Solar Thermal Applications -

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  • Mar 26, 2012
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1 Solar Thermal Applications CMX-CIPHEX 2012 Learning Forum 22nd March 2012 Presentation by Bob Swartman 1

2 Index Solar energy- PV and S/T Parameters- hot water load, measure, radiation Sarnia CCC solar system Simulation programs Flow strategy - closed loop, drainback Solar collector efficiency- ETC vs FPC Cross-section of flat-plate collector Adapting design to location- rack design Heat exchanger, tanks, pumps, controllers Solar products in Canada Installation- lifting Swimming pool heating Solar water heating Insulation and jacketing 2

3 Index Safety concerns Commissioning the system Monitoring the system Certification for solar installers- CanSIA and NABCEP Permits- building and plumbing Government incentives Solar PV and water heating in Tobermory, ON Combined solar space and water heating Parkway Apartment Building in Owen Sound, ON Rockwood Terrace Nursing Home in Durham, ON Sixplex solar project in Windsor, ON 3

4 Solar energy includes two technologies- photovoltaics and thermal Photovoltaics is electricity from the sun. Solar thermal is heat from the sun. 4

5 Parameters for design of a solar hot water system hot water load -measured volume per day by flowmeter -estimate from ASHRAE for application radiation and location -watts/m2 (max 1,000 w/m2) azimuth and tilt of collectors -azimuth = angle from south -tilt = angle from horizontal 5

6 A typical residential solar water heating package comprises: one or more collectors, a storage tank (to match the collector area and the load) a pump and a controller. 6

7 Sarnia Child Care Centre Solar collectors con Storage tanks Controller, pumps, heat exchanger and expansion tank 7

8 Simulation using RETScreen - uses solar radiation and average temperature on a monthly basis HW load, rack azimuth and tilt storage volume to collector area - 100 litres to match a 4 x 8 collector using TRYNYS 8

9 Flow strategy closed loop- requires expansion tank drainback- requires high head pump thermosiphon- seasonal use only 9

10 Solar collector efficiency comparing an unglazed plastic pool panel, a flat plate collector and an evacuated tube collector 10

11 Solar collector efficiency Evacuated Tube Collector vs Flat Plate Collector 11

12 Cross section of flat-plate solar collector tempered low-iron class on aluminum box with isocyanurate insulation, selective coating on copper absorber fins 12

13 Adapting design to location rack design flush mount inclined mount 13

14 rack design ballasted on the roof steel or aluminum 14

15 Heat exchanger shell-in-tube brazed flat plate coil of stainless steel coil of copper 15

16 Heat exchanger Solar water heating with external heat exchanger 16

17 Heat exchanger and circulators in Rockwood Terrace mechanical room 17

18 Two 400 gallon solar tanks and a 300 gallon hot water storage tank at Rockwood Terrace, Durham, ON 18

19 Heat exchanger Solar water heating with internal heat exchanger 19

20 Tanks stainless steel enamel coated glass-lined 20

21 Pumps circulators- low head and high flow pumps- low flow and high head DC pumps 21

22 Controllers differential temperature controllers- compare temperature of solar collector to water temperature 10k thermistor sensors : Goldline 1k Pt resistance sensors: Resol 22

23 Goldline solar controller and energy meter at Landmark Condominium, Kingston, ON 23

24 Solar products in Canada ThermoDynamics Enerworks Solcan Viessmann KBB Others? 24

25 Lifting Lifting rack materials, pipe and collectors to roof -manhandle or crane 25

26 Installing 26

27 Swimming pool heating 27

28 Solar water heating Installation at Five Oaks, United Church of Canada Retreat Centre near Paris, ON System comprises five flat-plate solar collectors secured to wall and sitting on roof as shown. 28

29 Solar water heating 40 panels on apartment building on 20 panels on condominium Nelson St., London, ON apartment building, Kingston, ON 29

30 Solcan 2101 Collectors (back view) on the roof of World Salon, Adelaide St., Toronto 30

31 PV and solar thermal panels Two banks of 14 PV panels and one bank of 4 thermal panels installed on Visitors Centre at Parks Canada in Tobermory, ON 31

32 Insulation and jacketing 32

33 Safety concerns Fall arrest training Safe worksites Harnesses and safety lines 33

34 Commissioning the system temperature rise balancing the flow pumps running OK 34

35 Monitoring the system Heat = flow x (Tin Tout) x specific heat Heat = Flow measurement x temperature rise Sun reports (kit shown) download to iphone 35

36 Certification for solar installers CanSIA- Canadian Solar Industries Association NABCEP- North American Board of Certified Energy Practitioners CSA- Canadian Standards Association 36

37 Permits Building- may require letter from P Eng. for building permit; cost from $70 to $1,000 . Plumbing permit may not be required. System may require vacuum breakers. Some inspectors require backflow preventers and double wall heat exchangers. 37

38 Government incentives ecoEnergy for Retroft: for residential applications including single family dwellings and multi-unit residential units (MURBs) approx $625 per panel- until end of March 2012. save ON energy from OPA through LDCs for displacement of electricity = approx $865 per panel on buildings in Ontario. new incentive through microFIT. 38

39 Solar hot water feeding conventional hot water tank with summer bypass 39

40 Combined solar hot water and space heating System installed near Goderich, ON. 40

41 Combined solar hot water and space heating 41

42 Combined solar hot water and space heating System installed on Pelee Island in Lake Erie 42

43 Strategies for space and water heating 43

44 Combining solar with a heat pump Typical European solar/heat pump combo 44

45 Parkway Apartments, Owen Sound, ON 45

46 Rockwood Terrace Nursing Home in Durham, ON Rockwood Terrace Nursing Home in Durham, ON near Owen Sound has 100 residents and substantial needs for hot water for laundry, bathing the residents, washing dishes and general usage, totaling about 12,000 litres per day. There are 30 Solcan flat-plate solar collectors mounted on racks on the roof supplying heat through a heat exchanger to the 3,000 litres of solar storage. The measured energy output is 183 GJ per year which is 42% of the load. 46

47 Heat exchanger and circulators in Rockwood Terrace NH mechanical room 47

48 Solar hot water storage tanks in Rockwood Terrace mechanical room 48

49 Project was part of modernizing and upgrade of existing buildings owned by Windsor and Essex County Housing Authority. Solar hot water storage tank in sixplex mechanical room 49

50 Conventional hot water tanks are on a re-circulation loop. 50

51 Pro temp controls Reduces your energy costs by 25% or more Automatically regulates water temperature For domestic hot water or hydronic space heating systems ROI can be measured in weeks 51

52 Pro temp controls Energy use before and after Pro temp installation 52

53 Thanks for your attention! 53

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