Fish Oil Research, 1920-87, in the National Marine Fisheries

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1 Fish Oil Research, 1920-87, in the National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA MAURICE E. STANSBY Introduction is largely devoted to work on fish oils sian. For just a few years in the 1870's occurring as oils themselves rather than and 1880's some research was carried Recently, a great deal of publicity has with fish oils in fish flesh. Thus, not in out on technological aspects, especial been and is being given to findings that cluded here is any mention of the con ly composition of fish, which were felt long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (which siderable research dealing with storage by the agency's first Commissioner, occur almost exclusively in the oil of changes in frozen fish which involves, Spencer F. Baird to be important. Baird fish) may have beneficial effects in re among others changes, alterations, espe died in 1887, and no more technological ducing the incidence of heart disease cially rancidity development, of the oil work was undertaken until 1918. At that and certain other medical conditions within the fish. time, new personnel believed that the (Stansby, 1985). These findings result While discussion is included here on agency, which had devoted all its atten from research carried out over many various aspects of extracted fish oils, tion to biological and statistical endeav years, and part of the early research special attention and more detail is in ors, ought also to include technological along these lines was done at labora cluded on nutritional properties on such aspects. In 1921, chenlical research was tories financed by the National Marine medical conditions as heart attacks. carried out at an agency laboratory, then Fisheries Service, NOAA, and its pre Research on extracted fish oils can be located in Washington, D.C., to deter decessor agencies. Other research has divided into several time periods. The mine fat constants of fish oils. Although also been carried out by laboratories of earliest work, carried out at several lab this work was never published, the re this agency on other aspects of fish oils oratories between 1921 and 1953, is de sults were passed on to companies who which have various industrial applica signated as "Early Research." Research might be potential customers for fish oils. tions. This paper summarizes such re since 1953 has been carried out for the From 1926 to 1930, research was car search which began about 1920 and con most part at the Seattle, Wash., College ried out by Roger Harrison and associ tinues today. Park, Md., and Charleston, S.C., lab ates at a laboratory at Reedville, Va., on Research is described here which took oratories. This research is designated as fundamental aspects of the operation of place not only in the National Marine "Modern Work on Fish Oil." It initially the menhaden industry. Menhaden is Fisheries Service (NMFS) which started was carried out to a large extent at Seat used not for human food but rather for operation in 1970 but also at its prede de where, for about 10 years beginning manufacture of fish oil, fish meal, and cessor organizations, the Bureau of Fish in 1955, large amounts of Saltonstall fish solubles, all industrial products. eries and Bureau of Commercial Fisher Kennedy (S-K) funds were available for This 4-year study resulted in a 113-page ies (BCF). The research discussed here research on fish oils. Such work tapered publication (Harrison, 1931) giving vol off about the middle of the 1960's at uminous detail of menhaden oil manu Seattle. Work on fish oils thereafter and facture. up until about 1980 was concentrated In 1933, a study was made at Glou ABSTRACT-Research on extracted fish largely at the College Park Laboratory cester, Mass., on oxidation of mackerel oils carried out by the National Marine Fish and its successor, the Charleston Lab oil (Stansby and Lemon, 1941), as a part eries Service and its predecessor laboratories from its early beginnings in 1921 to the pres oratory. Beginning in about 1980, mod of a longer study on handling fresh ent time are reviewed. The work, after a slow em fish oil research programs have been mackerel. This was probably the first start, l-mS greatly expanded during the decade devoted largely to nutritional properties research on oxidation of fish oil carried beginning in 1955 when Saltonstall-Kennedy of fish oil and are here described in the out not only by our agency but anywhere (S-K) funding allowed both inhouse and con section "Nutritional Aspects of Fish Oil." else. tract programs to be carried out, primarily based at the Seattle Technological Labora From 1932 to 1950, many studies were Early Research, 1921-53 carried out on vitamin A content of fish tory. After the decline in such work during the 1970's, such research has become impor The first research within the Bureau oils. This research began in Gloucester, tant again during the 1980's at all three of of Fisheries on fish oils occurred in the NMFS Utilization Laboratories. Projects Maurice Stansby is a Scientific Consultant at the concerning research on the nutritional and 1921. This is not surprising even though Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Center, National medical effects of long chain omega-3 fatty the NMFS dates back to 1871 when it Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, ms Montlak:e acids offish oils are also discussed. was known as the U.S. Fish Commis Blvd. E., Seattle, WA 98112-2097. 174 Marine Fisheries Review

2 Mass., in 1932 and was carried out by added to the staff, and many research Perhaps the most important finding of Harrison and Anderson who conlprised contracts with other laboratories were this short-lived laboratory was that fish the agency's authorities on fish oils. funded. The extent of research under oils while in the flesh of freshly caught When they were transferred to Seattle this expanded program was so great that fish, oxidized very slowly during stor in 1933, this work was continued. Even it is not feasible to describe it to any sig age of such fish in ice. As long as such tually a fairly extensive series of research nificant extent here. From 1955 through fish remained unfrozen, the oxidation studies were carried out by Sanford 1965, 107 research papers on the chem rate was very small. But as soon as any (1945); Sanford et al. (1946); Sanford istry and nutritional value of fish oils thing was done to eliminate bacterial and Bonham (1947); and McKee et al. were published as a result of the avail spoilage (e.g., freezing) the rate then in (1944). This vitamin A in fish oil work ability of S-K funds to the Seattle Lab creased tremendously. It appeared as if ceased in 1950 when synthetic vitamin oratory. These included 56 papers by the microorganisms used most of the A became available. At least in the Seattle authors on research in the Seat oxygen leaving little for reaction with United States, it was so much less ex tle Technological Laboratory as well as the oils. Unfortunately, this project had pensive to use the synthetic vitamin A papers by contractors for the Seattle to be terminated before this matter could than to process fish livers that that in Laboratory. The contractors were large be further investigated. dustry was no long feasible. 1y either the University of California At Seattle no more work on fish oils In 1937, a research project was started (primarily the Department of Food Sci was undertaken until the early 1980's. by Harrison to develop an improved ence and Technology and the Institute At that time considerable work was method for extracting fish oil from fish of Marine Technology both at Davis) undertaken by the Seattle Utilization meal. Initially, the oil content may run, and the University of Minnesota (Hor Laboratory to investigate the possibility for example 10 percent, but owing to the mel Institute at Austin and the School of carrying out fractionation of fish oil oil somehow complexing with the pro of Mines and Metallurgy at Minneapo fatty acids employing supercritical car tein, conventional ethyl ether extraction lis). The extent of research on fish oils bon dioxide extraction. A very success methods used for fish meal stored for during this 10-year period was greater ful fractionation is possible by this some time may give as little as 1 per than that which has been carried out procedure especially when partially frac cent oil. Many methods were tried by either before or since that time. Much tionated fatty acids are employed (Nils Harrison from 1937 to 1942. When he of the research of this program has been son et al., 1988). Such methods make was transferred to Washington, D.C., the documented in papers by Stansby and possible the preparation of eicosapen work was continued by Stansby up to Butler (1958) and Karrick (1965). The taenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic 1953, and a modified acid hydrolysis book by Stansby (1967) on fish oils, now acid (DHA) at purity levels well over 90 ether extraction method was developed out of print, remains the most modern percent. Two U.S. patents were awarded (Stansby, 1948) which was adopted by book on this subject. to two staff members on this process the Association of Official Agriculture In 1967, the large, expanded fish oil (Stout and Spinelli, 1987; Spinelli et al., Chemists for inclusion as an official program at the Seattle Technological 1987). procedure in their book of methods. The Laboratory ceased shortly after (1 July) Most of the work was carried out on work as described above covers all the when most of the laboratory came under menhaden oil. Several Pacific Coast work carried out by the Seattle NMFS its new director, Maynard Steinberg. A species were tested for EPA and DHA Laboratory on fish oils up to 1953. portion of this laboratory, however, be content. These included Alaska pollock came the Food Science Pioneer Re liver oil and Pacific whiting oil, both Modern Work on Fish search Laboratory under Stansby, and high in EPA, and several tuna oils very Oil, 1953-87 a major portion of its program dealt with high in DHA (23-29 percent). oxidation of fish oil. Actually, this new Work was also carried out on storage Research at Seattle laboratory remained in existence for of fish oils or fish oil fatty acid concen In 1953, the Seattle Technological only about 3 years, because in 1970 a trates in pressurized cans under inert gas Laboratory initiated a research program massive reorganization took place with and with provision for metering out pre to learn more about the chemistry of fish the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries in determined amounts of the contents. oils. For 2 years some small-scale re the Department of Interior being moved Such a procedure precludes any loss search was carried out on fractionation to the Department of Commerce under from oxidation for an indefinite period of fatty acids by urea complexes. Work the new name of the National Marine of time. also got underway on methods for prep Fisheries Service. At about that time, aration of new compounds such as al the personnel of the Food Science Pio Research at College Park, Md., cohols, amines, and silicones. neer Research Laboratory became the and Charleston, S.C., Laboratories The work on fish oil chemistry was first unit called the Environmental Con When S-K funds became available in expanded between 1955 and 1967 ow servation Division of the Northwest 1955, the Technological Laboratories at ing to availability to the laboratory in Fisheries Center. Thus only a small Seattle and College Park received financ Seattle of relatively large amounts of amount of work was accomplished on ing from them for research on fish meal S-K funds. Several new chemists were the fish oil oxidation project. and fish oil. After about 3 years, how 50(4), 1988 175

3 ever, the BCF headquarters directed the was also made into separation of fish oil (UCLA) which led to a degree in Medi College Park Laboratory to work on fish fatty acids by High Performance Liquid cal Science. At that time, several of his meal and the Seattle Laboratory to work Chromatography (HPLC), particularly professors at UCLA who knew about on fish oil. There was, however, about at a scaled-up level. the decrease in heart disease during the a 3-year period when College Park car Nazi occupation of Norway discussed ried out, largely on contract, work on Nutritional Aspects these ideas in detail among themselves uses of fish oils. For example, one such of Fish Oils and with Nelson. contract dealt with uses of fish oil in the Most of the material in this section One aspect concerned the fact that leather industry (Matei and Roddy, relates to the nutritional aspects dealing considerably more fish was used in the 1958). with the effects of the polyunsaturated Norwegian diet during the period when Later, toward the end of the 1960's fatty acids in fish oils upon serum chol the incidence of heart disease declined. and after the Seattle Technological Lab esterollevels and particularly upon al Nelson was very much impressed by oratory had discontinued its fish oil pro leviating certain diseases. To help put these ideas. In 1953, he began to spe gram, the College Park Laboratory be the NMFS research into perspective, it cialize in treatment of patients referred gan research (Kifer and Miller, 1969). is important to include references to to him for his interest in recommend Much of the work at this period dealt some of the studies carried out in this ing diet change for individuals who had with feeding of fish oil to poultry (Mil field by other investigators. suffered one or more heart attacks. He ler et al., 1969) but some involved feed During the 1940's and early 1950's it therefore suggested to his patients, be ing it to animals (Kifer et al., 1971). was learned that polyunsaturated fatty ginning in 1953, that they eat fish at least During this period, research was also acids in the diet lowered serum choles three times per week as the main course carried out by George Knobl and Pres terol levels. At this early period it was of a meal. Because the evidence at that ton Smith at College Park, Md., on believed that the best measurement of time had led to the idea that fish oil was adapting the chloroform-methanol ex the effects of different oils in this respect of no value in the diet for reducing traction procedure to determination of was to determine the ratio of polyunsat serum cholesterol levels, Nelson did not the oil content of fish meal. urated to saturated fatty acids in the oil. mention this aspect in some of his very During the 1980's the Charleston Util It was supposed that this ratio was early publications of his results. ization Laboratory carried out consider directly proportional to the ability of the Nelson's final paper covered all of his able research on fish oils, especially oil, when used in the diet, to lower 19 years of study (Nelson, 1972). It menhaden oils. They prepared a very serum cholesterol levels. Many vege clearly showed that individuals who had exhaustive literature search on fish oils table oils had a very high such ratio. On suffered at least one heart attack and (Bauersfeld and Winemiller, 1985). The the other hand, fish oils had a low ratio, then went on a diet including use of fish laboratory set up complete analytical often around one; i.e., there were often as the main course at a minimum of facilities for running fish oil fatty acid as many (sometimes even more) satur three times per week had considerably content studies and made analyses of ated than polyunsaturated fatty acids in fewer subsequent heart attacks. In this many fishery samples, especially of fish oils. Because of this fact in the early long-term study involving several hun menhaden (Joseph, 1985). Research was period of research in this field, fish oils dred patients, those who did not include also carried out on rates of oxidation of were never used. In 1956, however, a fish in their diet suffered 4.5 more heart lipids in fish (Joseph and Seaborn, 1982). paper appeared (Bronte-Stewart et al., attacks than those who did follow the Additional Charleston Laboratory re 1956) which showed that fish oils were recommendation of fish (which became search relating to an FDA petition to as effective (and usually a great deal a mandatory part of the diet for the last permit menhaden oil to be used in food more effective) than vegetable oils in 15 years of the test). Nelson died in 1973 for human consumption and to its ma lowering serum cholesterol levels when and possibly because his paper was pub jor role in omega-3 fatty acids research taken in the diet. lished in a journal not ordinarily read (jointly with the National Institutes of While Norway was occupied by Nazi by those interested in coronary disease, Health) is described in the section on forces during World War II, the diet his work was almost unknown. A sum "Nutritional Aspects of Fish Oils." changed because of a scarcity of certain mary of its findings, however, has been foods including meat. Medical records published more recently (Stansby, 1982). Research at the showed that during this period there was In 1953, at the same time that Nelson Gloucester Laboratory a definite decrease in the incidence of began his work on diet for heart pa Not until 1980 did the Gloucester heart attacks (Strom and Jensen, 1951). tients, the Seattle Fishery Technological Laboratory become involved in fish oil There was very little known about this Laboratory of the Bureau of Commer research. That year a small program was and what few publications appeared cial Fisheries began its work on fish oil initiated, including looking into varia gave no insight into how diet might have research . Nelson, soon learning of the tions in cholesterol and fatty acids con been involved. In 1946-47 Averly Nel interest of laboratory staff, contacted tent of different fishes, especially those son, a Seattle physician, interrupted his Stansby on many occasions by phone of the New England area (Krzynowek practice to take a year of courses at the and talked at great length about his pro and Murphy, 1987). Considerable study University of California at Los Angeles ject. He invited Stansby on several occa- 176 Marine Fisheries Review

4 sions during subsequent years to talk to ly hydrogenated and then added to mar from the presence of long-chain omega-3 his patients about fish and fish oils. garine or shortening for human con fatty acids in the diet of Eskimos who ate In 1955, with the advent of greatly ex sumption. Regulations of the U.S. Food almost nothing except the flesh of fish panded research by the Seattle Labora and Drug Administration had precluded and marine mammals. The omega-3 fat tory for fish oil investigation, some such use in the United States pending ty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5), work was begun on looking into effect establishment by lengthy feeding tests was studied especially. It was shown that of ingestion of fish oil among the labor proof that such oil was safe!. Upon the its presence in the diet promoted altered atory staff members, and correlating its transfer of the laboratory from College prostaglandin formation and diminished effect on serum cholesterol levels. It was Park to Charleston one of the first new the tendency toward blood platelet ag decided, however, not to pursue such programs which was being requested by gregation. Research by Hamberg et ale work further in-house. Instead, begin the menhaden industry was the under (1975) showed that such aggregation was ning in 1957 a series of research con taking of such work using S-K funds. promoted by the presence of the prostag tracts were begun at the Harmel Insti During the first part of the 1980's much landin thromboxane-A2 (TXA2). Other tute of the University of Minnesota. of the attention of the Charleston Labor research by Moncada et ale (1976) showed Walter Lundberg, director of that lab atory's staff went into this program. At that the reverse action of inhibiting blood oratory, was the first to head such re present, the data from such contract re platelet aggregation was induced by the search on nutrition of fish oils. Soon, search on menhaden oil is being studied presence of another prostaglandin, pro however, James Peifer of that laboratory by the Food and Drug Administration. stacyclin (PGI2). The Danish investiga continued the contract research. Many During the current decade, all three tors suggested that the effectiveness of papers resulted from this research which of the NMFS utilization laboratories the omega-3 long chain fatty acid, eico greatly strengthened proof that fish oils have become involved in several aspects sapentaenoic acid (C20:5), was caused could, better than any other oils, act as of deternlining the nutritional value of by the alteration in the amounts of these serum cholestrol depressants. Much of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in two prostaglandins such that the ratio of the results of this research was published fish oils. Present indications are that PGI2 to TXA2 was increased. The re by Peifer (1967) as a chapter in a new these omega-3 long chain fatty acids search of these workers is very well book on fish oils. This and some later probably are involved in minimizing in summarized by Dyerberg (1982). work is also summarized elsewhere cidence of heart disease for reasons After publication of several of the (Stansby, 1969). This publication is which go beyond the mere lowering of papers of Danish scientists in this field, probably the first to ascribe some of the serum cholesterol levels. There also are analogous research began in other coun important potential medical effects of indications that the long-chain omega-3 tries, especially Great Britain, Germany, fish oil to its content of omega-3 fatty fatty acids may be useful in minimizing the United States, and Japan. Probably acids (Stansby, 1969: 88-90). the incidence or severity of several other the first individuals in the United States During the 1970's, almost no research human diseases. to begin work in this field were William was carried out within NMFS labora These ideas originated from research E. M. Lands and coworkers at the Uni tories on nutritional properties of fish carried out during the 1970's by investi versity of Michigan. They made studies oils. The one exception was at the Col gators in Denmark. They had noted during the late 1970's on effects of fish lege Park Laboratory. This laboratory beliefs that Eskimos living in remote oils fed to cats on strokes (Black et al., had specialized for many years on pro areas of Greenland seldom suffered 1979) and effects when fed to dogs (Culp grams involving the nutritional proper from heart attacks. Several trips were et al., 1980). Lands, now at the Univer ties of fish and fishery products. In made to such areas of Greenland by sity of Illinois Medical School in Chi cluded in such studies during the 1970's competent Danish medical statisticians cago, has also written several articles were a few small projects in which men who confirmed that those beliefs were and books on the general aspects of haden oil was fed to animals. well founded. Then several researchers, these effects of fish oil omega-3 fatty The College Park Laboratory was notably Bang and 1. Dyerberg and their acids (Lands, 1982, 1986; Lands and transferred to Charleston, S.C., during staffs, carried out studies which indi Bimbo, 1983). 1978. One of the projects in which fish cated that the beneficial effects stemmed Many research papers have also been oil was involved had been discussed published by staff members of the shortly before this transfer was made IHydrogenated California sardine oil was used in University of Oregon Health Sciences from College Park to Charleston. This margarine for many years when there were no Center, Portland, especially by W. E. stemmed from the interest at that time Food and Drug Standards for margarine. About Connor, S. H. Goodnight, W. S. Har 1940, the California sardine disappeared, and by the menhaden industry in the possi shortly after the Food and Drug Administration ris, and D. R. Illingworth. In this work, bility of selling some of their menhaden began hearings on standards for margarine. Since salmon oil has been the major fish oil oil for partial hydrogenation and use in no one appeared from the then-defunct sardine oil industry, nor from the menhaden oil industry, no used for tests with human subjects the United States for adding to margar consideration was given to blanket in fish oil (after (Goodnight et al., 1982; Harris and ine. For many decades the menhaden in hydrogenation) as an acceptable component. Had Connor, 1980). anyone then appeared, such fish oil would have dustry had been shipping most of their probably been accepted as a generally regarded By far the largest portion of research fish oil to Europe where it was partial as safe (GRAS) ingredient. carried out to date has related the effects 50(4), 1988 177

5 of the long-chain, omega-3 fatty acids Merck Co., Sharp and Dohm Co., the high dietary amounts, though not as which occur primarily in fish, to effects Seven Seas Health Care Co., and the much long-chain omega-3 fatty acids as on coronary diseases. The effect of as R.P. Scherer Corp. A second somewhat the Greenland Eskimos. This has been pirin (closely related to the mechanism similar meeting was held in 1985 in done to insure that enough omega-3 is of the omega-3 fatty acids effects) applies Washington, D.C., entitled "Health Ef present so the biochemical and meta not only to coronary diseases but also fects of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in bolic changes will take place and can be to a variety of inflammatory diseases Seafoods," and was cosponsored by the studied. Thus, we can not yet say either such as arthritis. It is, therefore, not sur National Institutes of Health and the how much fatty fish needs to be eaten prising that some limited research NMFS. At both meetings many papers or how much fish oil needs to be con indicates similar beneficial effects of were presented on research at various sumed to obtain even a minimal bene omega-3 fatty acids on a number of in laboratories investigating the effects of fit. Quantitative investigation is much flammatory diseases. Furthermore, a omega-3 fatty acids on various medical needed to resolve this problem. relatively small number of investigations conditions. By far most of the research to date has have suggested that fish oil omega-3 fat More recently a cooperative program concentrated on the fish oil long chain ty acids may be effective in treatment has been undertaken between the Na C20:5 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid. of several other medical conditions such tional Institutes of Health (NIH), the Very little work has been done with the as breast cancer. Much more research Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health other major long-chain fatty acid of fish, must be published, however, before Administration (ADAMHA) and the the C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid. The these preliminary findings can be estab NMFS for research on effects of long few studies made show that the C22: 6 lished on as firm a basis as is the bene chain omega-3 fatty acids in fish or fish omega-3 fatty acid does have some ficial effects upon coronary diseases. oil and its components upon medical ef benefit. More attention should be paid Very little research had been con fects in humans. Under this project, the to it, and, perhaps also, to some of the ducted by the National Marine Fisheries NIH will contract out research pro other long chain omega-3 fatty acids Service on the role of long chain omega grams to clinical and other laboratories. which occur in smaller amounts in fish 3 fatty acids in fish during the 1970's. The NMFS, using its Utilization Lab oil (e.g., C22:5 omega-3 fatty acid). A conference on the nutritional evalua oratories at Charleston, S.C., Glouces Perhaps most important is the need to tion of long chain fatty acids in fish oils ter, Mass., and Seattle, Wash., will con study 'the range of fatty acid values with was held in London in 1981 (Barlow and duct research on methods of preparing in the oil of different species of fish Stansby, 1982). This conference con omega-3 concentrates or highly purified (Stansby, 1981; 1986). Originally, it was sisted mostly of papers aimed at deter fatty oils. Research is going on at Glou not realized that there is a very large mining whether or not the fatty acids in cester and Seattle to develop procedures variation in the fatty acid make-up of the partially hydrogenated fish oil contained for preparing small-scale amounts of oils of the same species of fish, from sufficient harmful fatty acids (i.e., eruc such material. The Charleston Labora one individual to another, from season ic acid) to make them unsafe for use in tory has set up facilities to prepare the to season, from year to year, and from margarine. However, three papers were large quantities which will be required one catching area to another. Because also presented on some of the newer for the NIH contractors. this was not understood many papers ideas about beneficial effects of fatty have appeared giving what purports to acids in connection with heart disease. Future Research be the fatty acid make up of the oil from These three papers by individuals with Much research is already well under a given species. If one examines the data different backgrounds raised consider way in the area of the biochemistry and it is apparent that in most every case the able attention and brought up the ques metabolism of omega-3 fatty acids in the values reported relate only to the few tion as to whether more widespread re diet. This long-term research is required fish included in the research but have search was needed along these lines. before recommendations can be made little or nothing to do with the values The NMFS then set up an outside to make any drastic changes in diet in for the species as a whole. Unfortunate committee to look into this matter and volving large omega-3 fatty acid intake. ly, however, tables of such values are be to recommend whether NMFS should There are, however, several other as ing published which often give very carry out research in this field. The pects about which very little is current misleading results. committee recommended that the NMFS ly known. This situation is analogous to the should first aid in the sponsoring of re One such need is to learn how small early studies on fat content of fish. The search meetings in this field. Two such an amount of long-chain omega-3 fatty first investigation in the United States meetings were held. The first one en acid in the diet could make any mean of the proximate composition of fish was titled "n-3 Fatty Acids" was held at the ingful effect. The Greenland Eskimos that of Atwater (1888). Of the various University of Reading, England, in studied ate largely marine flesh foods. items analyzed in a proximate composi 1981. It was jointly sponsored by the Na They thus got very large amounts of tion of fish, the component showing the tional Marine Fisheries Service, the such fatty acids. In most of the biochem greatest range of values is the fat or oil International Association of Fish Meal ical investigations to date, the indivi content. Early investigators did not Manufacturers, General Mills Co. , duals or animals received still fairly realize this. Thus, they often analyzed 178 Marine Fisheries Review

6 only one or two or sometimes a few Arteriosclerosis 2: 87-113. to an unstable substance that inhibits platelet ag Hamberg, M., J. Svensson, and B. Samuelsson. gregation. Nature 263:633-665. more individual fish. To give an exam 1975. Thromboxanes: A new group ofbiologi Nelson, A. M.- 1972. Diet therapy in coronary ple of how erroneous such results can cally active compounds derived from prostag disease: Effects on mortality of high protein, be, the oil content of the common mack landin endoperoxides. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. high seafood, fat-controlled diet. Geriatrics U.S. 72:2994-2998. 27:103-116. erel, Scomber scombrus, ranges from Harris, W. S., and W. E. Connor. 1980. The ef Nilsson, W. B., E. J. Gauglitz, Jr., J. K. Hud about 2 percent for fish caught in the fects of salmon oil upon plasma lipids, lipopro son, V. F. Stout, and J. Spinelli. 1988. Frac teins, and triglyceride clearance. Trans. Assoc. tionation of menhaden oil ethyl esters using early spring to 12-25 percent for fish Am. Physicians 93:148-154. supercritical fluid CO2 , J. Am. Oil Chern. caught in the summer. Atwater's inves ____ , ,andM. P. McMurray. Soc. 65: 109-117. tigation used mackerel caught in the 1983. The comparative reductions of the plasma Peifer, J. J. 1967. Hypocholesterolemic effects lipids and lipoproteins by dietary polyunsatur of marine oils. In M. E. Stansby (editor), Fish spring and reported the fat content to ated fats: Salmon oil vs. vegetable oils. Metab. oils, p. 322-361. Avi Publ. Co., Westport, range from 2.3 to 7.7 percent, with an Clin. Exp. 32:179-184. Conn. average of7.! percent. Since most mack Harrison, R. W. 1931. The menhaden industry. Sanford, F. B. 1945. Rapid method for determin U.S. Bur. Fish. Invest. Rep. 1, 113 p. ing the vitamin A potency of fish livers. Fish. erel are taken in the summer months, Joseph, J. D. 1985. Fatty acid composition of Market News. 7(4):7-8. the results of Atwater are far lower (less commercial menhaden (Brevoortia sp.) oils, _ _ _ _ , K. Bonham. 1947. Relationship be 1982 and 1983. Mar. Fish. Rev. 47(3):30-37. tween body length of greyfish and vitamin A than halt) than what is typical for this _ _ _ _ , and G. T. Seaborn. 1982. Prelim in livers. Commer. Fish. Rev. 9(9): 1-7. species. Nevertheless, Atwater's value inary studies on marine lipid oxidation. U.S. _ _ _ _ , R. W. Harrison, and M. E. Stansby. of 7.1 percent was quoted in tables of Dep. Commer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS 1946. Rapid test for vitamin A stability. Com SEFC-95, 92 p. mer. Fish. Rev. 8(3): 16-18. food value in books for over 50 years. Karrick, N. L. 1965. A review of marine oil Simopoulos, A. E., R. R. Kifer, and R. E. Mar Unless some adequate investigations of research conducted and sponsored by the Bu tin. 1986. Health effects of polyunsaturated fatty the fatty acid content of the oils of dif reau of Commercial Fisheries in the United acids in seafoods. Acad. Press, Inc., Orlando, States. Fette Seifen Anstrichm. 67:489-494. Fla. ferent species of fish are made soon, the Kifer, R. R., and D. Miller. 1969. Fish oil fatty Spinelli, J., V. F. Stout, and W. B. Nilsson. 1987. same situation could easily develop with acid composition, energy values, metabolism Purification of fish oils. U.S. patent #4, 692, and vitamin content. Fish. Indus. Res. 5:25-37. 280, Sept. 1987. tables of omega-3 fatty acid content of _ _ _ _ , P. Smith, Jr., and E. P. Young. Stansby, M. E. 1948. Report on fat in fish meal. fish oils. 1971. Effect of dietary fish oil on the fatty acid J. Am. Assoc. Agric. Chern. 31:606-610. composition and palatability of pig tissues. Fish. _ _ _ _ . 1967. Fish oils, their chemistry, Literature Cited Bull. (U.S.) 69:281-302. technology, stability, nutritional proPerties, and Krzynowek, J., and J. Murphy. 1987. Proximate uses. Avi Publ. Co., Westport, Conn., 440 p. Atwater, W.O. 1888. The chemical conlposition composition, energy, fatty acid, sodium, and _ _ _ _ . 1969. Nutritional properties offish and nutritive value of food fishes and aquatic cholesterol content of fmfish, shellfish, and their oils. World Rev. Nutr. Diet. 11:46-105. invertebrates. In U.S. Fish Commission Report products. U.S. Dep. Commer., NOAA Tech. _ _ _ _ . 1981. Reliability of fatty acid values for 1888:679-868. Rep. 55, 53 p. purporting to represent composition of oil from Barlow, S. M., and M. E. Stansby. 1982. Nutri Lands, W. E. M. 1982. Biochemical observations different species offish. J. Am. Oil Chern. Soc. tional evaluation of long-chain fatty acids in fish on dietary long chain fatty acids from fish oil 58: 13-16. oil. Acad. Press, Inc., Lond. and their effect on prostaglandin synthesis in _ _ _ _ . 1982. 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