted. heating system that will be built in the tions than the conventional technology. We are conducting studies to iden new parts of Warsaw. The EGS- technology is well known to tify the potential and to find suitable The geothermal area is not new for day but needs to be further developed geothermal projects for us to run. The Vattenfall. Since 2003, Vattenfall has in various geological environments. The countries that we are studying are been running a geothermal pilot plant first plant though, is running in Soultz Germany, Poland, the Netherlands and in Neustadt-Glewe in Germany, provid in northern France. Denmark all of them with good, al ing valuable knowledge and geothermal though slightly different, conditions for competence. In addition to the Warsaw Geothermal energy can also be geothermal energy, says Peter Wiln. project, the new sub-programme is also extracted from the shallower ground One concrete example of a possible actively investigating the possibilities under the subsurface. In those systems Vattenfall project with commercial po for geothermal heating and cooling, and combinations with heat pumps are tential is to provide a new urban district a bit further down the road, electricity common. Systems for both heating and in Warsaw with geothermal energy. The generation. cooling can use the subsurface both as city itself has analysed the conditions

15 16 R&D MAGAZINE SUSTAINABLE CITIES SOlaR ENERgy Sunny times for solar power Despite a growing number of large installations, solar power generation is today characterised by hundreds of thousands of decentralised small scale systems on private and com mercial rooftops. However, solar technologies for large-scale generation are now being evaluated as a significant part of Europes future energy mix. Is this increasingly hot industry something for Vattenfall to consider?

16 R&D MAGAZINE SUSTAINABLE CITIES 17 in our long term strategies, says invested in an innovative project called Solar power comprises Richard Lawless, the Solar sub-pro Almere Sun Island. The project was gramme manager. started by Nuon and the municipal two main technologies: ity of Almere and completed in the Photovoltaics (PV) is a method Solar photovoltaic technology still be summer of 2010. It consists of an of generating electrical power by considered as an emerging technol island covered with 7000 m2 of solar converting solar radiation into ogy that is not yet competitive without collectors. Water is heated in the solar direct current electricity using subsidies. This is changing rapidly, collectors by the suns rays and then semiconductors that exhibit the however, with solar-generated power in pumped directly into the local district- photovoltaic effect. southern climates now achieving retail heating network of the new residential grid parity. In Germany, subsidies are area Noorderplassen-West. The solar Solar thermal energy (STE) is a set to converge with retail electricity island will supply 10 per cent of the technology for harnessing solar prices by 2014, and will most likely be districts annual heating needs. energy for heat generation. completely phased out within ten years. In a proactive step, Vattenfall Irrespective of this, based on these Europe New Energy, with the support government-supported feed-in tariffs, of Vattenfall Power Consultant, has Few utilities in the world operate investments in solar systems still gen been leading the assessment of solar power as a sizable fraction of erate an attractive financial return. Vattenfalls own roof space with respect their generation mix today. The Solar The leading industrial countries have to the integration of solar power. So sub-programme within the Group R&D indeed understood the potential of far, several megawatts of potential programme Sustainable Cities solar energy. In Germany, for example, capacity have been evaluated, albeit endeavours to assess how the rapid de there is already an ambitious pro with a wide variation in the suitability velopment and growth of this industry gramme and considerable subsidies of sites. will affect Vattenfalls core business of for solar power. In 2004, a number Vattenfall has been active in the selling electricity and heat. Following of cities, such as Berlin, Bonn and field of solar power for nearly 20 the resulting market assessment, the Wiesbaden, began to map the techni years. The Solar sub-programme solar sub-programme will also seek to cal potential of optimally-inclined and intends to benefit from, and bring identify what role Vattenfall can play oriented roof space. Now, more than together, the internal international in the medium to long term in order to 1 50 municipalities in Germany have experience and knowledge across participate effectively with solar power assessed the technical potential of Vattenfall. Among other investiga as part of its portfolio of services and solar power in the areas under their tions we have started a general study generation capacity. governance, using new mapping of solar thermal energy for assisted Conservative forecasts by the technologies that allow for the rapid district heating in order to explore International Energy Agency (IEA) say assessment of city landscapes with the main economic drivers behind that photovoltaic power generation respect to roof-mounted solar power. this technology and concept, says can provide 5 % of global electricity Vattenfall in the Netherlands has Richard Lawless. generation in 2030, and 11% in 2050. Solar energy technologies in general, including solar thermal, could provide up to 20 %. However, in Germany 5 % of the conventional generation nameplate capacity has already been reached through added solar capacity, and under the National Action Plan for the EU RES Directive (Renewable Energy Source) the government has set a bind ing target of 52 GWp (Giga Watt peak) installed capacity by 2020, increasing solar PVs share to 10 %. For this to be achieved, annual newly-installed capa city would only need to be 3.8 GWp; forecasts for 2010 estimate 8 GWp will be installed. The technical potential of solar power is immense, so it is important for Vattenfall to keep track of the development in this area. By 2020 it is foreseen that 70% of Europeans will be able to access solar energy at a lower price than retail energy from the grid, which as a pan-European organi sation is something we are considering Germany has an ambitious programme for small-scale solar energy generation.

17 18 R&D MAGAZINE SUSTAINABLE CITIES DISTRIBUTED gENERaTION Renaissance for distributed generation In the wake of industrialization, there has long been a gradual expansion of large-scale generation sources. The development of suitable technologies and the increasing demand for more renewable generation, however, has led to an opposite trend that could mean a true renaissance for distributed generation. The concept of distributed generation gramme. Now a more comprehensive is not new. Before the era of electrifica market study of distributed generation tion, starting in the beginning of the technologies is being considered. 20th century, small-scale power sources Heat pumps represent a typical distrib- like water or wind mills were often the uted generation technology that is heart of small factories and workshops. already widely used in some regions, for Now we are looking at the potential example the Nordic countries. A project for distributed generation in a modern and market study on heat pumps and densely-populated city environment. heat storage solutions in Germany is The ambition is to find sustainable solu now running on behalf of Business Unit tions that can reduce energy demand, Heat Germany. save costs and curb emissions, says The purpose of the project is to Dr. Jrgen Helmig, sub-programme compare stand-alone heat pumps that manager for Distributed Generation. follow the heat demand directly, with The main focus is on all types of centrally-steered heat pumps that Sustainable Cities Sub-programme managers distributed generation in the range optimally use cheap electricity and based i Berlin: Dr Jrgen Helmig (in the middle, lower than 5 MW, including combined store the heat until it is demanded, Distributed Generation), Tetyana Bogdanova heat and power production systems says Jrgen Helmig. (left, Metering Technologies), and Richard Lawless (Solar Power) (CHP), as well as single heat and single power generation systems close to the Another area of focus is the Organic customers site. Rankine Cycle (ORC) technology and Other ongoing projects are for example Vattenfall is investigating the vari- investigations on Heat pumps and A first overview of distributed genera ous products available on the market. solar thermal energy (University of tion technologies, for example internal A very interesting aspect here is the Lund, Sweden), Green heat in Warsaw combustion (IC) engines, fuel cells, installation of an ORC module at exist- and PROkleineKraft, a pilot project stirling engines, micro gas turbines and ing heat plants in order to generate that will demonstrate the technical and small-scale wind power generators has electricity by using hot water from the financial feasibility of the business idea been conducted within the sub-pro base-load boiler to drive the process. the virtual power plant.

18 R&D MAGAZINE SUSTAINABLE CITIES 19 The purpose of the project is to compare stand alone heat pumps that follow directly the heat demand, with centrally steered heat pumps that optimally use cheap electricity and store the heat until it is demanded. Architectural model with solar panels and windmill power generator.

19 20 R&D MAGAZINE SUSTAINABLE CITIES COOlINg SySTEMS A growing cool business With more energy efficient buildings and perhaps a warmer climate in the future, the demand for heating is expected to decrease while cooling solutions in office premises, homes and other buildings might become a growing business.

20 R&D MAGAZINE SUSTAINABLE CITIES 21 office segment, hotels and residential districts, as well as in private homes to whom we could offer a new product in the summer when the demand for heat is normally low, says Roland Hellmer. Another project for cooling from dis trict heating is also running in Warsaw. The project is using results from the German project and is now looking at customer behaviour in order to de velop a profitable business solution. Other cooling projects are looking at the possibility to use district-heating driven heat exchange systems for cooling (Uppsala) and are comparing A new range of absorption chillers and ventilation convectors can provide both heating and cooling in private homes and offices. traditional cooling systems with district cooling (Amsterdam). There are a number of solutions for cooling. Traditional cooling often We are planning implies electricity-driven compressor for a market intro cooling. This means small, cheap and easy-to-fit installations but strains the duction in 2011 2012. electricity system, especially in the The first commercial summer. However, other sustainable solutions are available. installations in offices By using cold water, cold air or and hotels have snow, or by using free energy, such as surplus heat or solar energy, it is already started. also possible to produce cooling. For example, absorption chillers use the energy in hot water to produce cooling, possibility to offer a competitive con mostly the heat in water-based heating cept for a standardized cooling system. systems. Groundwater cooling uses We are testing prototypes of modu water from an underground aquifer lar absorption chillers for offices and to produce cooling in the summer and households. They are operated by hot heating in the winter. It is even pos water from Vattenfall combined heat sible to produce cooling by using solar and power plants and can be used with energy. the existing heating infrastructure in houses. The new range has a capac We are trying to develop sustain ity from 50160 kW each and can able solutions for comfort cooling and be combined in modules to provide process cooling which are practically 50 320 kW. We will be able to offer a applicable, adjusted to local conditions convenient combined heat and cooling on the market and adaptable to local solution that can compete in terms conditions. At the moment we are pri of costs with traditional compressor marily looking at different solutions for chillers, says project manager Roland heat-driven cooling, says Anne-Marie Hellmer. Sjbohm, sub-programme manager for We are planning for an extensive Cooling Systems. market introduction in 201 12012. The first commercial installations in A promising project for district cool offices and hotels have already started. Vattenfall in Berlin has developed a solution with modular absorption chillers for offices and house- ing based on district heating is running The main target group is naturally holds. The absorption chillers are operated by hot in Berlin. The project is evaluating the our existing heat customers in the water from Vattenfall combined heat and power plants.

21 22 R&D MAGAZINE ANOTHER PERSPECTIVE aNOThER PERSPECTIVE How to make Amsterdam a Sustainable City All around Europe, the process of transiting cities to carbon-neutral communities has begun. At the Amsterdam Climate and Energy Office, energy strategies are being developed with a focus on reducing energy consumption in existing buildings in Amsterdam. Jannis van Zanten, working at this office, gives us an insight in this ambitious process. Amsterdam Amsterdam, with its 750 000 sure that the energy originated from is hard to make them financially viable. inhabitants (1.4 million if the suburbs are carbon sources is produced and distrib The city and NUON are thinking of co included), is the largest city and official uted in an efficient way for example by operating on cooling in the same way as capital of the Netherlands. Climate and connecting buildings to district heating on district heating to increase the use energy are prioritized issues for the city from power plants fuelled with fossil of this sustainable cooling method. and the goal for climate reduction is fuels and waste. 40% by 2025 compared to 1990s level. The main responsibility for climate ac Amsterdam is also looking for ways to In the energy strategy of the city, called tion lies with the city, because we have expand todays generation of electricity Different Energy, the focus lies on four set the goals for carbon reduction in the from renewable resources by developing different transition pathways: Build city. But we need everybody in the city wind power and, in a longer perspective, ings, Clean transports, Port and industry to cooperate and work together with us solar power and geothermal energy. and Sustainable energy. In the Climate to achieve success: energy companies, These are the local energy sources that and Energy Office of Amsterdam, 15 20 housing companies, the citizens and the city of Amsterdam believes will be of people work with renewable-energy everyone else. importance in a longer perspective. matters and to develop energy strate First we will develop windmills, says gies and CO2-reduction strategies for Today, about 50 000 houses (10%) Jannis van Zanten, and work in wind Amsterdam. Jannis van Zantens main are connected to the district-heating projects mainly on land offshore wind focus is on buildings and sustainable network, but this number is growing is also important but at a national level. energy. by 5 000 houses each year. This is due Second, in a longer perspective, we will Amsterdam has 400 000 houses to a close cooperation between NUON increase the use of solar PV system, on and a large amount of office space and the city, who have together set a roofs and on every surface that we dont 8 million square metres. We dont partnership goal of 100 000 connected use. This will start in approximately 10 have that much industry in Amsterdam houses in 2025 and 200 000 (50 %) years, today solar PVs are too expensive so we have a different focus than, for in 2040. For the future heating system, but we expect a lot from this technology example, Rotterdam with its enormous van Zanten believes in switching to bio in the future. industrial area. mass and connecting all the Amsterdam When asked what he considers to be carbon power plants to the heat grid, the greatest challenge for the future, To improve the climate performance and also adding hot-cold storage and van Zanten answers: How to reduce the of the buildings the city applies the geothermal heat to the energy system. use of energy in the existing city, how trias energetica: First, energy con Maybe CCS is an option for power to make the existing 400 000 houses sumption in new and existing buildings plants, Jannis says, but it is also very less energy consuming. This is a difficult is reduced due to improved insulation expensive and I dont think it will be an matter because of the many players and renovation. Secondly, efforts are alternative for the long run. In Am included in the game, but it is necessary; made to ensure that the energy used sterdam, we dont focus on CCS, or on the available amount of sustainable en comes from sustainable sources like the nuclear power. ergy in the future will be much less than wind, the sun or biomass. Step three is NUON has also started two district- todays cheap fossil fuels. to develop the energy systems to make cooling networks in Amsterdam but it

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