Climate, Vernacular Architecture and Architecture Regionalism

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1 Universit IUAV di Venezia, Environmental Building Physics Introduction to sustainability Traditional Architecture The traditional architecture is characterized by an extremely efficient Climate, Integrated Studio 1 Master Degree in Architecture and Innovation use of the available Vernacular Architecture resources in terms of materials and and Architecture Regionalism energy. The basic function is to create a shelter and this act as factors diversifiers Fabio Peron climate , technical means , materials , social structure . Universit IUAV - Venezia The crucial link is with the climate in particular with the extreme conditions with which it must deal . International Style Building as an environment moderator Climate varies around the globe and indigenous architecture used to respond to climate A buildings primary function 20th century buildings became exclusively is to provide shelter from dependent on mechanical systems to heat the elements, as a function and cool buildings of CLIMATE. International Style Architecture, characterized by sealed buildings, tried to To function as a moderator of create an architectural style that ignored the environment and to climate satisfy all other This has resulted in a proliferation of requirements, a building architecture that does not properly respond envelope must provide to its climate control of: Such buildings now account for between 40% 1. heat flow and 70% of energy use in North America and this cannot be sustained given Climate 2. air flow Change (GHG) and fossil fuel shortages 3. movement of water as This lesson will examine how to reconnect vapour and as liquid Urban Ecology Centre, Milwaukee issues of local climate and building design 4. solar and other radiation

2 V. Olgyay and Bioclimatic design Bioclimatic design Design must first acknowledge regional, local and microclimate impacts on the building and site. COLD TEMPERATE HOT-ARID HOT-HUMID Image source: Design with Climate. Victor Olgyay, 1963. Image: 1963 Design With Climate, Victor Olgyay. Range of climates around the world as first set out for architectural purposes by Victor Olgyay. If we examine the vernacular architecture associated with The idea of bio-climatic design lies in the need for the architecture to be each climate type, we can begin to understand the range of available natural modified to respond to the regional climate type. Victor Olgyay outlined solutions that can inspire your architectural design the four basic types of climate. Bioclimatic design Bioclimatic design HOT-ARID HOT-HUMID High daytime temperatures Large night/day temperature variations Fairly high daytime temperatures intense winds Small temperature variations high solar intensity reflected by ground Light to non-existent winds Low humidity High humidity Water is scarce High rainfall Image: 1963 Design With Climate, Victor Olgyay. Image: 1963 Design With Climate, Victor Olgyay.

3 Traditional hot climate design Traditional hot climate design In hot dry (arid) climates windows are kept to a minimum to prevent the sun from entering the building. Bright stucco finishes are used to reflect light and keep the environment bright. Large use of Acoma pueblo stone, thick walls New Mexico Traditional hot climate design Traditional hot climate design Mesa Verde Colorado Mesa Verde Colorado

4 Traditional hot climate design Traditional hot climate design Mesa Verde Colorado Mesa Verde Colorado (3735 N) Traditional hot climate design Traditional hot climate design Mesa Verde Colorado Mesa Verde Colorado

5 Traditional hot climate design Traditional hot climate design Pueblo Bonito Chaco Canyon New Mexico Pueblo Bonito Chaco Canyon New Mexico Traditional hot climate design Traditional hot climate design Pueblo Bonito Chaco Canyon New Mexico Pueblo Bonito Chaco Canyon New Mexico

6 Traditional hot climate design: courtyard Traditional hot climate design: courtyard Courtyards are used in hot arid climates and work well because sun can warm these spaces in cooler months. Covered exterior corridors and vegetation create a cool microclimate in the hot months Courtyards do NOT work well in cold climates because of low winter sun angles. Traditional hot climate design: courtyard Traditional hot climate design: courtyard Aereare ed illuminare ma limitando la radiazione incidente sulle sue superfici verticali, anche con presenza di vegetazione. Trattenere aria fresca della notte. Umidificare e raffrescare con presenza di acqua.

7 Traditional hot climate design: courtyard Traditional hot climate design: courtyards Alcazar - Siviglia Traditional hot climate design: courtyards Alcazar - Siviglia

8 Climate Responsive Design: town layout Climate Responsive Design: town layout Tunisi, Algeri, Fez St.ThomasUniversity,Houston St.ThomasUniversity,Houston

9 Traditional hot climate design: water use Traditional hot climate design: water use Alcazar - Siviglia La Zisa - Palermo Traditional hot climate design: schermi Traditional hot climate design: shading Moucharrabiah Moucharrabiah

10 Traditional hot climate design: shading Traditional hot climate design: shading Siviglia Siviglia Traditional hot climate design: shading Traditional hot climate design: wind towers Malqaf Egitto Siviglia

11 Traditional hot climate design: wind towers Traditional hot climate design: wind towers Malqaf Egypt, Fuad house Bagdir Iran Traditional hot climate design: wind towers Traditional hot climate design: wind towers Bagdir Iran Torri del vento Deira Dubai

12 Traditional hot climate Traditional hot climate design: underground design: wind towers Mangh Hyderabad Pakistan Matmata Tunisia Traditional hot climate design: Bioclimatic design vault and radiation HOT-HUMID Fairly high daytime temperatures Small temperature variations Light to non-existent winds High humidity High rainfall Borujerdi-ha khashan Iran Image: 1963 Design With Climate, Victor Olgyay. Oasi del Fayyun Egitto Matmata Tunisia Qaa Iran

13 Traditional hot humid climate design Traditional hot humid climate design Traditional hot humid climate design Bioclimatic design TEMPERATE Seasonal Hot dry season (usually longest) Wet, warm season Winter quite long Solar radiation is variable but can be intense Image: 1963 Design With Climate, Victor Olgyay. Struttura in legno di eucalipto Etiopia Tukul Sidama coperta di intrecci di bamb spaccato

14 Traditional temperate climate design Traditional temperate climate design Veneto Rural Farm, the porch Bazar di Kashan - Iran Bazar di Yazd - Iran Traditional temperate climate design Traditional temperate climate design Veneto Rural Farm, The pergola Veneto Casoni

15 Traditional temperate climate design Traditional temperate climate design Villa Trento-Carli Villa Eolia Villa da Schio Villa Trento-Morlini Villino Garzadori C Molina Veneto Casoni Traditional temperate climate design Traditional temperate climate design Da Schio complex Trento villas complex Trento complex Schio Villas complex

16 Traditional temperate climate design Traditional temperate climate design The covoli: big caves Wind-ducts, inlet grids Traditional temperate climate design Traditional temperate climate design Indians of the plains: Tepee Mongolian Yurta

17 Bioclimatic design Traditional cold climate design In cold climates buildings must be designed with an environmental barrier. More concerned with their heating season than their cooling season Windows on north surfaces are kept to a minimum to prevent entering winter winds Windows are open on south. COLD Insulated walls and roof. Large use of wood Low daytime temperatures medium temperature variations Intense winter winds Long winter Image: 1963 Design With Climate, Victor Olgyay. Val Badia Cadore Traditional cold climate design Traditional cold climate design Val Badia Val Badia

18 Traditional cold climate design Traditional cold climate design Val Badia Caratteristica struttura a block-bau Traditional cold climate design Traditional cold climate design The stove Stube- and internal wood panels Caratteristica struttura a block-bau

19 Traditional cold climate design Traditional cold climate design Val Badia Val Badia Glaumbaer Farm - Iceland The Igloo Traditional cold climate design Traditional cold climate design Glaumbaer Farm Iceland. Example of turf architecture Structure of turf wall

20 References Jacob II house FLL Wright Fathy: http://www.unu.edu/unupress/unupbooks/80a01e/80A01E00.htm Gaut: http://collections.infocollections.org/ukedu/en/d/Jsk02ce/ Jacob II house FLL Wright Jacob II house FLL Wright

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