Participation Rhetoric or Community-Based Management Reality

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1 World Development Vol. 32, No. 5, pp. 793807, 2004 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved Printed in Great Britain 0305-750X/$ - see front matter doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2004.01.002 Participation Rhetoric or Community-Based Management Reality? Inuences on Willingness to Participate in a Venezuelan Freshwater Fishery BROOKE ANN ZANETELL American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC, USA and BARBARA A. KNUTH * Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA Summary. Community-based management (CBM) has progressed from the conceptual fringe to the dialogical heart of environmental management. Despite its rhetorical popularity, limited quantitative data exist on factors inuencing local involvement. A quantitative survey of three Venezuelan shing villages resulted in a predictive model of willingness to participate in CBM. Sense of community and shery dependence were signicant positive inuences. High level of concern about the current and future state of the shery correlated with an unwillingness to participate, indicating a defeatist attitude about perceived insurmountable problems. We explore sense of community, defeatist attitudes, and education in CBM project formulation and implementation. 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Key words local knowledge, sense of community, environmental attitudes, empowerment, South America, Venezuela 1. INTRODUCTION: COMMUNITY-BASED MANAGEMENT AND WILLINGNESS TO PARTICIPATE * For their generous support and contributions, the authors thank (a) Dr. Donald Taphorn, Director, and Community-based management (CBM) is the faculty and sta at the Museo de Zoologa at the receiving attention as a potential mechanism Universidad Nacional Experimental de Los Llanos Oc- for increasing the ecacy, legitimacy, and sus- cidentales Ezequiel Zamora and Carlos Hidalgo in tainability of natural resources management Guanare, State of Portuguesa, Venezuela; (b) Dr. Alex (Basnet, 1992; Western & Wright, 1994). Lit- Flecker, Cornell University; and (c) the residents of El erature on sheries management has espoused Potrero, Quebrada del Mam on, and Nueva Florida in alternatives to top-down practices that decen- the State of Portuguesa, Venezuela. The J. William tralize authority and enable communities most Fulbright Foreign Scholarship Board, the Institute of aected by management decisions to have a International Education, and the Cornell University greater say in those decisions (Christie, White, Agricultural Experiment Station provided funding for & Buhat, 1994; McCay & Jentoft, 1996). In the research. This manuscript was greatly improved by addition to devolving power to communities, the thoughtful insights and suggestions provided by peer these alternative CBM strategies call for site- reviewers for World Development. Final revision ac- specic analysis and management (Basnet, cepted: 8 January 2004. 793

2 794 WORLD DEVELOPMENT 1992, p. 393; Brandon, 1995, p. 143) responsive 2. METHODS to spatial and temporal variances in target species characteristics, habitat qualities, socio- (a) Study area political factors, and user-group cultures. The widespread interest in CBM, however, We measured willingness to participate in should be coupled with a critical evaluation of community-based shery management its feasibility as a practical alternative to con- (CBFM) in three shing villages along the ventional management systems. One compo- Portuguesa River in the state of Portuguesa, nent of that feasibility is the subject of this Venezuela. Originating in the Andean pied- research: willingness of local community mem- mont, rivers throughout the state of Portuguesa bers to participate in management of local and ow downward into the vast Orinoco River regional natural resources. CBM depends on oodplains called the llanos. This transition the sustained involvement of the local people coincides with a marked increase in sh species who nd themselves charged with management diversity, from 80 species in the piedmont of natural resources for the good of their local (Matthews, 1998, pp. 4041) to over 200 species community, as well as the long-term benet of in the llanos (Winemiller, Marrero, & Taphorn, the regional public. To date, there has been very 1996, p. 23). The two distinct physical portions little critical analysis of what factors motivate of these watersheds are linked ecologically local peoples willingness and ability to partici- through the biannual migrations of numerous pate. What analysis there is has typically sh species (Winemiller et al., 1996, pp. 16, 32). focused on factors such as the existence of local We selected the Portuguesa River because it is ecological knowledge (e.g., Ruddle, 1994), the one of the few commercially important rivers in extent of government/institutional decentral- the Orinoco basin that is not yet dammed. This ization (e.g., McCay & Jentoft, 1996), and ensures that shing practices of shers structural prescriptions for organizing local upstream and downstream were linked by resource user involvement (e.g., Christie et al., freely-migrating sh populations. 1994). Far less attention has been focused on For generations the well-being and livelihood local peoples own knowledge of policy alter- of shing communities along the Portuguesa natives or options or the relative importance of River has depended on exploitation of this these alternatives to other factors that inuence shery resource (Duran, 1995, p. 22). A grow- their participation patterns. ing Venezuelan population and market demand Because willingness to participate is a fun- for commercial sh species has increased shing damental component of any CBM eort, pressure by rural families who are augmenting research is necessary to assess the characteris- traditional artisanal shing with commercial tics that promote individual contributions to harvesting (Duran, 1995, p. 1). Fishery man- community oversight and environmental stew- agers and researchers are concerned by the ardship. By testing the inuence of a variety of recent decline of commercial sh species, rais- factors on willingness to participate in com- ing questions about the sustainability of current munity-based shery management in a rural shing practices and the potential loss of bio- Venezuelan watershed, the research reported diversity if these trends continue (Novoa, 1986; here increases our understanding of how to Winemiller et al., 1996). inuence willingness to participate in CBM. A 1997 national summary on sustainable This information should help managers focus development in Venezuela reported the growing on fostering willingness to participate in natu- economic crisis and ensuing poverty currently ral resource-linked communities so that stew- facing many Venezuelans including a strong ardship and local-level management will be process of concentration of wealth, increasing embraced and executed by the local people, traditional inequities (Bohorquez, Chacin, & making the professed benets of CBM achiev- Viana, 1997, p. 46). These socioeconomic trends able. As Drijver (1991, p. 131) noted about are combined with an increasing demand for sh individual agency and nature conservation, It in Venezuelan markets, requiring more supply of is important to know why people participate sh and driving prices up (Duran, 1995, p. 22). and why they support, adjust or resist the Given these circumstances, it can come as no project. Only if this is known, can one come to surprise that rural shers are tempted to use a better understanding of how and under what illegal techniques, such as weir seines, that conditions their participation might be intensi- promise plentiful harvests and, albeit short- ed upon. term, much needed economic reprieve.

3 PARTICIPATION RHETORIC OR CBM REALITY? 795 The failure of the current centralized man- spent in each village collecting the RRA qual- agement system to maintain a sustainable sh- itative data (see Zanetell & Knuth, 2002) that ery combined with the potential impacts on informed and shaped the subsequent quantita- rural shing families of either a physically- tive survey phase (reported here). reduced or legally-restricted shery makes considerations of CBFM appropriate from both biological and sociological perspectives. (c) Survey translations and pre-tests The Portuguesa River watershed provided a context in which to test the theoretical inu- A Venezuelan social scientist working in the ences of willingness to participate in CBFM. state of Portuguesa assisted with translating the We studied three villages along the Portu- survey instrument from English to Spanish. guesa River that were similar in population The Spanish version was pre-tested orally with size, distance from the river, and in their rela- a group of Venezuelans who shed regularly in tive interaction with the nearest sizable town. the Portuguesa River but did not live in any of By minimizing these dierences, comparisons the study sites. Each item was discussed in turn could be made between the villages uses of and with the group to clarify both item purpose/ impacts on the shery. Upstream to down- content and word usage so that the survey stream, the three villages were (i) El Potrero in could be as understandable as possible to the piedmont, and (ii) Quebrada del Mam on watershed residents. Subjective interpretation and (iii) Nueva Florida in the llanos. of survey questions and answers can be mini- mized by using the language and terminology (b) Research phases most familiar to the study group (Converse & Presser, 1986, pp. 1819). Furnishing the Spanning eight months in 1998, research vocabulary of research participants by incor- occurred in both the wet and dry seasons, porating regional dialects into survey instru- eliminating seasonal biases (Chambers, Long- ments (Egan, Jones, Lulo, & Finley, 1994, p. hurst, & Pacey, 1979). The eld work was 460) is particularly important where language conducted in phases including: site selection; use by illiterate and poorly-educated rural direct observation and the use of Rapid Rural populations can dier greatly from that taught Appraisal (RRA) techniques (Zanetell, 1999); in schools or spoken in nearby cities (Campbell, and a quantitative oral survey of village resi- Shrestha, & Stone, 1979, p. 128; personal dents (Table 1). Approximately a month was observation, 1998). Table 1. Field research phases, chronology, and participants Research activity Chronology Participantsa Aliation at time of research Site selection January 1998 B.A. Zanetell and B.A. Knuthb Cornell University Rapid Rural Appraisal FebruaryApril 1998 B.A. Zanetell and B.A. Knuth Cornell University (RRA) Survey preparation and MarchJuly 1998 B.A. Zanetell and B.A. Knuth Cornell University enumeration A. Schmitz (survey translation) UNELLEZc Undergraduate students (survey UNELLEZ enumeration) Wrap-up and August 1998 B.A. Zanetell and B.A. Knuth Cornell University presentation of preliminary results to in-country partners a All phases involved and depended on cooperation with residents of the three shing villages where the research was done. b As a graduate student, B.A. Zanetell had a Fulbright Fellowship to conduct the research in Venezuela and was in constant consultation with B.A. Knuth, her advisor at Cornell University in Ithaca, NY, USA. c Throughout the research phases, B.A. Zanetell enjoyed informal sponsorship by and collaboration with the faculty, sta, and students at the Universidad Nacional Experimental de Los Llanos Occidentales Ezequiel Zamora (UNELLEZ) in Guanare, State of Portuguesa, Venezuela.

4 796 WORLD DEVELOPMENT (d) Sample-size cooperative. Response validity was high because it was dicult to mislead the assistants Total households numbered 125 in El Pot- who had themselves grown up along the Por- rero, 90 in Quebrada del Mam on, and 92 in tuguesa River. Surveys in each village were Nueva Florida. We calculated the sample size given in a concentrated two-day eort during for each village using the following criteria: (i) June and July 1998. Survey training was done each village had a nite population determined the rst morning of each site visit. A round- by the number of households; (ii) the outcome robin training technique (Weinberg, 1983, pp. of the response variableWillingness to Par- 343347) taught correct voice level and pace, ticipateis binary across the villages (i.e. will- probing without leading, and how to record ing or not willing); and (iii) the test for responses. signicance is set at the 0.05 level; with (iv) a power to detect dierences of 0.15 between (f) The survey instrument: conceptual basis and villages. These criteria required a sample of 80 scale operationalization households in El Potrero, and 65 households in each of Quebrada del Mam on and Nueva A literature review and qualitative research Florida. (Zanetell & Knuth, 2002) in the study water- We used a random numbers table (Ott, 1993, shed informed the conceptual basis and survey p. A-23) to generate the sample for each village. instrument. We hypothesized that an individ- We actually surveyed 81 households in El uals willingness to participate in CBFM was Potrero, 66 in Quebrada del Mam on, and 74 inuenced by ve independent variables: (i) in Nueva Florida. In each village, only 13 dependence on the shery; (ii) perception about households refused to participate in the survey. the state of the shery; (iii) level of concern These refusals were handled by substituting the about the shery; (iv) perceived locus of declining household with the nearest house not authority over the shery; and (v) sense of already selected as part of the random sample. community (Figure 1). Scales measuring the dependent variable willingness to participate (e) Survey enumeration and the independent variables comprise a sur- vey given in the three Venezuelan shing vil- The survey was given orally in each site by a lages (Table 2). group of 10 young men and women from the three villages who attended the university in the (i) Dependent variable willingness to participate nearby city of Guanare. Village residency and Five survey questions evaluated villager higher education were a powerful combination. willingness to participate individually; change Existing rapport between villagers and enu- shing practices; work with other villagers; merators caused respondents to be highly participate with upstream residents; and par- Locus of Authority Perceptions about Level of the State of the Concern about Fishery the Fishery Dependence Sense of on the Community Fishery Willingness to Participate in Community-Based Fishery Management Figure 1. Flow chart depicting hypothesized relationships between the concepts theorized as inuencing willingness to participate in community-based shery management.

5 PARTICIPATION RHETORIC OR CBM REALITY? 797 Table 2. Survey concepts and response scales Concept Number of items Number of points on scale Anchorsa Willingness to Participate 6 4 4 very willing 1 not at all willing Dependence on the Fishery 11 items total 4 7 7 everyday 4 1 time/2 weeks 1 never 7 5 5 strong agreement 3 neutral responseb 1 strong disagreement State of the Fishery 3 3 3 perceived decline 2 no perceived changeb 1 no perceived decline Level of Concern 5 5 5 strong agreement 3 neutral responseb 1 strong disagreement Locus of Authority 3 5 5 strong agreement 3 neutral responseb 1 strong disagreement Sense of Community 16 5 5 strong agreement 3 neutral responseb 1 strong disagreement a Anchors are the end- and mid-points of survey responses available and their numerical coding for statistical analysis. b Responses of dont know were included in the neutral response category. ticipate with downstream residents to protect and the well-being of villages upstream and the shery. A sixth item asked respondents to downstream as a function of their proximity to assess the willingness of other villagers in the the Portuguesa River. same village to work together to ensure a sus- tainable shery. (iii) Independent variable state of the shery To assess perceptions about the current state (ii) Independent variable dependence on the of the shery we asked villagers to compare the shery current state of sh populations to normal Our survey assessed the practical and emo- conditions 10 years previous to the research tional dimensions contributing to an individ- including changes in sh abundance, sh size, uals dependence on the river and shery. and catch/eort. We used a 10-year recall Practically, villagers were asked about their period because qualitative research (Zanetell & seasonal frequency of shing and sh con- Knuth, 2002) suggested that this is when vil- sumption as well as about their reliance on the lagers began noting changes in the river and Portuguesa River for food and income. We shery. Scientists concur that physical and measured emotional dependence on the river biological changes in the Portuguesa River and shery by asking whether respondent began a decade previous to the research (Ag uin, happiness depended on living near the river and 1997, p. 6). whether it mattered to respondents if they lived near the river. Because the ability to satisfy (iv) Independent variable level of concern about economic and emotional needs is related to the shery overall sense of well-being, villagers also ap- We measured level of concern about the praised the well-being of his/her community current state of the shery by asking villagers to

6 798 WORLD DEVELOPMENT assess: the continued availability of the shery sider the conceptual linkage between sense of resource; the need for increased protection of community and willingness to participate in sh stocks; their concern for the future of the detail because of its relevance to sustainable shery; and their desire to pass a healthy shery development practitioners, natural resources on to their children. Respondents also managers, and academic researchers. appraised the current contribution to shery Community as a concept has both physical decline of shing practices in the resident, and emotional aspects that are experienced by upstream, and downstream villages. the members of the community. As a physical locale in which people live together, share ser- (v) Independent variable perceived locus of vices, and identify as their home, community authority over shery functions as one of the most basic levels of Locus of authority attempts to determine the organization of humans in time and place. The organizational levelranging from individual concept of community-based conservation to community to governmentthat respon- conveys a decentralization of natural resources dents believe is most appropriate for making management to the local level. Community also management decisions for the shery. This embodies the shared experiences that connect concept is recognized as an important compo- people living in the same locale. This results in nent of citizen participation in natural resour- an emotional sentiment about ones community ces management decisions and has been and neighbors that can include feelings of included in surveys measuring public percep- commitment and cohesion. These sentiments, tions of the fairness of state agency decision- felt at both the individual and group level, are making processes (Lauber, 1996, p. 88). In commonly referred to in community psycho- this study, a watershed residents orientation logy as sense of community (Sarason, 1974). toward bottom-up or top-down management is An individuals sense of community aects a theorized inuence on his/her willingness to his/her willingness to participate in activities to participate in eorts to conserve the sheries. help or improve the community (McMillan, For example, if a village sherman holds that 1996; St. Anne, 1999, p. 69). When communi- the government should have control over ties are confronted by a problem or threat, a management decisions for the shery, then he stronger sense of community may lead to a may not feel that CBFM is appropriate and his greater sense of purpose and perceived con- willingness to participate should reect this trol that results in increased willingness to conviction. participate in and contribute to eorts that Three agree/disagree statements measured benet the community (Bachrach & Zautra, locus of authority. An item asking respondents 1985). whether humans have any control over the We used a modication of Buckners 18-item shery was included because the majority of the neighborhood cohesion scale (1988) to measure people surveyed held strong Christian beliefs sense of community. This scale was developed (predominantly Catholic). A second item to assess the sense of cohesion and community assessed whether shery management should among residents living in the same neighbor- occur at the government or community level. hood within a larger town or city. It is recog- The nal item asked respondents if they had nized as one of the few scales designed to their own ideas about how to protect sh extrapolate sense of community measured at populations in the Portuguesa River. the individual level to the groupe.g., neigh- borhood or communitylevel (Puddifoot, (vi) Independent variable sense of community 1995, p. 363) and appears robust across dier- The preceding independent variables relate ent cultures (Robinson & Wilkinson, 1995, pp. directly to the declining shery resource. The 145, 147). The small population size of each of concept of sense of community is more theo- the three study villages makes each comparable retical, building on recent interest of environ- to a neighborhood in that residents know of mental planners and academicians (Gardner & or have interactions with almost everyone Stern, 1996, pp. 130133; Livingston, 1996; living within the physical boundary of each Vitek, 1996; Zanetell, 2000) and environmental village (personal observation, 1998). The results psychologists (Walsh, Craik, & Price, 1992; of the qualitative research phase (Zanetell & Zube, 1991) in the relationship between sense Knuth, 2002) suggest that residents of the of community and local-level participation in Portuguesa River watershed were most readily natural resources management. Here we con- able to relate to the questions posed by Buck-

7 PARTICIPATION RHETORIC OR CBM REALITY? 799 ners scale as compared to other survey We removed two Buckner scale items (fel- instruments (e.g., Chavis, Hogge, & McMillan, lowship, we vs. they) that our pre-tests and 1986, p. 29; Bollen & Hoyle, 1990, p. 497). past research (Robinson & Wilkinson, 1995) Table 3. Items included in Buckners Neighborhood Cohesion Scale adapted to measure sense of community in Ven- ezuelan shing villages Buckners original items Items adapted to this study Spanish translation Overall, I am very attracted to living Overall, you like living in this village En general, le gusta vivir en este in this neighborhood caserio I feel like I belong to this You feel like you belong to this Se siente que pertenece a este caserio neighborhood village I visit with my neighbors in their You visit with your neighbors in Usted visita a sus vecinos en sus homes their homes casas The friendships and associations The friendships and associations La amistad y las relaciones con la I have with other people in my you have with other people in your gente signica mucho para usted neighborhood mean a lot to me village mean a lot to you Given the opportunity, I would like Given the opportunity, you would Le gustara mudarse fuera de este to move out of this neighborhood like to move out of this village caserio If the people in this neighborhood were planning something Id think of it as something we were doing rather than they were doinga If I need advice about something If you needed advice about some- Si usted necesita consejo sobre algo, I could go to someone in my thing you could go to someone in podra pedirlo a alguien de su case- neighborhood your village rio I think I agree with most people in You think you agree with most Usted cree que esta de acuerdo con my neighborhood about what is people in your village about what is la gente de su caserio sobre lo que es important in life important in life importante en la vida I believe my neighbors would help You believe your neighbors would Usted cree que sus vecinos le ayu- me in an emergency help you in an emergency daran en una emergenca I feel loyal to the people in my You feel loyal to the people in your Usted se siente el a la gente en su neighborhood village caserio I borrow things from and exchange You borrow things and exchange Usted pide prestadas cosas e inter- favors with my neighbors favors with your neighbors cambia favores con sus vecinos I would be willing to work together You would be willing to work Usted estara dispuesto a participar with others on something to together with others on something junto con otros en algo para mejo- improve my neighborhood to improve your village rar su caserio I plan to remain a resident of this You plan to remain a resident of Usted planea quedarse en este case- neighborhood for a number of this village for a number of years rio por algunos a~ nos years I like to think of myself as similar to You like to think of yourself as Usted cree que comparte gustos y the people who live in this similar to the people who live in opiniones con la gente del caserio neighborhood your village I rarely have neighbors over to my You rarely have neighbors over to Casi nunca sus vecinos lo visitan a house to visit your house to visit usted a A feeling of fellowship runs deep between me and other people in this neighborhood I regularly stop and talk with people You regularly stop and talk with Con frecuencia usted se para y habla in my neighborhood people in your village con gente en su caserio Living in this neighborhood gives Living in this village gives you a Viviendo en este caserio le da a me a sense of community sense of community usted un sentido de comunidad a Item 6 and item 16 from Buckners scale were not used in the nal study scale of sense of community. Response alternatives for all items are (5) strongly agree, (4) agree, (3) neither agree or disagree, (2) disagree, and (1) strongly disagree. Item 5 and 15 are reverse coded because they are negative statements.

8 800 WORLD DEVELOPMENT indicated as inappropriate in this research items would load heavily on the same factor. context. Our nal modied Buckner scale Hypothesized scales in the items loading on measured residents sense of community in the dierent factors were regrouped to produce three villages (Table 3). scales consistent with factor loading results. Varying combinations of the resulting factors (g) Statistical analysis were tested by general linear univariate regres- sion to develop a signicant predictive model of We analyzed survey data using an SPSS 1999 willingness to participate. Path analysis was statistical software package for social science used to explain the model and test the t of the research with the objective to develop a pre- conceptual design to the resulting predictive dictive model illustrating the inuence that model. dierent variables (e.g., Dependence on the Fishery, Sense of Community, etc.) have on the dependent variable Willingness to Participate. 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION To prevent error in the recording of responses during survey enumeration, the verbal de- (a) Predictive model scriptors of response categories and their numerical scores on the written survey were in General linear univariate regressions on the same order for all questions with the same various combinations of the six factors and the response categories (DeVellis, 1991, p. 81). This Site variable resulted in two competing predic- required changing the direction of scoring for tive models of willingness to participate in some scales and their associated items during CBFM, one with Dependence on the Fishery data entry. In accordance with the conceptual driving the model when Site was excluded and framework, scores were recoded so that high vice versa. In both models, the eects of other scores were assigned to the response categories factors on Willingness to Participate are simi- corresponding to a greater hypothetical inu- lar. ANOVAs and v2 tests suggest that Depen- ence of the item measured on willingness to dence on the Fishery is linked so closely with participate. Site that each variable can replace the eects of The inuence of the site variable was mea- the other in the predictive model. In other sured using chi-square (v2 ) tests and one way management contexts with dierent spatial analysis of variance (ANOVA). v2 tests on arrangements of natural resources, a pattern dichotomous socioeconomic variables deter- between site and resource dependence may not mined whether the observed dierences exist. Therefore, Dependence on the Fishery between the three villages were empirically is considered rather than Site in the interpre- signicant. Ordinal socioeconomic variables tation of the willingness to participate predic- were compared to the variable Site and the tive model. dependent variable Willingness to Participate A path diagram illustrates the resultant pre- using one-way ANOVAs to detect signicant dictive model (Figure 2). The Willingness to dierences and thus potential explanatory Participate factor was the dependent response power in the predictive model. Signicant dif- variable and the other ve factors were the ferences (or lack thereof) detected by one-way independent variables. The results conrm that ANOVAs justied the inclusion in or exclusion all of the theoretical inuences are signicant from the nal predictive model of these socio- predictors of willingness to participate in com- economic variables. One-way ANOVAs munity-based shery management in the Por- between scale items and the Site variable tuguesa River watershed. The direction and determined whether to include Site in the nal amount of inuence, however, were not in predictive model of willingness to participate. accord with the positive relationships predicted Reliability and validity tests were done on the for each concept. survey data from all villages together rather Dependence on the Fishery was the main than separately, increasing generalizability of eect driving the predictive model of the the results from site-specic to the watershed inuences on the dependent variable Willing- scale. The reliability of the scales was tested by ness to Participate. Sense of Community not calculating Cronbachs alpha and examining only had a positive main eect on Willingness interitem correlations within scales. Factor to Participate, but also interacted signicantly analysis was used to test scale validity and with the remaining hypothetical inuences. clarify item inclusion. It was expected that scale This suggests that the inuence of Sense of

9 PARTICIPATION RHETORIC OR CBM REALITY? 801 Dependence on the Fishery +.194 +.133 Sense of Willingness to Community Participate +.169 -.109 -.177 -.182 State of the Current Future Fishery Watershed Concern Concern for Fishery Figure 2. A path diagram illustrates the predictive model of theoretical inuences on willingness to participate. Note: Bold arrows indicate signicant main eects. Narrow arrows indicate signicant interaction eects. Numbers are the beta coecients from the linear equation for the model. Community may be highly linked and related from an agricultural to a shing economy in the to the strength and behavior of the other Portuguesa River watershed and an increase in inuences on Willingness to Participate. female respondents in shing households where Of the signicant interactive factors, only adult males (shermen) were less likely to be State of the Fishery had a positive interactive found in their homes at the time of the survey eect, whereas Future Concern for the Fishery than agricultural laborers. A one-way ANOVA and Current Watershed Concern had negative showed no signicant dierence between gender interactive eects on Sense of Community and and items measuring Willingness to Participate; its main eect on Willingness to Participate. therefore, gender was not included in the pre- Future Concern for Fishery also had a negative dictive model. main eect on the model. One possible expla- ANOVA results show that respondent age nation for these negative relationships is the (F 2:598, p 0:077), years of formal educa- presence of a defeatist attitude. For low levels tion (F 1:695, p 0:186), and household size of concernboth for the watershed and for the (F 1:512, p 0:223) do not dier signi- futurewillingness to participate increases cantly between sites. Length of residence rapidly as sense of community increases. At (F 12:968, p 0:000) and standard of living high levels of concern, however, the rate of (F 13:576, p 0:000) dier signicantly, respondent willingness to participate tapers o. possibly due to site occupational dierences. This suggests that once a threshold level of Whereas length of residence has been identied concern is reached, the problems seem insur- as a contributor to community attachment mountable and villagers do not believe they can (Theodori & Lulo, 2000, p. 408), our ANOVA eectively do anything to alleviate the shery results show that sense of community items do decline. not dier signicantly in response to length of residence. (b) Site comparisons One-way ANOVAs show that overall there is a signicant dierence between villages for v2 tests show that occupation inuences the scale items from all of the concept areas except socioeconomic dierences between sites, and state of the shery suggesting that the univari- one-way ANOVAs indicate Site should be ate regression used to develop the willingness to considered in the path analysis. v2 tests indicate participate predictive model should include the that occupation (v2 0:000, df 2), boat/ Site variable. As noted in the prior section on canoe ownership (v2 0:000, df 4), and the predictive model, the Dependence on the respondent gender (v2 0:000, df 2) dier Fishery variable, rather than Site, was used in signicantly between the three sites. This the predictive model because of the substitut- reects an upstream to downstream transition ability of these two variables.

10 802 WORLD DEVELOPMENT (c) Reliability and justication for data 5759) was used on factor loadings because of aggregation the likelihood of correlations between scales measuring the hypothetical inuences on will- To determine if data from each site should be ingness to participate. Missing values were analyzed separately or aggregated, Cronbachs excluded listwise from the factor analysis. It alpha was calculated for the three sites sepa- was expected that item loadings for each scale rately and the data set as a whole for each of would cluster together on distinct factors. Four the six scales (Table 4). Similar Cronbachs of the proposed scales were retained as factors alpha values for the aggregated data set and for including: (1) Willingness to Participate, (2) the sites separately justify aggregation of the Dependence on the Fishery, (3) State of the data set to develop a predictive model of will- shery, and (4) Sense of Community (Tables 5 ingness to participate at the watershed level. and 6). For the aggregated data set, a low Cronbachs Items from the level of concern scale and the alpha for the locus of authority and for the locus of authority scale loaded onto two dis- level of concern scale prompted reconsideration tinct factors, reecting a separation between of the items theorized to comprise these scales. items relating to current watershed concern and To increase reliability, an item from each scale items relating to future concern for the shery was removed that had been understood poorly (Table 7). The level of concern scale and the by respondents during survey enumeration locus of authority scale were converted to two (personal observation, 1998). Interitem corre- new factors: (1) Current Watershed Concern lations within scales further conrmed the and (2) Future Concern for the Fishery (Table reliability of the six scales. A matrix showing 7). these correlations was not included because of Cronbachs alpha was calculated for the nal the large number of items (40). six factors produced by the factor analysis (Table 4). The nal Cronbachs alpha values of (d) Validity all the scales were suciently reliable for the purposes of this research (Spector, 1992, p. 32). We performed a factor analysis on all items The values for Dependence on the Fishery, included in the scales to assess their validity and Sense of Community, Willingness to Partici- further conrm that items correspond appro- pate, and Current Watershed Concern demon- priately to the theorized components of will- strate very strong scale reliability (Carmines & ingness to participate (DeVellis, 1991, p. 107). Zeller, 1979, p. 51). The results of the reliability Oblimin rotation (Kim & Mueller, 1978, pp. and validity tests indicate that the six factors Table 4. Cronbachs alpha values for (1) concept scales before and after item removal from level of concern and locus of authority scalesa and (2) nal concept scales after factor analysis regrouping Scale El Potrero Quebrada Nueva Aggregated data set Final concept del Mamon Florida scales after Before item After item factor analysis removal removal regrouping Willingness to 0.8686 0.8244 0.8376 0.8686 0.869 Participate Dependence on the 0.7791 0.8068 0.8032 0.8978 0.898 Fishery State of the Fishery 0.6726 0.4798 0.6594 0.5758 0.576 Level of Concern 0.6961 0.6460 0.7067 0.5572 0.6903 Locus of Authority 0.5246 0.4349 0.5993 0.1307 0.5305 Sense of Community 0.7995 0.7841 0.9076 0.8952 0.895 Current Watershed 0.761 Concern Future Concern for 0.640 Fishery a Cronbachs alpha values for each site were calculated after the removal of items from the Level of Concern and Locus of Authority scales.

11 PARTICIPATION RHETORIC OR CBM REALITY? 803 Table 5. Factor analysis of willingness to participate, dependence on shery, and state of the shery scalesa Item Rotated factor loadings Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 Factor 4 Factor 5 Factor 6 Willingness to Participate Personal participation 2.587E)02 0.606 )8.34E)02 )0.104 0.130 )0.295 Change shing practices 7.363E)02 0.646 6.078E)02 )8.76E)02 5.533E)02 )0.119 Willingness to work in group 3.535E)02 0.710 3.572E)02 )0.140 3.991E)02 )0.125 Estimated village 0.120 0.589 )0.125 )8.40E)02 )0.134 )0.161 participation Work with villages upstream 9.314E)02 0.817 )4.47E)02 6.951E)02 0.111 6.374E)03 Work with villages )1.14E)03 0.785 )4.98E)02 )0.106 2.586E)02 2.840E)02 downstream Dependence on Fishery Frequency eat sh dry season 1.819E)02 7.551E)02 )1.046E)03 )0.654 )6.826E)03 )5.148E)02 Frequency eat sh wet season 3.878E)03 5.595E)02 2.669E)02 )0.763 )2.673E)02 4.015E)02 Frequency shing dry season 5.017E)02 8.072E)02 )1.948E)02 )0.679 4.187E)02 )0.100 Frequency shing wet season 9.335E)02 7.600E)02 )8.361E)02 )0.735 3.695E)02 6.153E)03 Part of happiness 9.834E)02 )0.266 4.828E)03 )0.606 )7.785E)03 )9.143E)02 Important to live near river 4.677E)02 )0.135 6.983E)02 )0.528 )0.136 )0.161 Ability to provide food 4.541E)02 )7.728E)02 1.351E)02 )0.873 )4.216E)02 4.454E)02 Ability to make money 6.009E)02 0.137 5.802E)02 )0.767 5.645E)02 8.829E)02 Well-being of Village 1.944E)02 0.112 7.147E)02 )0.708 )3.780E)03 3.912E)02 Well-being sites upstream 1.382E)02 0.290 1.665E)02 )0.474 0.170 0.126 Well-being sites downstream 3.955E)02 5.656E)02 5.608E)02 )0.411 0.349 )0.161 State of the Fishery Fish abundance )0.145 )4.56E)02 7.857E)04 4.893E)02 0.635 )0.104 Average sh size 2.336E)02 0.151 0.137 0.103 0.671 0.167 Catch/eort 4.926E)03 8.755E)02 3.505E)02 )3.60E)02 0.763 8.971E)02 a Boldface values indicate items loading most heavily on each factor. Willingness to Participate Scale, Dependence on the Fishery Scale, and State of the Fishery Scale were converted into Willingness to Participate, Dependence on the Fishery, and State of the Fishery Factors, respectively. are suitable for univariate regression to develop eorts. In particular, a detected tendency a predictive model of willingness to participate. toward a defeatist attitude in villagers highly concerned by their perceptions of shery decline could be alleviated by adult education 4. CONCLUSIONS and outreach. Our research suggests that will- ingness to participate and thus CBM could be The recent popularity and widespread initi- enhanced by extension eorts that raise villager ation of CBM eorts are outpacing research on awareness of science and policy options for the ecacy of such programs and the criteria recovering and sustaining a healthy Portuguesa necessary for CBM application. Our research River shery. For shery managers, these on the factors inuencing willingness to par- results have practical implications on how to ticipate has highlighted both the inroads and increase the participation of local users in the barriers to involving local users in natural community-based management eorts. resources management. Dependence on the Fishery and Sense of Community are signi- (a) Defeatist attitude cant inuences that would likely require long- term outreach and intervention to change. In Our results suggest that villagers who are the short term, Perception of the State of the highly concerned about the shery may feel Fishery, Future Concern for the Fishery, and discouraged by what seem to be insurmount- Current Watershed Concern are factors that able problems. This suggests a defeatist atti- are more likely to respond to intervention tude. Research on environmental behavior

12 804 WORLD DEVELOPMENT Table 6. Factor analysis of sense of community scalea Item Rotated factor loadings Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 Factor 4 Factor 5 Factor 6 Sense of Community Like living in village 0.509 )0.214 )0.313 3.274E)03 0.238 )0.258 Feel belong to village 0.648 )0.194 )0.179 )7.044E)03 0.227 )0.282 Visit neighbors homes 0.607 )3.106-02 )3.112E)02 )4.276E)02 1.460E)02 )6.273E)02 Village friendships impor- 0.606 2.234E)02 0.115 )5.260E)02 9.790E)02 )3.481E)02 tant Would not like to move 0.332 )0.124 )0.116 )0.391 3.909E)02 0.106 Advice available in village 0.591 0.213 0.142 )0.108 )3.391E)02 5.210E)02 Agree on what is important 0.673 0.187 3.669E)02 )2.843E)02 )9.074E)02 0.210 Help available in emergency 0.656 8.664E)03 )7.948E)02 )0.136 )6.726E)02 1.091E)02 Feel loyal to other villagers 0.787 0.110 0.136 6.046E)02 )5.886E)02 4.149E)02 Borrow and exchange favors 0.640 0.142 6.356E)02 )8.691E)02 )0.146 0.177 Willing to work together 0.471 0.347 0.110 2.373E)02 )0.186 )0.166 Plan to stay in village 0.700 )3.855E)02 )0.116 1.413E)02 5.867E)02 )0.128 Feel similar to other villagers 0.765 5.901E)02 7.503E)02 )0.145 1.752E)02 0.170 Villagers visit your house )6.220E)02 7.958E)02 )6.115E)02 )0.401 )0.113 )1.170E)02 Talk regularly with others 0.588 )0.100 1.178E)02 )4.550E)02 8.854E)04 )7.145E)02 Have sense of community 0.711 4.785E)02 7.623E)02 4.140E)02 )0.148 )5.703E)02 a Boldface values indicate items loading most heavily on each factor. Sense of Community Scale was converted into Sense of Community Factor. Table 7. Factor analysis of level of concern and locus of authority scalesa Item Rotated factor loadings Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 Factor 4 Factor 5 Factor 6 Level of Concern Want increased protection of the )4.39E)02 0.394 1.92E)02 )3.97E)02 1.61E)02 )0.595 sheryb Worry for future sh Populationsb 4.02E)02 0.250 0.104 5.43E)02 )2.67E)02 )0.673 Want sh for future Generationsb 0.178 7.80E)02 1.95E)02 )0.154 )0.182 )0.484 Village shing causing Declinec )4.94E)02 2.22E)02 0.786 )1.10E)02 )5.03E)02 0.129 Upstream shing causing Declinec 5.26E)02 )0.119 0.870 )1.94E)02 9.75E)02 )7.15E)02 Downstream shing causing Declinec 5.61E)02 )0.134 0.845 0.111 0.139 )0.156 Locus of Authority Village should have Controlc 8.25E)02 )7.05E)02 0.399 )0.246 6.39E)02 )0.307 Individual input for Managementb )2.58E)02 0.140 0.116 )0.282 )2.60E)02 )0.385 a Boldface values indicate items loading most heavily on each factor. b These items converted to a factor called Future Concern for the Fishery. c These items converted to a factor called Current Watershed Concern. suggests that this defeatist attitude may be may be technological or social; for example, the related to the presence or absence of empow- substitution of new shing techniques or the erment factors in the user group which give formation of new policies that enable local people the sense that they have the power and users to harvest the resource more sustainably. skill to act in ways that will resolve environ- mental issues (Byers, 1996, p. 86). User group People may know that a practice has negative environ- empowerment is related to having options, or mental consequences, and also hold values that would being aware of options, to current environ- lead them to change their behavior, all else being mentally-damaging practices. These options equal. But they may have no options, alternatives,

13 PARTICIPATION RHETORIC OR CBM REALITY? 805 or opportunities. . . Lack of options can act as a bar- ences can, in some circumstances, contribute to rier to behavioral change (Byers, 1996, pp. 3637). conict and disagreement. Therefore, even as our results draw more In the Portuguesa River watershed, indica- attention to the important role of sense of tions of a defeatist attitude may reect a per- community in enabling CBM, this eld of study ceived lack of options for individuals to would also benet from further knowledge contribute to shery restoration and prevent its about how to foment community cohesion and further decline. commitment, particularly where conict and A shery professional could combat this tensions exist. Progress on how to enhance sense defeatist attitude by raising ecological under- of community and its empowering eects is standing and assisting villagers to learn prac- being made in literature on civil society (Eberly, tical ways to contribute to shery restoration. 1994), social capital (Putnam, 1995), and col- This could be done through environmental laboration (Wondolleck & Yaee, 2000). education and communication programs that Further research on sense of community is aim to increase ecological knowledge and important both to learn more about its inu- understanding while teaching actual skills that ence on natural resources management and to empower villagers to sh more responsibly and learn more about how to develop community sustainably. Hungerford and Volk (1990) noted spirit in situations where its absence is a limi- that knowledge of ecology alone does not, in tation to the fruition of CBM. itself, produce [sound] environmental behav- ior. This is clearly the case in the Portuguesa Conducting such an inquiry and analysis represents River watershed where local users have an the substantive strength of social research and, conse- intimate familiarity with the physical, climato- quently, is the basis for the meaningful contribution logical, and ecological factors inuencing sh that social research can make to the development of behavior and activity, yet continue to sh in alternative sheries management strategies (Davis & ways that contribute to shery decline. Hung- Bailey, 1996, p. 263). erford and Volk (1990) concluded that the ultimate aim of education is shaping human Such research will contribute to our under- behavior. Therefore, shery managers would standing of how to preserve biological diversity be wise to incorporate locally-based education along with cultural diversity and rural tradi- and communication programs into their man- tions which are at the heart of participation in agement agendas because sheries manage- community-based management (Kleymeyer, ment is not management of sh but of 1996). shermen (McCay, 1980, p. 36). Our results also suggest that further research is needed on assessing local users perceptions (b) Sense of community of locus of authority over shery management. Our locus of authority scale failed to produce Our results suggest that sense of community signicant results, yet the literature supported does have a signicant inuence on user group its inclusion as a hypothetical inuence on willingness to participate in CBM. This sup- willingness to participate. This suggests that ports the observation of Jentoft and Sandersen further research is needed on developing mea- (1996, p. 302) that alternative approaches to sures of locus of authority. Our scale focused sheries management were more eective in on who could and should have power and villages where community spirit was strong. authority over the shery. Assessments of locus The tendency to consider shing communi- of authority may need to give more attention to ties as homogeneous social units despite evi- villagers current perceptions of who does have dence of a complex array of vested interests power and authority over the shery. (Davis & Bailey, 1996, p. 260) suggests that it may not be wise to presuppose that residents of (c) CBM and sheries management: the the same locality have shared feelings of com- importance of local involvement mitment to that place and to each other. Research indicates that social, economic, gen- The research presented here is not meant to der, and ethnic dierences within a community be an evaluation of the professed merits of signicantly aect individual values, concerns, community-based management, but rather a and priorities (Thomas-Slayter, Esser, & deeper exploration of the basic foundation Shields, 1993; Welbourn, 1991). These dier- upon which CBM dependssustained

14 806 WORLD DEVELOPMENT involvement of the local people. Through con- possibility for appropriate and eective CBM sideration of a declining shery in a rural by ensuring that the components necessary for Venezuelan watershed, an attempt was made to its successsuch as willingness to participate further highlight what contributes to and and sense of communityare present and well- motivates willingness to participate in commu- developed. For these abstract concepts to nity-based shery management. become more concrete they need to be studied The resulting predictive model served to and monitored regularly. This research shows underscore the importance of sense of com- that from conception through maturation of a munity by illustrating its interaction with the CBM project, simple statistical methodse.g., other inuences on willingness to participate in quantitative surveys and predictive models CBFM. The results of this research enable can be adapted to this purpose that (i) measure, those involved with any process that decen- (ii) inform outreach that engenders, and (iii) tralizes management to take a more pro-active monitor the presence of variables inuencing role engendering partnerships and shared goals. willingness to participate. Although species CBM should not be treated as a transition of decline in the Portuguesa River watershed is power, but rather as a collaborative process alarming, extinction is preventable and shery between user groups and managers for foster- restoration is possible, particularly if local ing stewardship values and an enduring com- shing families participate in conservation mitment to sustaining natural resources. eorts, making the professed benets of CBFM Natural resources managers can increase the achievable. REFERENCES Ag uin, C. (1997). Area de manejo integral de recursos Carmines, E. G., & Zeller, R. A. (1979). 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