Featuring works by Brahms, Gershwin, Ravel, Schubert, Strauss

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1 ALSO BY RACHEL BARTON PINE ON CEDILLE RECORDS Featuring works by Brahms, Gershwin, Ravel, Schubert, Strauss, and many more BRAHMS & JOACHIM VIOLIN CONCERTOS Chicago Symphony Orchestra / Carlos Kalmar Recordings dont get any better than this... Astounding! ClassicsToday.com BEETHOVEN & CLEMENT VIOLIN CONCERTOS Royal Philharmonic Orchestra / Jos Serebrier In all, a brilliantly mounted testament to a pair of musicians Pine and Serebrierwho relish the exploration of music for its own sake and for the exaltation of familiar works which resist our intellectual complacency. Audiophile Audition SCOTTISH FANTASIES Alasdair Fraser, fiddle; Scottish Chamber Orchestra / Alexander Platt Everything about this release by violinist Rachel Barton Pine is exceptional. ClassicsToday.com AMERICAN VIRTUOSATRIBUTE TO MAUD POWELL Matthew Hagle, piano Rachel Barton Pine . . . open[s] our ears to unfamiliar masterworks, outstanding arrangements and an important piece of American history. Minnesota Public Radio CAPRICHO LATINO ESOTA 7 From start to finish, I was absolutely mesmerized by this CD. There isnt a really weak link among the 14 pieces, and Barton Pines prowess as a violinist has, I think, never been more boldly or excitingly displayed. Fanfare Rachel BaRton Pine, violin Find more Rachel Barton Pine recordings at cedillerecords.org Matthew Hagle, piano

2 bo Maurice Ravel (1875 1937): Berceuse sur le nom de Gabriel Faur Rachel Barton Pine, violin (Lullaby on the name Gabriel Faur) (2:25) Matthew Hagle, piano bp Rebecca Clarke (18861979): Lullaby (3:00) 1 Johannes Brahms (18331897): Wiegenlied (Cradle Song), No. 4 bq Franz Schubert (17971828): Wiegenlied (Cradle Song), from Fnf Lieder, Op. 49 arranged by Albert Spalding (2:20) D 498 / Op. 98, No. 2, arranged by Mischa Elman (2:15) 2 Eugne Ysae (18581931): Rve d'Enfant (Childs Dream), Op.14 (3:49) br Robert Schumann (18101856): Schlummerlied (Slumber Song), No. 16 from Albumbltter, Op. 124, arranged by Hans Sitt (3:38) 3 Vladimir Rebikov (18661920): Berceuse (Lullaby), No. 1 from Trois Morceaux, Op. 7 (1:44)* bs Lucien Durosoir (1878 1955): Berceuse (Lullaby), No. 4 from Cinq aquarelles (2:52) 4 Amy Beach (18671944): Berceuse (Lullaby), No. 2 from Three Compositions, Op. 40 (3:44) bt Edvard Grieg (18431907): Vuggevise (Cradle Song), No. 1 from Lyric Pieces, Op. 38, arranged by Hans Sitt (2:28) 5 Ludwig Schwab (18801943): Berceuse cossaise (Scottish Lullaby) (3:54)* ck Mikhail Antsev (18651945): Berceuse (Lullaby), No. 1 from Four Pieces (3:05)* 6 Ottorino Respighi (18791936): Berceuse (Lullaby), No. 1 from Sei Pezzi (3:30) cl Richard Strauss (18641949): Wiegenlied (Cradle Song), No. 1 from Fnf Lieder, Op. 41, arranged by Anonymous (3:43)* 7 George Gershwin (18981937): Summertime from Porgy and Bess arranged by Igor Frolov (from his Concert Fantasia on Themes cm Camillo Sivori (18151894): Berceuse (Lullaby), Op. 30 (3:59)* from Gershwins Porgy and Bess) (3:45) cn Victor Braud (1840??): Petite Reine Berceuse 8 Manuel de Falla (18761946): Nana (Lullaby), No. 5 from Siete (Lullaby for a Little Queen), arranged by Edward Elgar (3:30) canciones populares espaolas arranged by Paul Kochanski (2:06) co William Grant Still (18951978): Mother and Child, No. 2 9 Gabriel Faur (18451924): Berceuse (Lullaby), Op. 16 (3:45) from Suite for Violin and Piano (6:18) bk Jean Sibelius (18651957): Berceuse (Lullaby), No. 6 cp Max Reger (18731916): Wiegenlied (Cradle Song), No. 1 from Six Pieces, Op. 79 (2:25) from Drei Kompositionen, Op. 79d (1:34) bl Pauline Viardot-Garca (18211910): Berceuse (Lullaby), No. 3 from Six Morceaux (2:34) Digital-only tracks available for download on iTunes bm Alan Hovhaness (19112000): Oror (Lullaby), Op. 1 (2:38) Alexander Ilyinsky (18591920): Berceuse (Lullaby), No. 7 from Noure et Anitra, Op. 13, arranged by Alfred Moffat (1:48) bn Igor Stravinsky (18821971): Berceuse (Lullaby) from The Firebird (2:55) Xavier Montsalvatge (19122002): Nana (Lullaby) (2:31) Betty Jackson King (19281994): Lullaby (2:41) *WORLD PREMIERE RECORDING 2 3

3 To my darling Sylvia, Personal Note and to my mom for singing to me so beautifully. My first exposure to music was not at a concert. It was not on the radio. It was the sound of my mothers voice as she sang a lullaby to me, just as her mother had sung to her, and her mother before her. The sweet tone of my mothers voice and her perfect intonation lulled me to sleep or, as I got older, kept me awake so as not Producer James Ginsburg Engineer Bill Maylone to miss a note! Editing Jeanne Velonis Technical Editing Bill Maylone Recorded October 26, 28 & 29 in the Fay and Daniel Levin Performance Studio at 98.7 The first song I sang to my newborn daughter as I cradled her in my arms was Summertime. The second was Sweet Child O Mine. I sing to her every day: the WFMT, Chicago, Illinois Brahms and Schubert lullabies are now part of our bedtime routine, as well as those Violin ex-Soldat Guarneri del Gesu, Cremona, 1742 from various folk traditions. Some of my most cherished moments are when my Strings Vision Titanium Solo by Thomastik-Infeld Bow Dominique Peccatte husband joins me and sings to her in an octave lower. There is something universal Piano Steinway Technician Ken Orgel about the sound and feel of a lullaby melody, with a tempo and cadence derived Front Cover Design Marc Whittacre Inside Booklet & Inlay Card Nancy Bieschke from the way we intuitively rock our infants. Hearing these beautiful little songs trig- Cover and Inlay Photography Sylvia Pine, age two weeks gers our nurturing instincts or takes us back to pleasant childhood memories. 2011 Wendy Benner Photography While the birth of my first child inspired this album, the repertoire had been in the Publishers information to come at cedillerecords.org back of my mind for a long time. Over the years, Id noticed two things: 1. many composers have written works titled Berceuse (Lullaby) or Wiegenlied (Cradle Cedille Records is a trademark of The Chicago Classical Recording Foundation, a not-for-profit foundation devoted to promoting the finest musicians and ensembles in the Chicago area. The Chicago Classical Recording Foundations Song). 2. Quite a few violinists have recorded collections of Romances by various activities are supported in part by contributions and grants from individuals, foundations, corporations, and government composers. The idea of deeply exploring the lullaby as a genre fascinated me. To my agencies including the Irving Harris Foundation, Kirkland & Ellis Foundation, MacArthur Fund for Arts and Culture at knowledge, no violinist has made an album comprised entirely of Berceuses. Prince, Negaunee Foundation, Sage Foundation, and the Illinois Arts Council, a state agency. This project is partially In the course of my research, Ive collected more than 150 lullabies for the violin. supported by a CityArts grant from the City of Chicago Department of Cultural Affairs and Special Events. The majority were written for the instrument. Others were transcriptions of piano or CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE CHICAGO CLASSICAL RECORDING FOUNDATION vocal pieces. Many were out of print and by composers who are truly obscure today. MAY BE MADE AT WWW.CEDILLERECORDS.ORG OR 773-989-2515. In the Victorian era, however, some of these lesser-known gems appeared in one or more collections of Favorites listed as the (now forgotten) composers Celebrated CEDILLE RECORDS trademark of Berceuse. The Chicago Classical Recording Foundation 1205 W Balmoral Ave., Chicago IL 60640, USA The more familiar with these works I became, the more variety I discovered. Some felt 773.989.2515 tel 773.989.2517 fax CEDILLERECORDS.ORG designed to send someone to sleep, warm and comforted. Others seemed to de- CDR 90000 139 P & C 2013 Cedille Records scribe sleep itself, floating and dreamy. There were so many appealing compositions All Rights Reserved. Made in U.S.A 4 5

4 enough to program several albums. I had to make difficult decisions about which The Berceuse Egypt and Greece, mothers might pieces to include. The selections were based purely on musical merit, and I was have accompanied their cradle songs pleased to discover that the winners picked for the CD and the three download-only Notes by Pamela Blevins on the lyre or harp, forerunners of tracks include two Spanish (Falla and Montsalvatge), two African-American (King and Still), and four women (Beach, Clarke, King, and Viardot-Garca) composers. The lullaby, cradle song, or slumber contemporary instruments such song was born before language. as the violin, the instrument many Short and beautifully elegant, these pieces are perfect for a classical music novice of From ancient times to the present, consider closest to the singing voice. any age. Yet a connoisseur will find this repertoire as compositionally sophisticated mothers have known instinctively that as longer works by the same composers. In each interpretation, I strove to express gently rocking their babies in their The birth of the lullaby and the origin arms while humming or singing a soft of its name are unknown. One of the love that fills my heart each day I spend with my precious baby. An unusual aspect of this recording is that half of the tracks are performed with a melody is a soothing and comforting the earliest possibilities dates back mute a device that sits on the violins bridge and restricts its strings vibration, inducement to tranquility and sleep. to an ancient Roman nurses song thereby dampening the sound. A mutes shape and the material used to make it of which only this fragment remains: have an amazing impact on the variety of tone colors the instrument can produce. I The lullaby is a natural form of music Lalla, Lalla, Lalla, /Aut dormi, aut am very grateful to my dear friend Fred Spector, retired first violinist of the Chicago that music historians have called lacta (either sleep, or nurse). In Symphony Orchestra and owner of the worlds largest collection of string instrument the genesis of all song. The cradle more recent times, Lullay, Lullay, litel mutes, for allowing me access to his collection. I ultimately categorized the muted song, as we know it today, is rooted child appeared in a 1372 English works as warm (Beach, Durosoir, Faur, Respighi, Schubert, and the end of the Schwab), delicate (Ilyinsky, Ravel, Reger, Sivori, and Viardot-Garca), and mysterious in the folk traditions of all nations and manuscript, while references to cradle (Antsev, Falla, and Hovhaness), and selected a different mute for each group. They is known by as many names as there songs (cradyl songes) appeared in matched the spirit and character of the music perfectly. I hope you enjoy experienc- are languages in the modern world: print as early as 1398. ing each of them. Berceuse in French, Wiegenlied My special thanks also go to Scottish fiddler David Gardner for his advice about (cradle song) or Schlummerlied In its classical form, the Berceuse, or the Schwab, and to soprano Nancy Pifer for her insights about the Brahms, Falla, (slumber song) in German, Oror in lullaby was pioneered by Frdric Gershwin, Schubert, Montsalvatge, and Strauss songs. Armenian, Vuggevise in Norwegian, Chopin in 1843, with his Berceuse for and Nana in Spanish, among them. solo piano. The most famous example Whether you purchased this album to enjoy classical violin pieces for yourself or as a is, of course, Johannes Brahmss tool to help calm a small child, I hope it brings you many years of pleasure. Lay thee The earliest of these songs were Wiegenlied or, as it is popularly down now and rest, may thy slumber be blessed.* passed down through the generations known in English, Brahmss Lullaby. Rachel Barton Pine, 2013 by oral tradition long before the Although he never married, Brahms advent of musical notation. In ancient (18331897) fell in love many times. *from Brahmss Lullaby (common English lyrics) 6 7

5 In 1858, he met the young Austrian as the King of the Fiddlers. Although been a leader in the Russian avant Composition was as natural to her as singer Bertha Porubszky; she often Ysae enjoyed fame, fortune, and garde, he is best remembered today the piano. She had begun to compose sang folksongs to him, including a love good future prospects, his home life for pleasant piano pieces that recall at the age of five; her earliest extant song that stayed with him for many was darkened by a cloud. His infidelity the lyrical expression of Tchaikovsky piece is titled Mammas Waltz. years. Later, after Bertha had married had driven a wedge between him and Grieg. Rebikov composed many Beach studied counterpoint for Arthur Faber and had her second and his wife Louise. Several months short pieces for and about children one year, but was otherwise a self- child, Hans, Brahms dedicated his after Antoines birth, Ysae was with titles such as Children Skating taught composer who spent many Wiegenlied, based on a variation of touring the United States. During and The Little Girl Rocking her Doll. hours reading scores and learning that song, to Bertha and her husband a stop at Niagara Falls, he wrote to The Berceuse heard here comes from orchestration on her own. She was for cheery general purpose use. Louise, Tears come to my eyes at his Trois Morceaux (Three Pieces), highly regarded in Boston circles In a letter to the Fabers, Brahms the thought of Antoine precious Op. 7, composed in 1895. and soon gained the attention of Dr. wrote, Frau Bertha will immediately mite ... how I am dying to take him H.H.A. Beach, a Boston surgeon and see that I composed the cradle in my arms. Ysae put that longing From the age of one, it was clear amateur musician whom she married song yesterday [August 17, 1868] into his poetic Rve dEnfant (Childs that music inhabited the soul of Amy in 1885. He was 42, Amy was 18. They specifically for your little one. The Dream), which he dedicated mon (Cheney) Beach (18671944). Gifted had no children. Beach composed American violinist Albert Spalding ptit Antoine. Originally composed with perfect pitch, she could hum her most important works during the (18881953) is among many who for violin with orchestra, Ysae later 40 tunes accurately, and in key, after period of her marriage: a symphony, have arranged Brahmss Wiegenlied transcribed it for violin and piano, a she first heard them. At age two, she piano concerto, chamber music, for violin and piano. When the theme version he published in 1901. astounded visitors to the family home solo piano pieces, and many songs. is repeated, Spalding has the violin when she suddenly sang Handels After Dr. Beachs death in 1910, Amy play harmony as well as melody, so Vladmir Rebikov (18661920) had his See the Conquering Hero Comes resumed her performing career. ear tuned to the future and developed it sounds like the single violinist is at the top of her childs voice. Her Composed in 1898, her Berceuse is playing a duet. musical innovations that were ahead mother, an amateur pianist and the second of her Three Pieces for of his time. He was one of the first teacher, gave Amy her first lessons. Violin and Piano. By the time the fourth of his five composers to use the whole tone When Amy was eight, her parents children, Antoine, was born in April scale and tone clusters a favorite settled in Boston, enabling their Ludwig Schwab (18801943) met 1894, Belgian violinist, composer, technique of twentieth century only child to experience musical life the Czech violinist Jan Kubelik when and conductor, Eugne Ysae (1858 modernists such as Henry Cowell and and pursue piano studies. She made both were students at the Prague 1931) was known throughout Europe Gyrgy Ligeti. Although Rebikov had her concert debut as a pianist at 16. Conservatory. A violinist, violist, 8 9

6 pianist, and occasional composer, Festivals, composed between 1917 children. Elsa Respighi survived her in F, and An American in Paris. He Schwab spent 14 years touring the and 1928. He began his professional husband by 60 years, dying a week composed Porgy and Bess in 1933 world as Kubeliks piano accompanist. instrumental career as a violist in before her 102nd birthday, in 1996. and 1934. It premiered in Boston In 1912, Schwab received the the Russian Imperial Theater in St. and opened in New York in 1935. enormous sum of $8,000 from the Petersburg. During his five months George Gershwin (18981937) was The opera begins on Catfish Row, a wife of a wealthy New York broker living there, he studied composition born in Brooklyn as the second child poor tenement in Charleston, South to serve as the exclusive pianist for with Rimsky-Korsakov. A scholar of of Russian immigrants. He developed Carolina. The sultry night is alive with functions at her home. Schwab later 16th to 18th century music, Respighi an interest in music when he was ten activity a dice game, dancing, a became the violist with the New York drew upon those periods for his years old. By the time he was 15, he pianist playing a honky-tonk tune String Quartet, founded in 1919. After own compositions. In The Birds, he was working as a pianist plugging but the mood shifts as Clara is heard his years in the United States, Schwab freely adapted the music of four songs for a publisher on New Yorks singing the lullaby Summertime settled in Australia, where he married 17th and 18th century composers. Tin Pan Alley. He made piano rolls to her baby. Despite their poverty, pianist Merle Robertson. In 1903, his For his Ancient Airs and Dances, he and worked as an arranger before his Claras words attempt to soothe her friend Kubelik married a countess drew upon Baroque guitar music and first commercial success at 19 with baby with words of hope and the (and niece of a former Hungarian Renaissance lute pieces, including the piano piece Rialto Ripples. Two optimism that life is good: the living premier) who bore him eight children. one by the father of Galileo. In years later, Al Jolson made Gershwins is easyyoull spread your wings and Schwab dedicated his folk-influenced addition to orchestral music, Respighi Swanee famous and the young take to the skynothing can harm Berceuse cossaise (Scottish composed opera, ballet, chamber composer was on his way to a career you with Daddy and Mammy standing Lullaby) Madame Marianne music, and vocal/choral works. He in both popular and classical music. by. But life is not good. Clara and Kubelik. The opening melody has originally conceived his Berceuse for He composed numerous Broadway her husband die, leaving the baby the sound of a traditional Scots tune, string ensemble. It became the first musicals, often with his lyricist brother orphaned. After Claras death, Bess but its origin is not known. of his Sei Pezzi (Six Pieces) for violin Ira, and later composed music for holds the baby and sings only the first and piano, all of which he adapted, Hollywood films. In 1922, Gershwin verse of Summertime, up to the Ottorino Respighi (1879 1936) between 1901 and 1904, from composed the one-act jazz opera words so hush, little baby, dont you was a composer, musicologist, previous works. He completed the Blue Monday. It fell flat with critics but cry, poignantly omitting with Daddy conductor and violinist/violist who Six Pieces 15 years before he married was a forerunner to Porgy and Bess. and Mammy standing by. Gershwins is best known today for his trilogy of his former pupil, mezzo-soprano and Two years later, Gershwin had his most popular song, Summertime orchestral tone poems: Fountains of composer Elsa Olivieri-Sangiacomo first classical success with Rhapsody has been recorded approximately Rome, Pines of Rome, and Roman (in 1919). Their union produced no in Blue, followed by his Concerto 25,000 times. Although Gershwin 10 11

7 never married, he had a long-term refusing to publicize his music or seek organist, eventually securing a post at that education in Berlin and Vienna. relationship with composer Kay Swift. fame. He became disillusioned with the famous Church of the Madeleine His early music reflects his affinity Russian-born composer and violinist Francos victory in the Spanish Civil in Paris. He began to achieve for Finnish sagas and his profound Igor Frolov arranged Summertime War and, despite illness, emigrated recognition as a composer in his earlycommitment to Finnish nationalism. for violin and piano as part of his 1937 to Argentina for the last five years 30s. Faur was a leader in promoting In 1899, he composed the work Concert Fantasia on Themes from of his life. Falla never married. His contemporary French music while that made him famous, his patriotic Gershwins Porgy and Bess. To make Nana (Lullaby) is one of his Siete setting new standards with his songs, Finlandia. Sibelius was very attuned Summertime work as a stand-alone canciones populaires espaolas works for piano, and chamber music. to nature, finding inspiration in piece outside the larger Fantasia, (Seven Spanish Folksongs) for Later, he taught composition at the the woods surrounding the rustic pianist Matthew Hagle has added a voice and piano, completed in Paris Paris Conservatory and became its lakeshore home, Ainola, that he few bars of introduction based on the in 1914. He dedicated the work to director in 1905. In 1877, he fell in named for his wife. A powerful and theme that leads into the song in the Madame Ida Godebska (18721950), love with Marianne Viardot, daughter original voice in twentieth century opera. the Russian-born muse to many of singer Pauline Viardot-Garca, but music, Sibelius composed seven artists, musicians, and writers in Paris. Marianne ended the relationship, symphonies, numerous tone poems, Although Manuel de Falla (1876 Polish violinist Paul Kochanski (1887 plunging Faur into depression. He chamber music, incidental music 1946) is regarded as an important 1934) published his arrangement of married in 1883 and had two sons. and a major violin concerto. In 1892, twentieth-century composer, he Nana for violin and piano in 1925. One became an acclaimed biologist, Sibelius married Aino Jrnefelt, whose produced relatively little music the other a writer. Composed siblings included two prominent compared with other composers of Gabriel Faur (18451924) was the between 1878 and 1879, the Berceuse painters, a composer/conductor, his generation. Greatly influenced youngest of six children born to a for violin and piano is among Faurs and a writer. The Sibeliuses had six by Spanish folk songs and dances, non-musical family. When he was a earliest works. daughters between 1893 and 1911. his music is alive with rhythms and boy, he loved to play the harmonium The Berceuse is the concluding work sensuous in its evocation of night, in a chapel attached to his village Jean Sibelius (18651957) studied in Sibeliuss Six Pieces for violin and gardens, and the spirit of Spain. Falla school. An elderly blind woman who violin as a child and dreamed of piano, dating from 1917. composed ballets, an opera, stage heard him play recognized his talent becoming a virtuoso. His instrumental works, several orchestral works, songs, and told Faurs father, who had the talent was not equal to his dreams, Pauline Viardot-Garca (18211910) and instrumental music. He lived in wisdom to allow his son to study however. Sibelius began studying was a renaissance woman, born in Paris for seven years, then settled in music. After completing his studies, law in 1885, but gave it up within a Paris to a family of Spanish musicians. Granada, Spain, living a reclusive life, Faur embarked on a career as an year to pursue music. He furthered Her father, Manuel Garca, was a 12 13

8 famous voice teacher; her mother writer. Viardot-Garca composed many cultures. Hovhaness was a made Stravinsky famous overnight. Joaquina, a soprano, actress and instrumental music, more than 100 prolific composer of 67 symphonies, The Firebird is based on a Russian teacher; and her elder sister, Maria songs, operettas, and, at the age of numerous concertos, chamber music, folk tale about a magical bird with Malibran (18081836), one of operas 83, a grand opera. Her Berceuse is orchestral works, and instrumental plumage of fire. In the ballet, the first superstars. Pauline showed from her Six Morceaux pour Piano music that features instruments Firebird is half-woman and half-bird, remarkable intelligence and talent et Violon (Six Pieces for Piano and not commonly heard in the West. and rescues a prince held captive by from an early age, exhibiting a facility Violin), composed in 1868 and Hovhaness married six times but had the evil Kashchei. The Firebird lulls for languages and a gift for painting dedicated to her son Paul. only one daughter, Jean Christina Kashchei and his followers to sleep as well as music. Her first love was the (Nandi), a harpsichordist. His Oror with her lullaby, allowing the prince piano. She had some instruction from The music of American composer (Lullaby) for violin and piano is a to escape. Stravinsky created three Liszt and began playing concerts Alan Hovhaness (19112000) reflects very early work, possibly begun when different orchestral suites from the at 14. When she was 15, however, his interest in Eastern and Near he was only 11 years old and revised ballet. The second and most popular her mother closed the piano and East cultures and his own mysticism when he was 15. includes the hypnotic Berceuse. started giving her singing lessons. and spirituality. Born in Somerville, In 1906, Stravinsky had married Massachusetts, Hovhaness began Igor Stravinsky (18821971) cut Viardot-Garca became one of the his cousin Katerina with whom he composing seriously in his teens. a path through music that ignited great singers of her day, prompting had four children. He arranged the He was only 14 when his first opera controversy, rage, even a near-riot, Brahms, Schumann, Faur, and Berceuse for violin and piano in 1929 was performed. He studied at the but his once-radical ideas became others to compose for her. After and dedicated it to Paul Kochanski. New England Conservatory, but quickly absorbed into the fiber of she retired from the stage at 41, her unlike the majority of composers twentieth century music. In 1913, Maurice Ravel (1875 1937) studied friend Clara Schumann encouraged of his generation, he was drawn his Rite of Spring ballet caused composition with Faur at the Paris her to embark on a career as a not to Western ideas but to those pandemonium at its premiere when Conservatory. Despite their age virtuoso pianist. Viardot-Garca found in the East: including India, the audience, unaccustomed to its difference, the two became good focused instead on composition and Arab nations, Japan, Armenia, and pulsing rhythms, dissonances, and friends. Born in the Basque region of teaching. She had married the French unexpected outbursts of sound, France, Ravels parents encouraged theater impresario Louis Viardot in Greece. He traveled to these lands, studying their music, philosophies, shouted and stamped their feet in him to pursue his musical talents as 1840 and had four children with him. and societies, and created a body of anger. The scene was very different both pianist and composer. In the Her daughter Louise was a composer, distinctive and exotic compositions three years earlier at the premiere of early 1900s, he joined the Society singer, and teacher; her son Paul, a that assimilates the music of The Firebird, a complete success that of Apaches, a group of composers, violinist, composer, conductor, and 14 15

9 including Stravinsky and Manuel de of Music, and viola with Lionel Franz Schubert (17971828) and Robert Schumann (1810 1856) Falla, who considered themselves Tertis. Clarke enjoyed a successful Richard Strauss, like Brahms, composed his Albumbltter (Album outcasts because of their progressive career as a violist, performing in composed vocal versions of the Leaves) for solo piano over a period tendencies. Ravel welcomed new ensembles and orchestras and lullaby that have been transcribed of 13 years, from 1832 to 1845, and ideas and was later influenced by touring as a soloist, often with cellist for violin and piano. Schubert was dedicated it to his young daughters American jazz. He never married May Mukle, in England, Europe, and a prolific composer, whose output Marie, Elise and Julie. Album and was not known to have had the United States. She was among includes some 1,000 works, including Leaves contains 20 pieces of which relationships other than his deep the first six women to become over 600 songs, despite his early Schlummerlied (Slumber Song) is commitment to music. In 1922, a full members of a professional death at the age of 31. Schubert the 16th. Schumann married pianist request to compose a piece to honor London orchestra. Clarkes earliest breathed new life into the art song and composer Clara Wieck in 1840, Faur resulted in Ravels Berceuse, compositions date from 1907. She and imbued it with a sensitivity after a contentious legal battle with which he also dedicated to Claude composed chamber music, songs, and melody that make it ripe for her father, Schumanns former piano Roland-Manuel, the newborn son of and choral works. Although she violin transcription. His Wiegenlied, teacher Friederich Wieck. He did not Ravels friend, the music critic Alexis admitted being influenced by many composed in November 1816, is the want his daughter to throw herself Roland-Manuel, who later became schools of music, she developed second of three songs, Op. 98. The away on a penniless composer. Ravels biographer. The piece is her own distinctive voice, variously origin of the text (Sleep, sleep, Within months of the marriage, called Berceuse sur le nom de described as ravishing, exotic, and gracious, sweet boy, / softly rocked by Schumann composed more than Gabriel Faur (Lullaby on the name emotionally intense. Clarke visited your mothers hand) is uncertain, 160 songs. The next year, 1841, he Gabriel Faur) because the first 12 the United States many times but although it is sometimes attributed to produced the first two of his four notes spell out Faurs name, using always considered herself British. German poet Matthias Claudius. The symphonies. Although Schumann the system whereby after G, H=A, I=B She eventually settled in New York, Russian-born violinist Mischa Elman continued to compose prodigiously, . . . N=G, and again, O=A, P=B . . . where she became reacquainted with (18911967) transcribed this piece he was not earning enough money U=G, to create the beginning: G-A- James Friskin, a composer, pianist, for violin around 1910, when he first to support Clara and their seven B-D-B-E-E F-A-G-D-E. and friend from the Royal College began arranging music. Elman, who children. So Claras fees as a touring of Music. They married in 1944 when was also a fine pianist, dedicated the concert pianist constituted the Rebecca Clarke (1886 1979) was both were in their late 50s. Clarke transcription to Percy Kahn, his friend familys principle source of income. born in England to an American father composed many lullabies for violin and accompanist for many years. Schumanns career as a composer and German mother. She studied or viola and piano. The one heard on was cut short by the mental illness violin at the Royal Academy of Music, this album dates from 1918. that claimed his life in 1856, at the composition at the Royal College 16 17

10 age of 46. The Hungarian violinist Aquarelles (Five Watercolors) for Pieces, Book II, dating from 1883. It Ahna, with whom he had one child, and composer Hans Sitt (1850 1922) violin and piano is an early work was arranged for violin and piano by a son Franz. The song, however, arranged Schlummerlied for violin dating from 1920. Hans Sitt. was a gift of love and gratitude to and piano. Frau Marie Rsch, the daughter of Edvard Grieg (1843 1907) received Mikhail Antsev (18651945) was a Strausss friend Alexander Ritter, a The music of Lucien Durosoir his first musical instruction at the age composer, choral conductor, teacher, violinist to whom Strauss owed much (1878 1955) might have vanished of six from his mother, an amateur author, and editor born in Smolensk, of his success. When Strauss was had his manuscripts not been found pianist. He composed his first piece, Russia. He studied composition with 21, Ritter convinced him to drop the and brought to light by his son. Variations on a German Melody, Nicolai Rimsky-Korsakov at the St. conservative style that had marked Prior to World War I, Durosoir was at nine. By the time he was 15, music Petersburg Conservatory, from which his music up to that time. As a result, a successful violinist whose playing was pouring from him. The violinist he graduated in 1894. Antsev settled Strauss went on to light the musical mesmerized audiences with its and composer Ole Bull immediately in Vitebsk, Belarus in 1896. There he world with his incandescent brilliance, nobility and beauty. Like many men recognized the teenagers gifts. taught choral singing. He also served bringing music into the 20th century. of his generation, Durosoir fought According to Grieg, Bull com- as editor of the local newspaper from Wiegenlied became one of Strausss in the war, witnessing the ultimate manded his parents to send him to 1905 to 1912. He was a co-founder most popular songs; he orchestrated in horror, as he described it to the Leipzig Conservatory. Most of of the Vitebsk Peoples Conservatory it in 1916. The uncredited arranger his mother. It was during this time Griegs early compositions were for in 1918, where he lectured on music of the violin version likely is Strauss that he began his first attempts at piano or voice and piano. His first history and conducted the choir. himself: the violin arrangement and composition, convinced that his major orchestral work, the beloved Antsev authored textbooks and a original song were both published in efforts would become fruitful. Piano Concerto in A minor, dates from music dictionary. In addition to his 1899, and it was common practice at Although he survived 55 months as 1868, the year after he married his first own compositions, he collected the time for song composers to write a soldier, he was never the same. cousin, Nina Hagerup, a lyric soprano. Belarusian folk songs. His Berceuse instrumental versions themselves. An accident in 1921 marked the end Neither set of parents approved. The dates from 1899. of his concert career. He turned his Griegs often performed together A violin prodigy, Camillo Sivori attention to composition, retreating to great acclaim. They had only one Richard Strauss (18641949) com- (1815 1895) was the only pupil of from Paris to relative isolation in a child, a daughter, Alexandra, who posed his Wiegenlied for voice and the great Paganini. The master was French village where he composed died from meningitis a year after her piano on August 22, 1899, during so impressed by the child that he mainly for orchestra and chamber birth. Griegs Vuggevise is the first a family holiday in Bavaria. In 1894, composed a concertino and six ensembles. His Berceuse from Cinq of eight works for piano in his Lyric Strauss married soprano Pauline de sonatas for Sivori. Although Paganini 18 19

11 wanted Sivori to accompany him on it as unconventional. The ordi- William Grant Still (18951978) Symphony, New York Philharmonic, his travels, Sivoris parents refused nary character of the berceuse, began his musical education in Little 1935); the first to conduct a major because they felt the boy was too with its sentimental theme above a Rock, Arkansas, where his teacher- orchestra (Los Angeles Philharmonic, young. He had a highly successful rushing script, had been departed mother moved from Mississippi 1936); and the first to conduct an career as a touring artist, with travels from almost entirely, and we after the death of her husband. Stills orchestra in the Deep South (New throughout Europe, the United have an elegant piece. Perhaps mother subsequently remarried, to a Orleans Philharmonic, 1955). Still States, and South America. Sivori Blackbourne/Braud is so little known man who encouraged his stepsons settled in Los Angeles, where he eventually married and had one for his music because his main career interest in music, taking him to arranged music for films, including known son, Federico, who died in appears to have been as an actor in live performances and buying him Pennies from Heaven and Lost 1916. Sivoris compositional output, various English touring companies, recordings. A versatile musician, Still Horizon. Still married twice. He had largely forgotten today, includes two performing mainly in comedies. Elgar, taught himself to play six instruments four children with his first wife, whom violin concertos and numerous pieces an acquaintance of Blackbourne, in addition to his formal violin studies. he married in 1915, and two with for violin. A late work, the Berceuse wrote to him on March 23, 1886: Still began composing at Wilberforce pianist and writer Verna Arvey, whom remains his best-known composition. Please consider the arrangement University, a Black college in Ohio. he married in 1939. Stills Mother of your Berceuse entirely your own His original plan to become a doctor and Child, from his 1943 Suite for Victor Braud was the pseudonym property; I, of course, always intended soon faded. After studying at Oberlin Violin and Piano, was inspired by a of Englishman G. Frank Blackbourne, that. Little of Blackbournes music is Conservatory, he played in orchestras lithograph by African-American artist whose Petite Reine, Op. 24, for piano available today: the song Primroses and arranged popular music, working Sargent Claude Johnson (1888 1967). was arranged for violin and piano by and Violets and several piano for W.C. Handy, Sophie Tucker, Paul Edward Elgar in 1886. Blackbourne pieces published under his Victor Whiteman, and Artie Shaw, among Max Reger (18731916) was a is an obscure figure today; not even Braud pseudonym, a name perhaps others. He composed eight operas, younger contemporary of Strauss the exact year of his death is known, adopted in an effort to keep his two five symphonies, ballets, chamber whose music moved between the although it appears he was born careers separate. His last known music, and instrumental works. A abstract and academic. A pianist, in 1840 in Worcestershire, where composition was published in 1911. pioneer among African-Americans, organist, conductor, and teacher, Elgar also lived. An 1886 newspaper Elgar was a little known composer of Still was the first to have an opera he was a prolific composer whom review of Petite Reine (Little increasing promise when he arranged produced by a major company (New scholars and musicians credit with Queen) called Elgars arrangement, Petite Reine. The arrangement was York City Opera, 1949); the first to emancipating dissonance to a level a remarkably meritorious one. not published until 1907, when Elgar have a symphony performed by a that enabled Arnold Schoenberg Another report, a year later, praised was famous. major orchestra (his Afro-American to develop serialism. His gentle, 20 21

12 lyrical Wiegenlied gives no hint composed between 1893 and 1894. writers in the Catalonia region of of the abstract qualities that later Ilyinsky studied at the Berlin and Spain, Monsalvatge studied music influenced Bartk, Berg, Hindemith, St. Petersburg Conservatories. He in Barcelona. Although he initially Prokofiev, and Schoenberg. Although taught at the Moscow Philharmonic planned a career as a violinist, Regers music is heard relatively rarely Society School of Music and Drama composition soon absorbed him today, the theologian and physician until 1899, when he resigned to and continued to do so from his Albert Schweitzer declared, The concentrate on private teaching. early 20s until his death at the age significance of Regers work will only Ilyinsky also wrote and edited several of 90. Montsalvatge was also a music be appreciated in the future. After books. While his music has found little journalist and teacher. In 1945, he Reger married in 1902, he and his appeal among audiences today, an composed the song Cancin de cuna wife Elsa adopted their daughters excerpt from his opera, The Fountain para dormir a un negrito (Cradle Christa in 1907 and Lotti in 1908. The of Bakhchisaray was used in the 1938 song for a little black boy) as part of Wiegenlied is the first piece in Regers film, Flash Gordons Trip to Mars. his Five Black Songs for voice and three-movement Suite for Violin and His Berceuse must have been very piano. He later orchestrated the song Piano, composed between 1902 and popular in its day because it is found and produced other arrangements, 1904, published posthumously in in numerous collections. The Scottishincluding Nana for violin and piano 1917 as his Op. 79d. composer and music collector Alfred in 1957. Montsalvatge also wrote Edward Moffat (18631950) arranged music for and about children, such as The following descriptions are of Ilyinskys Berceuse for violin and his magic opera based on the Puss lullabies that are not on the CD but piano. in Boots fairy tale and his Songs are available as digital-only tracks for Children settings of childrens on iTunes (see listing on page 3 of Xavier Montsalvatge (19122002) poems by Federico Garca Lorca. booklet). represents the rich, colorful, and Montsalvatge married Elena Prez de evocative tradition of twentieth Olaguer in 1947 and had two children To the extent that Alexander Ilyinsky century Spanish music, enhanced by with her, Xavier and Yvette. Max Reger with his daughter Clara (18591920) is remembered at all his own innovative ideas, including Photo: Max-Reger-Institut/Elsa-Reger-Stiftung, Karlsruhe today, it is for his Berceuse, which the use of West Indian idioms, Cuban Betty Jackson King (19281994) is the seventh movement of his habaneras, and jazz. Born into a was an American composer, pianist, orchestral Suite Noure et Anitra, family of businessmen, artists, and 22 23

13 arranger, educator, and advocate Wildwood, New Jersey, where she RACHEL BARTON PINE Photo by Andrew Eccles for Black musicians. Her mother, returned to teaching in the public and Israel Chamber Orch- Gertrude Jackson, taught music at schools while continuing to compose, estras; and the Netherlands the Southern Christian Institute in perform, and play an active role in Radio Kamer Filharmonie. She has worked with such Mississippi, where King first heard the community. In an effort to further renowned conductors as the spirituals that influenced her improve opportunities for Black Charles Dutoit, Zubin Mehta, compositions. After the family musicians, she became President of Erich Leinsdorf, Neeme Jrvi, returned to Gertrudes native Chicago, the National Association of Negro John Nelson, Marin Alsop, and Betty studied at the Chicago Musical Musicians in 1982. In addition to Placido Domingo. College of Roosevelt University, where spirituals and arrangements, Betty Her festival appearances have she earned her bachelors degree Jackson King composed instrumental included Marlboro, Ravinia, in piano. She went on to earn her works, songs, three operas, a cantata, and Salzburg. Her recital masters degree in composition with and a requiem. Her Lullaby is scored In both art and life, violinist Rachel Barton performances have included the complete her sacred opera Saul of Tarsus, set for flute and piano. Rachel Barton Pine has an extraordinary ability to connect Paganini Caprices, all six Bach Sonatas to a libretto by her father Frederick, Pine adapted it for violin. with people. Celebrated as a leading and Partitas, Beethovens complete a minister. The Jackson family was interpreter of classical masterworks, works for violin and piano, and the world active in the Chicago community, her performances combine her innate premiere of the last movement of Samuel gift for emotional communication and Barbers long-lost 1928 Violin Sonata. She forming a center for the welfare and her scholarly fascination with historical regularly plays and records with John education of young people in music, Mark Rozendaal and David Schrader as research. She plays with passion and dance, and spiritual endeavors. Betty conviction across an extensive repertoire. the period instrument ensemble Trio combined with her string playing Pamela Blevins is the co-founder (with Audiences are thrilled by her dazzling Settecento. mother and sister Catherine to form Karen Shaffer) and editor of the free online technique, lustrous tone, and infectious Pine writes her own cadenzas to many the Jacksonian Trio, which toured magazine, Signature, Women in Music, a joy in music-making. of the works she performs, including the nation. Betty pursued a teaching publication of the Maud Powell Society for Pine has appeared as a soloist with concertos by Beethoven, Brahms, career, first in the Chicago public Music and Education. Mozart, and Paganini. She is the first many of the worlds most prestigious en- schools and later as a professor at sembles including the Chicago, Montreal, living composer to be published as part Dillard University in New Orleans. Vienna, and Baltimore Symphonies; of Carl Fischers Masters Collection She married in the 1950s and had a the Philadelphia Orchestra; the Royal with the release of The Rachel Barton daughter. She eventually settled in Philharmonic, the Mozarteum, Scottish, Pine Collection, a collection of original 24 25

14 compositions, arrangements, cadenzas, Library of Music by Black Composers. She MATTHEW HAGLE Barton Pine since 1999. He has also per- and editions penned or arranged by Pine. teaches chamber music, coaches youth Pianist Matthew Hagle's formed with members of the Chicago Pine has edited a collection of the scores orchestras, gives master classes, conducts performances are of- Symphony and as a piano duo with his she performs on Violin Lullabies to be workshops at universities, adjudicates ten noted for their wife, Mio Isoda-Hagle. Matthew Hagle is published by Carl Fischer Music. Pine is also music competitions, creates special musical understanding, a graduate of the Peabody Conservatory music advisor and editor of Maud Powell programs for children and school groups, imaginative program- (BM) and Yale University (MM, DMA), Favorites, the only published compilation and offers spoken program notes or pre- ming, and beauty of receiving faculty prizes in piano, accom- of music dedicated to, commissioned by, concert conversations for audiences of all sound. The New York panying, and music theory as well as a or closely associated with Powell, the first ages. Times has described Fulbright Scholarship to study privately native-born American violinist to achieve him as a sensitive in London. He has studied with Claude This is Pines 15th recording for Cedille international recognition. pianist, Clavier Maga- Frank, Robert Weirich, Donald Currier, Records, and the 22nd album in her zine has praised the and Maria Curcio Diamand. A dedicated Pine won the gold medal at the J.S. Bach discography. rare clarity and sweetness of his playing, teacher of piano, music theory, and com- International Violin Competition (Leipzig, For more about Rachel Barton Pine, and the Springfield (MA) Republican position, Hagles students have won prizes 1992) and holds prizes from several please visit rachelbartonpine.com. remarked he played with unaffected in local and national competitions. He is other leading competitions including the brilliance and profound understanding. currently on the faculty of the Music Insti- Queen Elisabeth (Brussels, 1993), Kreisler Hagle lives in the Chicago area, where he tute of Chicago serving as the director of (Vienna, 1992), Szigeti (Budapest, 1992), has performed at local venues including the Musicianship program in addition to and Montreal (1991) International Violin the Ravinia Festivals Martin Theatre, his teaching duties. Competitions. She won honors for her interpretation of the Paganini Caprices Symphony Center, and the Chicago Cultural at the Szigeti Competition and Paganini Center. He has also been heard in halls A collection of the scores featured on throughout the United States, including International Violin Competition (Genoa, Violin Lullabies will be published by 1993). at the National Gallery of Art, Symphony Carl Fischer Music. The book is edited Space in New York, and the United States Her Rachel Elizabeth Barton Foundation by Rachel Barton Pine and comes with Supreme Court, and, internationally, in assists young artists through various an accompanying disc of piano-only England, Australia, and Japan. Hagle projects including the Instrument Loan tracks recorded by Matthew Hagle. performs frequently on radio station Program, Grants for Education and Career, Please visit CarlFischer.com for more WFMT in Chicago, and has been heard on Global HeartStrings (supporting classical information. NPRs Performance Today and Minnesota musicians in developing countries), and a Public Radios St. Paul Sunday Morning. curricular series in development with the A valued collaborator, he has been the University of Michigan: The String Students principal recital partner of violinist Rachel 26 27

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