Seven cognitive concepts for successful eco-design - Stanford

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1 Journal of Cleaner Production 92 (2015) 23e36 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Journal of Cleaner Production journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jclepro Review Seven cognitive concepts for successful eco-design Erin F. MacDonald a, *, Jinjuan She b a Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA b INVIA Medical Imaging Solutions, USA a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t Article history: This article is a review of research on encouraging pro-environmental behavior in a variety of elds and Received 19 November 2012 applies the results to create recommendations for eco-design. Environmental psychology, behavioral Received in revised form psychology, consumerism, business, environmental political science, and additional social science 27 October 2014 research were used to dene cognitive concepts that led to the purchase and use of eco-products. The Accepted 29 December 2014 Available online 19 January 2015 concepts and basic explanations are: (1) responsibility, a sense of personal control over actions and outcomes; (2) complex decision-making skills, mental tools that structure complex decisions; (3) deci- sion heuristics, mental shortcuts that simplify judgments and decisions; (4) the altruism-sacrice link, an Keywords: Eco-design assumption that doing good requires personal sacrice; (5) trust, the degree to which a person believes Sustainable design the information they are given; (6) cognitive dissonance/guilt, the mental processes that may occur when Conceptual design a mismatch between intention and action is identied; and (7) motivation, intrinsic and extrinsic Design method satisfaction that drives behavior. Eco-product examples are provided to highlight the role of the cognitive Behavioral change concepts design. Design recommendations and relevant design methods are discussed. The recom- Pro-environmental behavior mendations require coordination between designers, manufacturers, marketers, and government policy- makers to achieve positive changes in individuals' behavior. Published by Elsevier Ltd. 1. Introduction alternative (weak purchase criteria); some individuals are neutral to eco-products (neutral); and, unfortunately, some individuals nd For the past forty years, researchers, mainly in the social sci- consideration of the environment in a product's design to be a ences, have studied how to encourage the adoption of recycling drawback (negative purchase criteria)dfor reasons to be explored programs, water conservation strategies, and other individual pro- later. Metaphorically speaking, this article aims to create positive environmental efforts. This article presents a literature review as it movement along this continuum by inspiring engineers and de- relates to the design of eco-products and technologies and rst signers to design eco-products that encourage such movement. denes the approach and method of the review. Then it gives an Moving customers along this continuum towards the active pursuit overview of relevant terms such as attitude and pro-environ- of eco-products is advantageous to the environment and the mental behavior (PEB). The rest of the article is devoted to company producing the product, and to policy-makers, as it may exploring the seven cognitive concepts, interspersed with recom- reduce the expense of time and money required to institute a new mendations for designers and relevant emerging design methods. product-related policy. Increased demand, reduced environmental Consider a continuum of eco-product success, shown in Fig. 1, as impacts, and easier policy implementation will spur development dened by customer attitude: some individuals actively seek out of eco-products. eco-products to buy and use (strong purchase criteria); some do not There are many resources on the technological side of eco- seek them out, but a product's reduced environmental impact will design: For integrated sustainable life cycle design see (Ramani create a preference for the product over an otherwise identical et al., 2010); for taxonomy of sustainable design tools and guid- ance on selecting the tools see (Bovea and Pe !rez-Belis, 2012); for initiatives and efforts taken by different stakeholders to promote sustainable production and consumption see (Barber, 2007); for a special issue on how to achieve eco-design see (Huisingh, 2006; * Corresponding author. Karlsson and Luttropp, 2006). E-mail addresses: [email protected] (E.F. MacDonald), [email protected] com (J. She). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.12.096 0959-6526/Published by Elsevier Ltd.

2 24 E.F. MacDonald, J. She / Journal of Cleaner Production 92 (2015) 23e36 commitment, social norms, social diffusion, prompts, communica- tion, incentives, and convenience. Researchers have reported a varying degree of connection between intentions formed directly before performing a PEB and the behavior that follows (Koehn, 2006). As tested in the Comprehensive Action Determination Model (Klo ckner and Blo baum, 2010), PEB is affected not only by intention, but also by habits, social and personal norms, and sub- jective and objective situational constraints. Business research requires a balance between prot growth and pro-environmental implementations and thus poses new chal- Fig. 1. A continuum of customer preference for eco-products. lenges for sustainability. Green marketing, as a sub-discipline of business research, is the study of positioning eco-products in the 1.1. Approach and method market for protability. For a review of green marketing, see (Peattie and Charteris, 2008), and note the special issue on sus- The discussion here is centered on the design of mass-market tainability in the Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science eco-products. The working denition of eco-product used (JAMS) (Hult, 2011). Peattie and Charteris (2008) discuss the in- throughout this article is: a product that is intentionally and uence of green challenge on current marketing practice, and the methodically designed to decrease environmental impact versus the marketing strategies to promote pro-environmental behavior, as status quo, be that a competing product or an otherwise-dened well as practical challenges. The special issue in JAMS consists of a baseline, using a scientically-based environmental impact assess- set of 10 articles providing information for researchers and related ment tool of the designer's choosing. stakeholders on sustainability and marketing (Hult, 2011). Connelly To narrow the discussion, this article assumes that individuals et al. (2011) developed a theoretical toolbox using nine organi- are concerned about the negative impact they have on the envi- zational theories (transaction cost economics, agency theory, ronment, rather than addressing the equally-important issues of institutional theory, organizational ecology, resource dependence public awareness and environmental education. Guber provides an theory, the resource-based view of the rm, upper echelons theory, excellent analysis of public opinion concerning the environment social network theory, and signaling theory) and discussed their and documents that the level of public concern for the environment implications on sustainability. Peloza and Shang (2011) addressed varies widely by date and by survey framing (Guber, 2003). sustainability from the perspective of corporate social re- This article represents a synthesis of ndings from literature in sponsibility (CSR) and stakeholders. They suggested that different the elds of environmental and behavioral psychology, consum- types of CSR activities have different effects on stakeholder per- erism, business and marketing, environmental political science, ceptions of value and even stakeholder behavior. Their review of and design for sustainable behavior. It focuses on research con- previous research identies three broad categories of CSR: phi- ducted in the United States and Europe. Summary and review ar- lanthropy, business practices, and product-related. ticles are referenced wherever possible to aid the reader in Consumerism studies people as the purchasers and consumers furthering their education. A brief introduction and relevant liter- of goods as a large-scale phenomenon, accounting for a large ature reviews for these elds are presented below. portion of environmental issues. Environmental political science Environmental psychology provides insight into a person's studies how to affect or inuence large-scale environmental relationship with their physical environment, and it increasingly changes through governmental (or other organizational) efforts, for expands into public policy, concern with technology, and connec- example discouraging some behavior (e.g., littering) and encour- tion with other disciplines in recent years, as indicated by Gifford aging others (e.g., purchase of alternate fuel vehicles). For a review (2007). For a review of environmental psychology as a discipline, of motivating consumer behavioral change and environmental see (Gifford, 2007) and the corresponding special issue of the policy implications (focused on the United Kingdom) see (Jackson, Journal of Social Science, and a special issue of American Psychol- 2005). It reviews models of consumer behavior, motivating ogist (McKenzie-Mohr, 2000; Winter, 2000). Gifford (2007) out- behavioral change, and environmental policy implications. Dolan lines emerging themes, growth, and challenges in environmental et al. (2012) identify nine factors inuencing human behavior and psychology regarding contributing to sustainable development. its change: messenger, incentives, norms, defaults, salience, prim- McKenzie-Mohr (2000) proposes a four-step framework to support ing, affect, commitment, and ego (MINDSPACE). They discuss how fostering sustainable behavior in a community, and identies seven to apply these factors to policy making. cognitive concepts/tools as possible solutions to fulll this Design for Sustainable Behavior uses a multidisciplinary objective: commitment, social norms, social diffusion, prompts, perspective to proactively improve sustainability through design. communication, incentives, and convenience. Winter (2000) dis- Boks (2006) identies socio-psychological factors that play a role in cusses neoanalytical, behavioral, social, and cognitive approaches the successful implementation of eco-design, such as the devel- and outlines how to address the psychology of sustainability from opment of company-specic eco-design tools and the creation of these perspectives. For a review of the psychology of forming guidelines and roadmaps. Pettersen and Boks (2008) mention four preferences, see (Slovic, 1995), which also demonstrates that main strategies to promote behavior change: political measures, different elicitation procedures produce different preferences. education, community-based social marketing, and technology. Behavioral psychologists offer insight into the psychological They emphasize user-centered strategies for eco-design, such as precursors to performing PEB. For a review of studies, see (Stern, eco-feedback, and emotional attachment. Lockton et al. (2010a) 2000) whose Value-Belief-Norm theory provides a sympathetic present the Design with Intent Method for inuencing behavior conclusion to the discussion below: the causes for PEB are not al- through six approaches: architectural, error-proong, persuasive, ways clear and a combination of corrective approaches works best visual, cognitive, and security. when attempting to change behavior. Some researchers have found Literature Review and Synthesis Method. In order to identify that environmental attitude alone is not a good predictor of PEB relevant literature from seven-plus elds of rich academic research (McKenzie-Mohr, 2000; Roberts, 1996; Vining et al., 2002). our approach focuses on literature relevant to facilitating successful McKenzie-Mohr (2000) discusses factors that affect behavior: eco-design to use social science research to help engineers design

3 E.F. MacDonald, J. She / Journal of Cleaner Production 92 (2015) 23e36 25 eco-products with increased market success. The literature review occurred in three stages: collection, presentation for feedback, and renement (Fig. 2). The collection stage was initiated by an internet-based search for keywords, such as product design and eco-design in combination with keywords related to the aca- demic elds, such as behavioral psychology and environmental psychology. A list of over 100 relevant references was composed as a starting point. From this list, citations were searched both forward-looking and backward-looking using citation trees within the ISI Web of Knowledge. Simultaneous to the online reference search, experts in the related elds were contacted to conrm the approach and collect additional references. The quickly-growing list of articles was then organized in two categories: type of infor- mation (e.g., related observation of interest to designers, design recommendation, design example, what not to do, etc.) and Fig. 3. Categories of pro-environmental behavior (PEB). cognitive concepts presented in the following. The second stage (review process from peers) relied on the feedback from designers categorized into ve pathways: changed use, mediated use, regu- in academia and industry, as well as the experience of the authors. lated artifact, maintenance and repair, and choice of artifact. People The beta-version of the material featured in this article was pre- acting on their environmental concerns often display preferences sented in large-format talks to research and development groups at in one kind of PEB to another, which correlate with demographic the Ford Motor Company, 3M, John Deere (Deere & Company), and information as reported in Barr et al. (2005). The discussion here- Whirlpool Corporation, followed by small group feedback and after is tailored to encourage efciency behavior through the design discussion meetings. It was also presented to academic product of eco-products. However, some of the concepts are applicable to all design research audiences at the 2012 American Society of Me- three categories of PEB. chanical Engineers Design Theory and Methodology conference and the 2011 INFORMS Annual Meeting on Operations Research in 2. The seven cognitive concepts the Green Innovation and Product Development section. Recom- mended improvements from these interactions are incorporated in Seven cognitive concepts that inuence PEB are particularly the manuscript in the renement stage. relevant to improving the design of eco-products. These concepts are: responsibility, complex decision-making skills, decision heu- 1.2. Types of pro-environmental behavior (PEB) ristics, the altruism-sacrice link, trust, cognitive dissonance/guilt, and motivation, as presented in Fig. 4. This section provides ex- Lofthouse et al. (1999) saw eco-design not only as a technical planations and examples of these cognitive concepts, with rec- issue regarding how to engineer a product, but also a focus on ommendations for designers. We chose examples that are familiar product design interaction: how consumers use a product. Three to engineers, particularly U.S. engineers, in any eld. Because of the general categories of PEB are useful when conceptualizing the user signicant inuence of public policy on engineering design de- interaction with an eco-product: curtailing, efciency, and political cisions (Whitefoot, 2011), some recommendations also involve behavior. Diminishing use of electricity by turning off lights when coordination with policy makers. The concepts are presented in an not in use is a curtailing behavior (using less through behavior order that allows the logical ow of conclusions and recommen- modication); reducing the need for electricity by installing dations in the discussion; this order is not meant to suggest a compact uorescent light bulbs (CFLs) is an efciency behavior temporal or hierarchical relationship between the concepts. Ex- (using less through product modication); changing the source of amples and recommendation source are summarized in Table 1. electricity by voting and campaigning for clean energy is a political The recommendation source is classied by its eld of research: behavior. Curtailing, efciency, and political behavior are inu- Design Research (DR), Technology Research (TR), Business Research encing and overlapping each other in Fig. 3. Stern (2000) uses four (BR), Social Science Research (SR), and Research from Other Fields categories: committed environmental activism (dedicated to PEB (OR). from all aspects actively), public-sphere environmentalism (accept or support public environmental policies), private-sphere envi- 2.1. Responsibility ronmentalism (practice PEB personally), and others. We divide private-sphere environmentalism into curtailing and efciency The sense of responsibility for current environmental problems behavior, those that are most commonly affected by product can be separated into two parts: a sense of responsibility for design. Committed environmental activism represents a synergy of causing the problems, and a sense of responsibility for solving the political, curtailing, and efciency behavior. For a different classi- problems. The former, when felt as blame and/or guilt, can poten- cation system, see (Renstro m et al., 2013), where PEB are tially decrease PEB, as will be discussed in Section 2.6. The latter, when properly guided, may increase PEB. The environmental tragedy of the commons is famously addressed in a parable by Hardin in Science (Hardin, 1968). There is a common pasture that will deteriorate to uselessness if sheep herders only act in their own short-term best interest. Both in this parable and in the real world of communal resource sharing, it is typically a community action that maintains communal resources, rather than individual ones (De Young, 1999). The environmental tragedy of the commons has been remarkably individualized. The individualization began in the 1960s, when naturalists popularized Fig. 2. Literature review and synthesis approach. the environmental movement in books such as Silent Spring (Carson

4 26 E.F. MacDonald, J. She / Journal of Cleaner Production 92 (2015) 23e36 Fig. 4. Eco-design recommendations derived from the seven cognitive concepts. et al., 1962). These books used generalizations and shock value, a their likelihood to purchase eco-goods (Roberts, 1996). People feel shame and blame strategy, to make readers feel an individual they do not have individual control over solving environmental sense of responsibility for environmental problems. The environ- problems (Allen and Ferrand, 1999; Van Birgelen et al., 2009). mental movement was later commoditized (e.g., buy a save the Recommendation 1 details how design strategies help enhance planet T-shirt) during the individualistic 1980s (Maniates et al., individual responsibility. 2002). The 1990s brought the publishing of best-selling books Recommendation 1: Instill a sense of personal control over such as Green Consumer Guide (Elkington et al., 1990; Madge, 1997). the solution, not responsibility for causing the problem, by In Al Gore's An Inconvenient Truth book (Gore, 2006), out of thirty- designing products with interactive curtailing features. When four recommendations for what you personally can do to solve the eco-products offer features that not only increase efciency climate crisis, only four were community or politically-focused, behavior, but also offer opportunities to perform curtailing and they were listed last. behavior on an elective and repetitive basis, customers will have This duality allows individuals to push the responsibility to the multiple options to expressing individual PEB. This approach is commons and avoid difcult personal pro-environmental de- included in current Design for Environment methods, summarized cisions. The intersection of public policy and personal responsibility by Telenko et al. as a single principle: Incorporate features that causes confusion in resolve: people are concerned enough about prevent waste of materials by the user (Telenko et al., 2008). To the environment to desire government to do something about it, reinforce a sense of responsibility in the user, the ndings from but they themselves would prefer to make only voluntary changes social sciences suggest that an emphasis on features that are active as a result of this public policy (Guber, 2003). Individuals can and require participation in waste reduction rather than passive conveniently listen to the messages of hard-core environmentalists waste prevention will go further to promote PEB. The ideal design who undermine a sense of individual responsibility for the prob- would include waste-reduction features that the user interacts with lem, viewing individual PEB as ineffective (Maniates et al., 2002). on a regular basis and feels a small reward for performing; thereby The majority of U.S. citizens assume that industry and government feeling empowered to become part of the environmental problem are already taking responsibility for environmental problems solution. (Guber, 2003). This avoidance is unfortunate, because individual A simple example of a curtailing design modication is select-a- responsibility and PEB are necessary to initiate wide-scale policy size paper towels (Fig. 5); more perforations on paper towels at changes efciently and effectively. It is also unfortunate because an smaller intervals offer a choice to tear off a smaller piece of towel individual's judgment of the extent to which they can personally for smaller-sized jobs. An energy saving mode on a printer (Fig. 6) prevent environmental destruction is a signicant indication of lets customers lower their environmental impact by curtailing their

5 E.F. MacDonald, J. She / Journal of Cleaner Production 92 (2015) 23e36 27 Table 1 A summary of cognitive principles, recommendations, related examples and supporting evidence. Cognitive concepts Recommendations Examples Recommendation sourcea Responsibility 1. Instill a sense of personal control of the Good example: Energy saving mode on (Roberts, 1996)SR, (Telenko et al., 2008) solution by designing products with a printer DR interactive curtailing features Better example: Select-a-size paper towels Best example: Shower head ngertip shut-off for shampooing Complex Decision-making 2. Constrain customers' product decisions Energy Star program (Levin, 1993)SR, (Maniates et al., 2002) Skills with industry standards SR 3. Encourage tackling of complex decisions Chevrolet Volt panel encourages drivers (Ehrhardt-Martinez et al., 2010)TR/SR, through interaction incentives and to achieve higher MPGs (Midden et al., 2007)SR, designed-in educational feedback Real-time feedback on home electronics increases energy savings Decision Heuristics 4. Address the customers' environmental Green Mountain biodegradable or (Slimak and Dietz, 2006)SR, (Guber, concerns as well as the crucial reusable K-Cups 2003)SR environmental issues Example of what not to do: Mercury in CFLs 5. Identify useful heuristics and use 1 CFL 10 incandescent light bulbs (Winter, 2000)SR, (Sandahl et al., 2006) them to educate about the product's Heuristics are needed to help users TR, (Ja rvi and Paloviita, 2007)SR environmental impact quantify the dosage of laundry detergent to use 6. Identify perceptual product cues that Vitra Vegetal chair looks like tree (Reid et al., 2009)DR, (She and communicate environmental impact branches MacDonald, 2014)DR Altruism-Sacrice Link 7. Offer only triumphs and downplay Bamboo resin ooring is marketed as (Van Birgelen et al., 2009)SR, (Sandahl altruism in the product's design modern et al., 2006)TR Cold-water detergent emphasizes money savings 8. Apply design for upgradability or Ofce Equipment/Copy machines can adaptability to work-horse products be upgraded with additional features that are known for reliability and are not status symbols Trust 9. Design trust into the product's form Vitra Panton chair uses lines of (Wang and Emurian, 2005)TR using semantics and heuristics traditional chair to communicate sturdiness 10. Design trust into the product's Bank web site resembles the visitors' (Hauser et al., 2009)SR, (Urban et al., interactions using similarity cognitive styles leading to increased 2009)SR trust Cog. Dissonance and Guilt 11. Avoid making customers feel guilty Example of what not to do: Home (Lilley, 2009)DR (Flora, 2000)SR electricity monitor showing penguin on melting iceberg Motivation 12. Change PEB motivation from extrinsic Honda Insight gas tank is smaller to (Guber, 2003)SR, (Geller et al., 2002)SR to intrinsic with small, well-timed emphasize money saved incentives designed into product Baby bird litterbin delights people as interactions they throw their trash away 13. Work with policy makers/marketers Clean Air cars drive toll-free in (Guber, 2003)SR, (Geller et al., 2002)SR, to design eco-product purchase incentives carpool lanes (Sloan, 2011) SR/TR CFL incentive programs 14. Design eco-products for ease of use Highlight simple steps to save energy in (Tanner, 1999)SR, (van Nes and Cramer, a Home Energy Report 2006) SR Reusable coffee mugs designed not to spill Sophisticated transmission system of hybrid car 15. Design product with social norms in mind Compare electricity usage amongst (Nolan et al., 2008)SR, (Braverman, neighbors 2010)SR Hygienic automated faucets also conserve water a Recommendation Source: Social Science Research (SR), Design Research (DR), Technology Research (TR). energy use. The towel/printer can be sustainably designed, A recent marketing study (Sheth et al., 2011) implies that providing an efciency behavior, and also offer the customer the careful design might trigger a mindset of caring for self, com- opportunity to perform a curtailing behavior. munity, and nature, and thus have potential inuence on A more complex example is the Eco-Flow spray shower nozzle advancing PEB. Specically, a product can be designed with at- from Waterpik, shown in Fig. 7. Not only does this shower head tributes that help reduce repetitive consumption, such as being include an internal valve that increases water force and reduces made easier to upgrade and repair, affording use by multiple water usage (a preventative waste measure), it also includes a users, or with attributes that foster responsible consumption, switch to reduce water to a trickle when water is not needed during such as providing an option to save energy, and enable built-in the shower, for example while shampooing (Waterpik). educational feedback.

6 28 E.F. MacDonald, J. She / Journal of Cleaner Production 92 (2015) 23e36 complexity, such as the rule of seven (Miller, 1956) and discussions of simplicity (Maeda, 2006). Simplifying environmental-related decisions and equipping people with the tools required to address them, such as education, are benecial for promoting PEB, as will be addressed in Recommendations 2 and 3. Recommendation 2: Constrain customers' product decisions with industry standards or regulations. Product-category-wide environmental impact constraints remove some complexity of the individual customer's product decision. The Energy Star pro- gram is a good example of such a standard that has helped cus- tomers to simplify product decisions (Energy Star Program, 2013). This follows the commons/individual duality, in that people are Fig. 5. Select-a-size paper towel. willing to make choices that are environmentally benecial, but that they prefer if these choices be constrained through political action (Maniates et al., 2002). However, an industry-wide standard, such as Energy Star, will not help differentiate products if all available products comply, unless the standard is of a graduated type such as the-less-the-better. Recommendation 3: Encourage tackling of complex de- cisions through interaction incentives and educational feed- back. Incentives can be provided to motivate an individual to tackle a complex decision. Designing small incentives into a product to increase motivation to perform PEB is discussed in Section 2.7. In addition, monetary incentives may encourage potential customers to increase the complexity of their usual product purchase decision to include environmental considerations. Real-time feedback on resources consumed by a product during use is such a type of interaction, and it can be designed as a Fig. 6. Energy saving mode on a printer. customer reward. A comprehensive review of residential sector feedback studies on household electricity use suggests that real- 2.2. Complex decision-making skills time feedback generates at least 9% energy savings per household in the past decades (Ehrhardt-Martinez et al., 2010). This feedback The average American citizen has limited understanding of can help the customer to understand the impact of small behavior environmental problems and risks (Koehn, 2006; Sterman, 2008) changes and implications of specic end uses and thus promote and of the tools engineers use to convey relevant information, PEB. The feedback also can improve the user's trust of the product including eco-labels and life cycle analyses (D'Souza, 2004; Erskine claims, increase their motivation to continue performing PEBs, and and Collins, 1997). The Reasonable Person Model suggested by strengthen their sense of responsibility and resolve for performing Kaplan (2000) asserts that the sensation of being overwhelmed by PEBs (Fogg, 2003; Midden et al., 2007). Wilson et al. (2013) complexity is a central problem in environmental decisions. It as- designed an electronic sensor device that uses light and sound serts that, because of the way humans evolved, we gravitate to- feedback to discourage the waste of household radiator heat, using wards situations where we are capable of processing information, input from user focus groups. The work offers a useful and detailed and avoid situations which challenge this capability. Levin (1993) set of evaluation questions associated with the design process. A found that too much environmental information led to anxiety good example of rewarding incentives combined with feedback is and confusion. The research agrees with other ndings on cognitive found in the Chevrolet Volt dashboard display, which makes fuel savings a game via a balancing-ball interface, shown in Fig. 8. The ball communicates the complexities of driving efciently in a fun and non-intrusive manner. During driving, the Volt encourages drivers to beat their previous efciencies and provides a small incentive in the form of a feeling of reward, indicating decreases in miles-per-gallon-equivalent. 2.3. Decision heuristics Decision heuristics are shortcuts that exist in one's mind in order to simplify judgments and decisions (Tversky and Kahneman, 1974). They are simple, general, efcient rules that develop through experiences, and are hard-coded via evolution. Heuristics help people make fast and frugal decisions (Gigerenzer et al., 2004) and usually lead to good decision outcomes, but they can also lead to irrational and/or erroneous judgments and decisions. For environmental impact, heuristics are not well-calibrated. Several established heuristics have negative implications for eco- product purchase decisions. For example, consider the popularity of bottled water because it is healthier rather than addressing the Fig. 7. Waterpik low-ow shower head (Waterpik, 2013). larger problem related to the waste created by the bottles. The

7 E.F. MacDonald, J. She / Journal of Cleaner Production 92 (2015) 23e36 29 Fig. 8. The Chevrolet Volt guides driving habits via a game: balancing a green/yellow ball. (For interpretation of the references to color in this gure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.) public's concern for specic environmental threats is not aligned associated with mercury and conclude that CFLs cannot be as good with their actual risk (Slimak and Dietz, 2006). One explanation is for the environment as they claim. The Environmental Protection the availability bias and heuristic: people assess the likelihood of Agency (EPA) has a website devoted to debunking this myth the occurrence of a given event based on the ease of recollection of (Environmental Protection Agency, 2011), explaining that the real similar events. Oil spills, nuclear plant accidents, and poisoned concern with mercury is when it is released by the burning of coal drinking water have received much media attention over the past in power plants. However, educational discussion is not enough to two decades. This attention makes these environmental disasters counteract the strong availability effect. Wider spread imple- easier to recall. Thus, people assess the resultant threat to the mentation of CFLs could be achieved by addressing customers' fear environment as more likely and possibly more severe than less- of mercury by either excluding it altogether or including a exposed environmental problems. Guber reports that poll re- containment mechanism if the bulb happens to break. Consider- spondents are much more likely to be worried about air and water ations of both environmental concerns and customer perceptions pollutiondperceptible forms of pollutiondthan about global are critical to successful eco-product design. Designers should co- warming, ozone depletion, and deforestation (Guber, 2003). Log- ordinate complex trade-offs by design, rather than assume that ging companies specically keep strips of trees intact next to education can retrain previously formed heuristics. highways (Winter, 2000), in order to prevent travelers from using Another example is the single-serve coffee market, made pop- the availability heuristic to judge the level and impact of ular by the K-Cups offered by Green Mountain coffee and the Keurig deforestation. line of related coffee-makers. There are environmental advantages The affect heuristic causes a person to judge the likelihood of a to this approach to coffee brewing, such as the reduced use of specic decision outcome based on the explanation of the out- electricity (do not need to keep a pot of coffee warm all day, brew comeda positively-described outcome is assigned a higher likeli- only what will be consumed), but the waste created is noticeable. hood of occurring than a negative one (Slovic et al., 2004). Much Realizing that their customers care about the waste created by information on eco-products is framed negatively, in terms of the using single-serving coffee cartridges, Green Mountain is working product's degrading effects on the environment (e.g., carbon foot- to use more biodegradable packaging, recycle the cartridges, or print of a product), and therefore people may think that purchasing make them reusable (Carpenter, 2010). the product is unlikely to make a difference. Fast and frugal Recommendation 5: Identify useful heuristics and use them heuristics help to quickly assess the environmental impact of to educate about the product's environmental impact. The products. For small purchases, customers may rely on them entirely. For expensive eco-product purchases, customers will use heuristics to conrm their decisions. For example, if a hybrid car is shaped like a Hummer, claims of low environmental impact will come under suspicion. Some eco-products take advantage of nascent eco-product heuristics, such as rough unprocessed-looking fabrics, brown paper, the recycled symbol on packaging, matte nishes, and neutral colors. Eco-labels can serve as a heuristic to some extent, but they are not well recognized, trusted, or under- stood (Thgersen, 2005). Recommendation 4: Address the customers' environmental concerns as well as the crucial environmental issues. Although customers' environmental concerns do not always align with the most urgent environmental problems, it is important that engi- neers and designers not ignore them. If a design solution addresses a fundamental environmental problem but worsens or ignores a less-pressing environmental problem that has media presence or perceptual availability, the low environmental impact of the product will be questioned. An excellent example of this problem is carbon uorescent light bulbs (CFL). All CFLs contain a small amount of mercury. When a CFL breaks, the mercury is released. Triggered by the availability heuristic, people consider the environmental and health concerns Fig. 9. Vitra Vegetal chair (AllModern, 2013a,b Vitra Veretal Chair).

8 30 E.F. MacDonald, J. She / Journal of Cleaner Production 92 (2015) 23e36 energy-saving aspects of CFLs were most effectively communicated others. Kaplan (2000) postulates that [t]he focus on altruism [in in American marketing campaigns when the energy usage was PEB] brings with it the implicit message that living with less will compared directly to the status quo, incandescent bulbs (1 CLF 10 result in an impoverished and joyless future, and wonders how an incandescent, CFL bulbs last about 10 times longer than incandes- eco-product purchase can be seen to serve both a self-interested cent bulbs) (Sandahl et al., 2006). The EPA website mentioned and an altruistic purpose. Some people perceive a link, a heuris- above uses a similar approach to put the mercury threat into tic, between higher levels of consumption and greater happiness perspective (Environmental Protection Agency, 2011): On average, (Geller et al., 2002). An eco-product reduces consumption: people CFLs contain about four milligrams of mercury sealed within the may believe this implies a reduction in product performance. It has glass tubing. By comparison, older thermometers contain about been shown that customers are unwilling to make sacrices with 500 mg of mercury e an amount equal to the mercury in over 100 regard to crucial performance metrics of the product in order to CFLs. Similarly, an effective home energy audit describes the en- improve sustainability (Van Birgelen et al., 2009). Early products ergy lost through poor insulation as the equivalent of a hole the advertised as eco-friendly or green did offer inferior performance at size of a football in your living room (Winter, 2000). increased prices, only strengthening this unfortunate heuristic. For For some products, use phase is an important component of example early CFL light bulbs were only a niche residential product overall life-cycle impact, and proper use requires educating the until their design specications regarding light color and quality consumer. A study of laundry detergent impact (J arvi and Paloviita, approached or exceeded those of incandescent light bulbs 2007) showed that customers have difculty calculating and (Martinot and Borg, 1998; Menanteau and Lefebvre, 2000). One of measuring the correct amount of detergent for their laundry based the lessons learned from the American CFL programs was to delay on criteria such as water hardness, and liquid volume metrics (such launching products rather than ask customers to sacrice on core as 42 mL). The results of this study indicated that providing effec- design requirements, as rst impressions become strong heuristics tive education heuristics is helpful for changing use phase impact. and are difcult to overcome (Sandahl et al., 2006). Additional Recommendation 6: Identify and use perceptual product benets of the bulbs, such as reduced heat and re hazard, are now cues that communicate environmental impact. Environmental highlighted in educational and marketing campaigns. Modern eco- impact can be expressed through the way the product is perceived. products must overcome the stigma created by their predecessors For example, the form of the Vegetal chair by Vitra emphasizes by consistently offering as-good or better performance than the Vitra's commitment to eco-friendliness with a branch-like design, competition. Another example, Norwood and Lusk (2011) found as shown in Fig. 9. Its plant-like structure evokes nature and that, on average, people are willing to pay $0.55 extra for cage-free environmental concern (Vitra, 2011). Once a person has made a eggs in US. But in reality, cage-free eggs are typically sold at a decision to purchase an eco-product, they will be more observant of premium of $1.50 or more, requiring a budget sacrice that out- perceptual information that conrms their decision, and less weighs concerns for the hens' welfare, thus leading to poor sales. It observant of information that goes against their decision, an artifact indicates that even though customers care about the impact of their of conrmation bias (Mynatt et al., 1977). This bias serves to rein- behavior, large sacrices in personal benet hinder good intentions. force pro-environmental cues in products and is one explanation Recommendation 7: Offer only triumphs and downplay for the fact that the Prius' silhouette is now identied with envi- altruism in the product's design. Use extreme caution when ronmental friendliness (Reid et al., 2009). including a message of altruism in the product's design or mar- Creating designs that communicate lower environmental im- keting campaign, as the customer could infer that the product is pacts requires the development of new research methods. Related inferior to the competition. Including luxurious nishes or indul- elds of study include emotional design (MacDonald et al., 2009b; gent design features (while minding product perception) may Norman, 1998), product semantics (Krippendorff, 2006), and are negate feelings of altruism and sacrice associated with buying an covered in books such as Norman's The Design of Everyday Things eco-product. An example of an eco-product that has transcended (Norman, 1998). MacDonald has previously identied the crux/ the altruism-sacrice heuristic is bamboo resin ooring. The sentinel (i.e., hidden/perceivable) product attribute relationship ooring has been positioned in the market as modern, durable, and (MacDonald et al., 2009a). The related design method presented affordable. One brand, Eco-timber, was rated the best in the cate- can be used to identify other product attribute relationships, such gory of prenished oors, against standards such as oak and maple as eco-product cues. (Anonymous, 2009). The pro-environmental features (VOC-free One design approach creates features that trigger consumers to non-toxic adhesive and renewable bamboo resources) are posi- think about the environment in their product decisions (She and tioned as bonuses, second to the price, durability, and modern MacDonald, 2014). These supercial visible features encouraged appearance. When customers have the feeling of performance customers to seek more information on a product's environmental impact (She and MacDonald, 2013). Forthcoming results further indicate that these features cause customers to change their pur- chases in favor of products with lower environmental impacts (She, 2013). Engineering design methods that identify preferences and sentiments associated with a product's form (Kelly and Papalambros, 2007; Orsborn et al., 2009; Reid et al., 2009) can be modied to identify product forms that communicate lower envi- ronmental impact. Also, shape-search design methods (i.e., Iyer et al., 2005) can be modied to search existing design forms to identify forms associated with lower environmental impact. 2.4. Altruism-sacrice link Researchers have found a relationship between willingness-to- pay for sustainability and altruism (Stern et al., 1993). Altruism is associated with an implicit message of self-sacrice for the sake of Fig. 10. Coldwater detergent bottles.

9 E.F. MacDonald, J. She / Journal of Cleaner Production 92 (2015) 23e36 31 sacrice for green products, it is necessary to downplay this customers to think that ultimate blame for consequences of their attribute in the product's packaging. Coldwater laundry detergents, environmental decisions rests on another party, namely the which can reduce energy use by three-quarters (Martin and persuader (Geller et al., 2002). This is not to say that all eco-labels Rosenthal, 2011), was a hard sell for several years. Manufacturers are useless and do more harm than good, but it is important for increases its sell by downplaying altruism-sacrice link, e.g., rele- designers to note that eco-labels may have drawbacks and are gate energy saving as attendant benets, and emphasize other at- ineffective as the sole conveyers of a product's environmental tributes (Martin and Rosenthal, 2011). This effort is also evident in impact. Tide's detergent bottle. Fig. 10 shows an old Tide Coldwater deter- It is often difcult for customers, and other stakeholders, to gent bottle (on the left) and a current bottle (on the right). ascertain the extent to which a rm's products and processes are An eco-product should create demand through design benets sustainable. The rm may have an incentive to deceive in market- to the customerdit should be a triumph, offering performance ing messages, otherwise known as green washing, if they wish to equal to or better than competing products and extra features. appear more committed to sustainable practices than they actually Some eco-design tools try to consider environmental as well as are. Therefore, costly mechanisms such as ISO 14000 certication traditional quality requirements, such as House of Ecology (Halog, (International Organization for Standardization, 2013) and invest- 2001), Quality Function Deployment for Environment (Masui ment in eco-technologies are all examples of signals that can et al., 2003) and Function Impact Matrix (Bernstein et al., 2010; communicate a commitment to sustainability to various stake- Devanathan et al., 2010). They conrm that environmental im- holders (Connelly et al., 2011). For example, considerable invest- provements can be made without affecting functional performance. ment in a grass roof for a manufacturing plant may make more Fitzgerald et al. (2010) offer a conceptual design tool that helps sense than an eco-labeling program as it is highly observable and designers to resolve functionality-environmental contradictions in costly to imitate (Connelly et al., 2011). Green Mountain Coffee the product design, and provide products that are desired by cus- installed a huge solar array on the roof of its distribution center in tomers and also excel from an environmental standpoint. 2009 (Carpenter, 2010). Recommendation 8: Apply design for upgradability or Recommendation 9: Design trust into the product's form adaptability to work-horse products that are known for reli- using semantics and heuristics. Industrial designers have been ability and are not status symbols. Adopting End of Life strategies, taught to evoke trust in an object's form. They utilize the theory and such as remanufacturing and upgradability, to recover the value of a analysis of design semantics (Krippendorff, 2006) to create a used product is an effective and promising eco-design method. It is perceptible sense of trust in the visual lines of the product. Estab- suggested that constraints imposed by these strategies should be lishing trustworthy heuristics, for example using the above- integrated into the early phases of design (Gehin et al., 2008). There mentioned crux/sentinel attribute identication method are a number of eco-design methods that allow products to be (MacDonald et al., 2009a), will help customers identify eco- upgraded or adapted to include new features, such as design for products and reinforce their decision-making approach such that upgradability (Xing and Belusko, 2008) and design for adaptability specic forms will become heuristics in future product purchases. (Kasarda et al., 2007). Xerox makes upgradable ofce equipment, The Vitra Panton chair (Fig. 11) distributes load and stress through such as allowing lower version digital copiers to upgrade to a fully one single cohesive form. Although the form is unusual, the robust networked system. Copiers are an excellent example of a winning cantilever base reassures customers that they will not tip over. The upgradeability approach e it is a product category where cus- strong silhouette of the side of a chair also evokes trust through the tomers are looking to save money and maximize the useful lifetime recognizable chair-shape. Wang and Emurian (Wang and Emurian, of a single product purchase. However, products that are associated 2005) discuss fourteen trust-inducing interface design features that with status, such as cell phones or automobiles, and brands with may inuence a user's perception of the trustworthiness of an negative reliability stereotypes, such as some printer and auto- online merchant's web site. These features are highly correlated mobile brands, must proceed with caution in refurbishment or with the heuristics people often use to judge credibility, such as reuse design strategies. well-chosen, professional photographs and relevant domain names; however, extending this approach to product design will 2.5. Trust require more research. Recommendation 10: Design trust into the product's in- To navigate the above cognitive concepts while actively teractions using similarity. If a product has a computer interface, a searching for an eco-product, the consumer has to overcome a number of trust issues. For example, a person must trust (a) the science that identies the environmental problems, (b) his or her ability to personally affect the problems with PEB; (c) the pro- environmental claims made by the product; and (d) the up-to-par performance of the product. It may seem reasonable for a person to seek expert advice to aid their search; however, experts from the environmental movement are not fully trusted by the public. In her analysis of the results of a number of polls, Guber (2003) came to the conclusion that [b]y downplaying environmental progress and using exaggerated doomsday warnings to motivate public aware- ness and concern, the environmental movement has sacriced its own credibility by giving into the politics of Chicken Little. Eco-labels and environmental marketing messages are also often not trusted by customers (D'Souza, 2004; Lampe and Gazda, 1995; Shrum et al., 1995). Eco-labels on products or product pack- aging are a form of direct persuasion advertising, with informa- tion provided by the products' manufacturer. Direct persuasion advertising may also shift responsibility for the behavior, leading Fig. 11. Vitra Panton Chair (AllModern, 2013a,b Vitra Panton Chair).

10 32 E.F. MacDonald, J. She / Journal of Cleaner Production 92 (2015) 23e36 number of studies suggest that the product is considered more effectiveness of potential strategies with design professionals. The trustworthy and persuasive if the interface resembles the user interviewed design professionals agreed that in order to be (Fogg, 2003). Resembles can refer to the cognitive style in which accepted, the product would need to support, not contradict, user's the information is presented, i.e., visual or verbal (Hauser et al., values. This led to her recommendation to Use predominately 2009), or other personality traits, physical traits, or afliations positive, rather than negative reinforcements when trying to that resemble the customer (Fogg, 2003). Urban et al. (2009) change user behavior (Lilley, 2009). Flora discusses behavior studied websites selling credit card loans and showed that people change in general, not just related to environmental concerns, and are more likely to trust a website when it resembles the visitors' concludes that positive reinforcement is more effective than criti- cognitive style (analytical vs. impulsive, for example). With further cism overall (Flora, 2000). Praising PEB will better facilitate research it may be possible to use these ndings for product design. learning and positive motivation than criticism of behavior that has Cognitive-style dimensions related to design could include, for damaging environmental impacts (Geller et al., 2002). A mobile example, exible vs. inexible, innovator vs. traditionalist. phone application developed by Froehlich (2011) motivates users to make greener transportation choices (e.g., walk, bicycle, carpool) by 2.6. Cognitive dissonance and guilt using a tree design. The tree is almost bare at the start of each week, then leaves, blossoms, and apples are progressively added to the When an individual performs a behavior with the intent of tree after each use of green transportation. But the tree does not reducing environmental impact, but later realizes that the behavior lose growth when a car is driven, instead it only resets each week. is detrimental to the environment, they will experience cognitive The tree growth rewards greener behavior, and the positive-only dissonance, a mismatch between cognition and action, or value and growth sequence avoids making users feel guilty. behavior. They will have a strong need to resolve the mismatch (Festinger and Carlsmith, 1959). Changing behavior to match their 2.7. Motivation values resolves the dissonance, so triggering cognitive dissonance can motivate the performance of PEB. Applied behavior analysis is a sub-eld of psychology that re- However, people can also resolve cognitive dissonance by searches how to motivate change in behavior. Vining et al. (2002) changing cognition to match behavior (Immerwahr, 1999; Vining review the three types of behavior motivation: (1) intrinsic moti- et al., 2002). People can change their values, attitudes, or beliefs vation, in which a person derives satisfaction from performing the about the environment to a position of less concern. Note that behavior; (2) extrinsic motivation, in which person derives satis- resolving cognitive dissonance in this manner for one behavior will faction from a reward given when the behavior is performed; and affect all other behaviordthe person may fundamentally decrease (3) a motivation, in which a person receives no satisfaction from the the importance they place on environmental problems, or their behavior, and is unsure why they are performing the behavior. One belief that environmental problems exist. A customer may change would expect that a personal norm or feeling of moral obligation their decisions about the eco-products they currently buy. There- provides a strong intrinsic motivation for PEB, but this is not always fore, attempting to motivate PEB by intentionally triggering the case (Tanner and Wo lng Kast, 2003). People are most likely to cognitive dissonance is not advised. participate in PEB through extrinsic motivation: when there is a People can experience feelings of guilt about negative envi- tangible incentive and personal sacrice is minimal (Guber, 2003). ronmental impacts if they have formed an individualized sense of Financial incentives as well as guilt and/or cognitive dissonance are responsibility, listened to the shame and blame tactics of the early examples of extrinsic motivatorsdcorrecting behavior gives the environmental movement, or experienced unresolved cognitive reward of the removal of an unpleasant cognitive state, but as dissonance regarding the products they buy. In motivating PEB, discussed, they can lead to unwanted consequences. researchers stressed that inducing feelings of guilt should be Applied behavior analysis shows that PEB can be promoted by avoided, as guilt can cause a change in behavior, but it can also specic extrinsic motivators that must be tailored to the desired cause a disguise or denial of the target behavior (Levin, 1993). behavior change. Eco-product purchase decisions are best moti- Recommendation 11: Avoid making customers feel guilty. Be vated by incentives that are short-term, repetitive, and small in cautious of product interactions that trigger guilt or cognitive size: [r]eward schedules that are just sufcient to initiate behavior dissonance. Work with marketers to remove these concepts from change are more likely to produce longer-term behavior change marketing campaigns. Before introducing a new eco-product, it is than more powerful rewards (Geller et al., 2002). This can be important to study the customers' impressions of the environ- explained by the fact that people attribute the reason for behavioral mental impact of current product offerings. If customers believe change to the relevant circumstances and the size of the reward. A that the available products are conscientious of environmental large, one-time incentive to motivate PEB causes a person to concerns, introducing a new eco-product by the same company attribute the change to the efforts of the one providing the incen- may cause cognitive dissonance regarding the product they tive. Small, repetitive incentives cause a person to eventually currently purchase. The designer/business can avoid this situation attribute the change to their own volition, thus shifting from by positioning the two products so they are not directly compared, extrinsic to intrinsically-motivated PEB (Geller et al., 2002). This using features, pricing, and branding. transition is important to achieving repeat eco-product purchases At a recent eco-design workshop, an electronics company dis- and effective use. played a prototype interface for monitoring home electricity usage Recommendation 12: Change PEB motivation from extrinsic that showed a penguin on an iceberg. The iceberg melted and to intrinsic with small, well-timed incentives designed into eventually disappeared if the homeowner used too much elec- product interactions. Eco-products that aim at long-term reduc- tricity. This type of interface should be avoided because it will tion of environmental impacts can be designed to include features trigger guilt and may result in customers changing their level of that provide near-term benets, such as including fair trade or concern for the environment. Monitoring interfaces should high- locally-produced materials (Tanner and Wo lng Kast, 2003). light accomplishments, not shortcomings. This is consistent with Delight in product features can also be considered a short-term Lilley's (2009) recommendation for the design of eco-devices. Lilley incentive. Features that can provide such incentives can be inves- explored the design strategies for changing mobile phone users' tigated by design methods that discover delighting product attri- behavior in public spaces and investigated the acceptability and butes (Kano et al., 1984; MacDonald et al., 2006). The proper

11 E.F. MacDonald, J. She / Journal of Cleaner Production 92 (2015) 23e36 33 spacing of incentives to achieve the transition from extrinsic to impact of policy on design decisions has been explored in the intrinsic motivation requires design creativity. Next paragraph literature, see (Shiau et al., 2009; Struben and Sterman, 2008). shows some examples. Recommendation 14: Design eco-products for ease of use. Smaller and more fuel-efcient hybrid cars, such as the Honda The rationale most frequently provided for not performing PEB is Insight, are tted with smaller gas tanks. Because of the car's high that requires effort (Koehn, 2006). One study demonstrated that mile per gallon (MPG) capacity, the driver may ll the tank as perceived behavior barriers to transportation (e.g., low frequency of often as with a conventional car, but he will buy less gasoline. public transport, transfers necessary with public transport) are Needing to pay less for gas and driving the same distance will closely associated with increased automobile driving frequency convey a feeling of delight, an incentive that is received every time (Tanner, 1999). At a recent webcast offered by the Department of the tank is lled. If Honda had designed the Insight with a tank Energy, Gainesville Regional Utilities (GRU) reported their success similar in size to non-hybrid cars, would have allowed customers of a Home Energy Reporting Program, where simple steps to save to drive further between ll-ups instead of cheaper ll-ups. In this energy are always highlighted (Crawford and Fischer, 2011), e.g., case, the driver would not receive the same repeated feeling of weatherization and sealing and using CFL bulbs. These tips are easy delight. It is likely the customer would not notice the change in to follow and thus prompt people to be more likely engaged in ll-up frequency as vividly as the change in the cost per tank of energy-saving activities. Eco-products should be easy to use and gas, and would not feel the same sense of reward. A nightclub in understand. Product heuristics, or emotional design, that read as Netherlands uses a new type of dance oor that harvests the en- easy or simple can be built into design features to provide ergy generated by jumps and gyrations and transforms it into further encouragement. Some examples include: perforations on electricity to supply the energy required for the whole club. The select-a-size paper towels (Fig. 3), and sophisticated hybrid trans- dance oor, which functions through piezoelectricity technology, mission systems that simplify the process of shifting and sharing motivates customers' PEB by providing enjoyment (Rosenthal, power among the engine, electric motors and wheels without 2010). The open beak of a baby bird litterbin encourages chil- requiring special driving techniques. Designing a product to be dren to feed the hungry bird by putting the garbage into its beak, simple to repair or upgrade is a related goal, especially in products rewarding them with a feeling of delight with each use (Lockton for which early replacement is environmentally desirable (van Nes et al., 2010b). and Cramer, 2006). Recommendation 13: Work with policy makers and mar- Recommendation 15: Design product with social norms in keters to design thoughtfully-structured eco-product purchase mind. Normative social inuence has a powerful effect on behavior, incentives. An example of a good incentive for transitioning from especially in dening what constitutes correct behaviordWe view extrinsically to intrinsically motivated PEB is California's Clean Air a behavior as correct in a given situation to the degree that we see Sticker program (California Department of Motor Vehicles, 2013). others performing it (Cialdini, 1993). That explains why in- California issued 85,000 clean air stickers to hybrid and low- fomercials always demonstrate people from various walks of life emission vehicles that allowed the driver to use carpool lanes happily buying and using the advertised products. Nolan et al. with only one passenger in the vehicle. Every time the owner drives (2008) studied what motivated people to save energy by placing the vehicle, they receive a small incentive in the form of a faster door-hangers containing different persuasive appeals around a commute time and savings of $2.00 to $4.00 when using a toll road. mid-size Californian community. The appeals emphasized to resi- The vehicles with stickers also retained a higher resale value. A dents that turning off an air conditioner and turning on fan: (1) large, one-time nancial incentive in the form of a rebate on a new saves money, (2) helps the environment, (3) benets society, or (4) car purchase (i.e., the U.S. Cash for Clunkers program) is unlikely is a common practice in their neighborhood (appealing to social to spur future PEB (Wald, 2009). Sloan (2011) examined a variety of norms). Actual energy usage indicated that the social-norms appeal potential policies for inuencing rms to adopt cleaner had signicantly higher impact on reducing energy consumption manufacturing technologies, drawing examples from the automo- (Nolan et al., 2008). Gainesville Regional Utilities (GRU) also bile and refrigerator industries. employed social norms when comparing residential utility cus- Public policy has played a crucial role in developing CFLs from a tomers' electricity use to that of their neighbors in their innovative niche lighting product into a mass product in the residential market home energy reports (Allcott, 2011). One of the 101 strategies for (Menanteau and Lefebvre, 2000; Sandahl et al., 2006). A variety of inuencing user behavior developed by Lockton et al. (2010b) incentive and educational programs have been used in different suggests inuencing behavior by showing people what their countries to encourage their adoption (Martinot and Borg, 1998). peers are doing in a similar situation and which choices are most However, no country made the transition to CFLs by passing a law popular, such as Amazon's recommending system. In eco-product that mandated CFLs for all residential applications. On the other design, designers are challenged to take social norms into consid- hand, no country made the transition to CFLs by putting the bulbs eration and encouraged to go out and watch people in their normal on the shelves in retail stores and waiting for customers to pur- environment to determine what they believe and do (Norman, chase them based on economic merits alone. Governments and 1999). Automated faucets provide the convenience of hands-free manufacturers introduced CFLs through policies that encouraged on/off activation and help conserving water. The normative value their use on an elective basis by individuals. When CFLs are widely embedded into the automation, as an automated faucet is also more adopted, stricter use laws can be instated, such as California's Title hygienic, motivates customers to use the product, and repeated use 24 Residential Lighting Building Code that imposes strict efciency shapes their behavior (Braverman, 2010). requirements on built-in lighting xtures (The California Energy Commission, 2008). 3. Discussion of implementing recommendations within Policy-makers benet from motivating individuals to perform design methods PEB (Jackson, 2005). Eco-technologies are more cost-effective and implemented faster when individuals are willing to accept the The concepts have implications when used in conjunction with technologies or even demand them. The coordination of per- concept-generation design methods that focus on understanding spectives is recognized as importantdthere is now a bill under customers. For example, an application of these concepts during consideration in the U.S. Senate to add a social and behavioral conceptual design would work well in conjunction with an science ofce to the Department of Energy (Baird, 2009). The empathic design approach (Leonard and Rayport, 1997), as it is

12 34 E.F. MacDonald, J. She / Journal of Cleaner Production 92 (2015) 23e36 important to feel and experience as the target customer does with methods given should be treated as illustrations of how a designer respect to the application of the seven concepts. Eco-design paired can approach these concepts, rather than as a test of their efcacy. with a lead user approach (Vonhippel, 1986) may yield dissatis- They bridge the gap between the abstract cognitive concepts and factory results. Lead users are at the forefront of the market de- their applications in eco-design, and highlight the need for new mand, and, for eco-products, lead users are likely to be well-versed design methods that treat customers as dynamic and interactive in environmental impact evaluation and willing to sacrice func- members of a larger social system rather than as a static source of tionality for the benet of the environment. A better approach design criteria. Future eco-design studies must focus on achieving might be to target lag users, for example, someone particularly positive change in individuals' behavior using a combination of frustrated with understanding information about eco-products, or approaches. Synthesizing the above recommendations and per- someone who has had negative experiences with eco-products in spectives requires coordination between designers, manufacturers, the past and stopped using them. marketers, and government policy-makers. The success of eco- Jelsma (2006) provides an eight-step design method to solve products depends on the success of this coordination. discrepancies between designers' and users' understanding of a product's interaction by involving users in the design process. The Acknowledgments recommendations provided here can help to identify mis- understandings. Tang (2010) highlights that including detailed user This work was partially supported by a National Science Foun- studies, such as ethnographical observations, in the design process dation Graduate Research Fellowship, the Donald C. Graham Chair can help designers generate innovative design concepts, provide Endowment at the University of Michigan, the University of better and more efcient user experience via design, and improve Michigan Rackham Graduate School, and the 2050 Mack Challenge the user acceptance of behavior-changing concepts. The cognitive Scholar program at Iowa State University. A previously version of concept categories presented in this article may offer specic this work appeared in the proceedings of the 2012 ASME Interna- guidelines for what to be sure to address during observation. tional Design Technical Conference, under the title Seven Cogni- Designers need to be careful when implementing design-led tive Concepts for Successful Sustainable Design. approaches to inuence user behavior e maintaining a balance between inuencing and coercing will allow users to accept the design implementation (Lilley, 2007). As many of the recommen- References dations are geared at inuencing behavior, using them in combi- Anonymous, 2009. Flooring, Consumer Reports (August), pp. 42e44. nation may be either more effective, or they may negate each other. Allcott, H., 2011. Social norms and energy conservation. J. Public Econ. 95 (9e10), A user-oriented design process should be able to identify particular 1082e1095. implementations that work well. 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